Carlos Martín

University of Zaragoza, Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain

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Publications (85)363.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest transmissible diseases despite widespread use of the BCG vaccine. MTBVAC is a new live tuberculosis vaccine based on genetically attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis that expresses most antigens present in human isolates of M tuberculosis. We aimed to compare the safety of MTBVAC with BCG in healthy adult volunteers. Methods: We did this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, controlled phase 1 study at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV; Lausanne, Switzerland). Volunteers were eligible for inclusion if they were aged 18-45 years, clinically healthy, HIV-negative and tuberculosis-negative, and had no history of active tuberculosis, chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis, or BCG vaccination. Volunteers fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to three cohorts in a dose-escalation manner. Randomisation was done centrally by the CHUV Pharmacy and treatments were masked from the study team and volunteers. As participants were recruited within each cohort, they were randomly assigned 3:1 to receive MTBVAC or BCG. Of the participants allocated MTBVAC, those in the first cohort received 5 × 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) MTBVAC, those in the second cohort received 5 × 10(4) CFU MTBVAC, and those in the third cohort received 5 × 10(5) CFU MTBVAC. In all cohorts, participants assigned to receive BCG were given 5 × 10(5) CFU BCG. Each participant received a single intradermal injection of their assigned vaccine in 0·1 mL sterile water in their non-dominant arm. The primary outcome was safety in all vaccinated participants. Secondary outcomes included whole blood cell-mediated immune response to live MTBVAC and BCG, and interferon γ release assays (IGRA) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02013245. Findings: Between Jan 23, 2013, and Nov 6, 2013, we enrolled 36 volunteers into three cohorts, each of which consisted of nine participants who received MTBVAC and three who received BCG. 34 volunteers completed the trial. The safety of vaccination with MTBVAC at all doses was similar to that of BCG, and vaccination did not induce any serious adverse events. All individuals were IGRA negative at the end of follow-up (day 210). After whole blood stimulation with live MTBVAC or BCG, MTBVAC was at least as immunogenic as BCG. At the same dose as BCG (5×10(5) CFU), although no statistical significance could be achieved, there were more responders in the MTBVAC group than in the BCG group, with a greater frequency of polyfunctional CD4+ central memory T cells. Interpretation: To our knowledge, MTBVAC is the first live-attenuated M tuberculosis vaccine to reach clinical assessment, showing similar safety to BCG. MTBVAC seemed to be at least as immunogenic as BCG, but the study was not powered to investigate this outcome. Further plans to use more immunogenicity endpoints in a larger number of volunteers (adults and adolescents) are underway, with the aim to thoroughly characterise and potentially distinguish immunogenicity between MTBVAC and BCG in tuberculosis-endemic countries. Combined with an excellent safety profile, these data support advanced clinical development in high-burden tuberculosis endemic countries. Funding: Biofabri and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through the TuBerculosis Vaccine Initiative (TBVI).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Development of novel more efficient preventive vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to achieve TB eradication by 2050, one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for the current century. MTBVAC is the first and only live attenuated vaccine based on a human isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed as BCG-replacement strategy in newborns that has entered first-in-human adult clinical trials. In this work, we characterize the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MTBVAC in a model of newborn C57/BL6 mice. Our data clearly indicate that MTBVAC is safe for newborn mice, and does not affect animal growth or organ development. In addition, MTBVAC-vaccinated mice at birth showed enhanced immunogenicity and better protection against M. tuberculosis challenge in comparison with BCG.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Tuberculosis
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    ABSTRACT: Some of the most promising novel tuberculosis vaccine strategies currently under development are based on respiratory vaccination, mimicking the natural route of infection. In this work, we have compared pulmonary and subcutaneous delivery of BCG vaccine in the tuberculosis-susceptible DBA/2 mouse strain, a model in which parenterally administered BCG vaccine does not protect against tuberculosis. Our data show that intranasally but not subcutaneously administered BCG confers robust protection against pulmonary tuberculosis challenge. In addition, our results indicate that pulmonary vaccination triggers a Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific mucosal immune response orchestrated by interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Thus, IL-17A neutralization in vivo reduces protection and abrogates M. tuberculosis–specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion to respiratory airways and lung expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor induced following intranasal vaccination. Together, our results demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of BCG can overcome the lack of protection observed when BCG is given parenterally, suggesting that respiratory tuberculosis vaccines could have an advantage in tuberculosis-endemic countries, where intradermally administered BCG has inefficient effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    Esther Broset · Carlos Martín · Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio
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    ABSTRACT: Different members of the Mycobacterium genus have evolved to cause tuberculosis in diverse human populations and in a variety of animal species. Our cumulative knowledge of mycobacterial genomes indicates that mutations in the PhoPR two-component virulence system were acquired not only during the natural evolution of mycobacterial species but also during in vitro subculture, which has given rise to the attenuated reference strain H37Ra or to different daughter strains of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. PhoPR is a well-known regulator of pathogenic phenotypes, including secretion of the virulence factor ESAT-6, biosynthesis of acyltrehalose-based lipids, and modulation of antigen export, in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Evolutionarily conserved polymorphisms in PhoPR from Mycobacterium africanum, M. bovis, or M. tuberculosis H37Ra result in loss of functional phenotypes. Interestingly, some members of the MTBC have acquired compensatory mutations to counteract these polymorphisms and, probably, to maintain their pathogenic potential. Some of these compensatory mutations include the insertion of the IS6110 element upstream from phoPR in a particular M. bovis strain that is able to transmit between humans or polymorphisms in M. africanum and M. bovis that affect the regulatory region of the espACD operon, allowing PhoPR-independent ESAT-6 secretion. This review highlights the increasing knowledge of the significance of PhoPR in the evolution of the MTBC and its potential application in the construction of new attenuated vaccines based on phoPR inactivation. In this context, the live attenuated vaccine MTBVAC, based on a phoP fadD26 deletion mutant of M. tuberculosis, is the first vaccine of this kind to successfully enter into clinical development, representing a historic milestone in the field of human vaccinology.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 60 years, the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has been used worldwide to prevent tuberculosis (TB). However, BCG has shown a very variable efficacy in different trials, offering a wide range of protection in adults against pulmonary TB. One of the most accepted hypotheses to explain these inconsistencies points to the existence of a pre-existing immune response to antigens that are common to environmental sources of mycobacterial antigens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Specifically, two different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this phenomenon: the masking and the blocking effects. According to masking hypothesis, previous sensitization confers some level of protection against TB that masks vaccine’s effects. In turn, the blocking hypothesis postulates that previous immune response prevents vaccine taking of a new TB vaccine. In this work we introduce a series of models to discriminate between masking and blocking mechanisms and address their relative likelihood. We apply our methodology to the data reported by BCG-REVAC clinical trials, which were specifically designed for studying BCG efficacy variability. Our results yield estimates that are consistent with high levels of blocking (41% in Manaus -95% CI [14–68]- and 96% in Salvador -95% CI [52–100]-). Moreover, we also show that masking does not play any relevant role in modifying vaccine’s efficacy either alone or in addition to blocking. The quantification of these effects around a plausible model constitutes a relevant step towards impact evaluation of novel anti-tuberculosis vaccines, which are susceptible of being affected by similar effects, especially if applied on individuals previously exposed to mycobacterial antigens.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · PeerJ
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    ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and diagnostic interference caused by M. tuberculosis SO2, a prototype vaccine first time tested in goats was evaluated. Tuberculosis-free goats were distributed in four groups: [1], non-vaccinated; [2], subcutaneously (SC) BCG vaccinated; [3], intranasally (IN) SO2 vaccinated and [4], SC SO2 vaccinated. Intradermal tuberculin and IFN-γ tests using PPDs and alternative antigenic cocktails containing mainly ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (E/C) were applied at different times post-vaccination. Results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of reactors detected using both PPD-based intradermal and IFN-γ tests at different times in all the vaccinated groups. No intradermal reactivity was detected in the vaccinated goats using a cocktail containing E/C, Rv3615c and Rv3020c. A higher overall reactivity was observed in the group [4] in comparison with the other vaccinated groups. Results showed that antigens used to differentiate BCG vaccinated animals could be potentially used to differentiate SO2 vaccinated ones.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that Klebsiella might be able to persist intracellularly within a vacuolar compartment. This study was designed to investigate the interaction between Klebsiella and macrophages. Engulfment of K. pneumoniae was dependent on host cytoskeleton, cell plasma membrane lipid rafts and the activation of PI 3-kinase (PI3K). Microscopy studies revealed that K. pneumoniae resides within a vacuolar compartment, the Klebsiella containing vacuolae (KCV), which traffics within vacuoles associated with the endocytic pathway. In contrast to UV-killed bacteria, the majority of live bacteria did not colocalize with markers of the lysosomal compartment. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae triggers a programmed cell death in macrophages displaying features of apoptosis. Our efforts to identify the mechanism(s) whereby K. pneumoniae prevents the fusion of the lysosomes to the KCV uncovered the central role of the PI3K-Akt-Rab14 axis to control the phagosome maturation. Our data revealed that the capsule is dispensable for Klebsiella intracellular survival if bacteria were not opsonized. Furthermore, the environment found by Klebsiella within the KCV triggered the downregulation of the expression of cps. Altogether, this study proves evidence that K. pneumoniae survives killing by macrophages by manipulating phagosome maturation which may contribute to Klebsiella pathogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Transposition and homologous recombination of IS6110 appear along in vivo sequential infection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These events were checked in different clones of a successful strain named MTZ, focusing on a variant in which the integration of a copy of the IS6110 in the origin of replication (oriC) region occurred. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of clinical microbiology
  • Maria Jose Iglesias · Carlos Martin

    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causal agent of the tuberculosis (TB) and causes about 2 million deaths a year. The recent rise of the multi-drug resistant forms of TB together with the loss of efficacy of the current vaccine BCG, have made TB a health priority. Deepen the understanding on the host-pathogen interactions during the illness could be key in the development of new drugs and vaccines. Lungs are the site of entry of M. tuberculosis and the first interactions host-pathogen occur in them. The characteristics of this interactions and the ability of the immune system to recognize bacteria mark the success or failure of the infection (1). For this reason, we are interested in knowing the expression profile of the pathogen and the host through the extraction of the RNA directly of the lungs. In addition, the possibility of simultaneously overseeing the expression of both organism by the Dual RNA-Seq technique allow us to know different points of the infection (2). For our purpose, we infected mice by intranasal inoculation and we hope the chronicity of the disease at least 3 weeks prior to euthanize animals. From this point, we tested different protocols found in the literature (3, 4) and other established in our laboratory (5). After each extraction, we check the purity and integrity of the genetic material obtained. Low bacterial load, high content of RNases in lungs and the required purity for the RNA-Seq are the main challenges of the process. References: 1. Talaat AM, Lyons R, Howard ST, Johnston SA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2004;101(13):4602-7. 2. Westermann AJ, Gorski SA, Vogel J. Nature reviews Microbiology. 2012;10(9):618-30. 3. Bold TD, Banaei N, Wolf AJ, Ernst JD. PLoS pathogens. 2011;7(5):e1002063. 4. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Analytical biochemistry. 1987;162(1):156-9. 5. Solans L, Gonzalo-Asensio J, Sala C, Benjak A, Uplekar S, Rougemont J, et al. PLoS pathogens. 2014;10(5):e1004183
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
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    Samuel Alvarez-Arguedas · Carlos Martín · Nacho Aguiló
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causal agent of the tuberculosis (TB) and causes about 2 million deaths a year. The recent rise of the multi-drug resistant forms of TB together with the loss of efficacy of the current vaccine BCG, have made TB a health priority. Deepen the understanding on the host-pathogen interactions during the illness could be key in the development of new drugs and vaccines. Lungs are the site of entry of M. tuberculosis and the first interactions host-pathogen occur in them. The characteristics of this interactions and the ability of the immune system to recognize bacteria mark the success or failure of the infection (1). For this reason, we are interested in knowing the expression profile of the pathogen and the host through the extraction of the RNA directly of the lungs. In addition, the possibility of simultaneously overseeing the expression of both organism by the Dual RNA-Seq technique allow us to know different points of the infection (2). For our purpose, we infected mice by intranasal inoculation and we hope the chronicity of the disease at least 3 weeks prior to euthanize animals. From this point, we tested different protocols found in the literature (3, 4) and other established in our laboratory (5). After each extraction, we check the purity and integrity of the genetic material obtained. Low bacterial load, high content of RNases in lungs and the required purity for the RNA-Seq are the main challenges of the process.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Safety of individuals at risk of immune suppression is an important concern for live vaccines. The new-generation tuberculosis vaccine candidate MTBVAC, a genetically engineered doubly attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant with deletions in phoP and fadD26 virulence genes has demonstrated comparable safety in different relevant animal models and superior protection in mice as compared to the only currently licensed tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Here we describe the construction of a highly attenuated MTBVAC-based live vaccine by an additional gene inactivation generated in erp of MTBVAC. The gene product of erp is an exported repeated protein (Erp), a virulence factor described to be involved in intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis. The resultant strain, MTBVAC erp(-), was tested in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model showing to be severely attenuated when compared to BCG and MTBVAC. Experiments conducted in immunocompetent mice revealed that the hyper-attenuated profile observed with MTBVAC erp(-) strain did not compromise its protective efficacy profile in comparison with BCG. These results postulate MTBVAC erp(-) as a potential tuberculosis vaccine candidate for use in high-risk populations of immune suppression (e.g., due to HIV infection), where the use of BCG is not recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Although the bovine tuberculosis (TB) agent, Mycobacterium bovis, may infect humans and cause disease, long-term epidemiological data indicate that humans represent a spill-over host in which infection with M. bovis is not self-maintaining. Indeed, human-to-human transmission of M. bovis strains and other members of the animal lineage of the tubercle bacilli is very rare. Here, we report on three mutations affecting the two-component virulence regulation system PhoP/PhoR (PhoPR) in M. bovis and in the closely linked Mycobacterium africanum lineage 6 (L6) that likely account for this discrepancy. Genetic transfer of these mutations into the human TB agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulted in down-regulation of the PhoP regulon, with loss of biologically active lipids, reduced secretion of the 6-kDa early antigenic target (ESAT-6), and lower virulence. Remarkably, the deleterious effects of the phoPR mutations were partly compensated by a deletion, specific to the animal-adapted and M. africanum L6 lineages, that restores ESAT-6 secretion by a PhoPR-independent mechanism. Similarly, we also observed that insertion of an IS6110 element upstream of the phoPR locus may completely revert the phoPR-bovis-associated fitness loss, which is the case for an exceptional M. bovis human outbreak strain from Spain. Our findings ultimately explain the long-term epidemiological data, suggesting that M. bovis and related phoPR-mutated strains pose a lower risk for progression to overt human TB, with major impact on the evolutionary history of TB.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    Samuel Alvarez-Arguedas · Carlos Martín · Nacho Aguiló
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The use of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as treatment of superficial bladder cancer is one of the most successful immunotherapy for cancer (1). In the development of a new vaccine candidate for replacing the actual BCG (2), we studied the effect of our genetically attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTBVAC on the viability of bladder cancer cell lines. Methods: The T24, J82 (both from human) and MB49 (from mouse) bladder tumour cell lines (3) were cultured at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) with BCG Pasteur-GFP or MTBVAC-GFP (these strains express the GFP constitutively). Percentage of infection and cell death at different time points were measured by Flow Cytometry. Additionally, we studied the localization and the basic characteristics of the organelles that contain the BCG or MTBVAC by the use of Confocal microscopy. Results: The study of percentage of infection shows a very significant increase in the case of MTBVAC vaccine at 96 hours and 7 days in contrast of the low percentages in BCG Pasteur-GFP. Moreover, the study of cell death by Flow Cytometry is in accordance with the observed results of infection. Finally, we have obtained images in which MTBVAC-GFP shows clearly their localization in the acid compartments of the cell inside while the BCG Pasteur-GFP are in not acidic organelles in the inner of the cell. The number of bacilli of MTBVAC-GFP in the inner of the any cell line of bladder cancer is significantly higher than BCG Pasteur-GFP and the integrity of the cells is worse, mainly at 7 days of infection. Conclusions: We show that our vaccine candidate MTBVAC is a promising potentially alternative to BCG in treatment of bladder cancer. References: 1. Brandau S, Suttmann H. Thirty years of BCG immunotherapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a success story with room for improvement. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2007;61(6):299-305. 2. Arbues A, Aguilo JI, Gonzalo-Asensio J, Marinova D, Uranga S, Puentes E, et al. Construction, characterization and preclinical evaluation of MTBVAC, the first live-attenuated M. tuberculosis-based vaccine to enter clinical trials. Vaccine. 2013;31(42):4867-73. 3. Secanella-Fandos S, Luquin M, Julian E. Connaught and Russian strains showed the highest direct antitumor effects of different Bacillus Calmette-Guerin substrains. The Journal of urology. 2013;189(2):711-8.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The ESX-1 secreted virulence factor ESAT-6 is one of the major and most well-studied virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, given that its inactivation severely attenuates virulent mycobacteria. In this work, we show that clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis produce and secrete larger amounts of ESAT-6 than the widely used M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain. A search for the genetic polymorphisms underlying this observation showed that whiB6 (rv3862c), a gene upstream of the ESX-1 genetic locus that has not previously been found to be implicated in the regulation of the ESX-1 secretory apparatus, presents a unique single nucleotide insertion in its promoter region in strains H37Rv and H37Ra. This polymorphism is not present in any of the other publicly available M. tuberculosis complex genomes or in any of the 76 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates analyzed in our laboratory. We demonstrate that in consequence, the virulence master regulator PhoP downregulates whiB6 expression in H37Rv, while it upregulates its expression in clinical strains. Importantly, reintroduction of the wild-type (WT) copy of whiB6 in H37Rv restored ESAT-6 production and secretion to the level of clinical strains. Hence, we provide clear evidence that in M. tuberculosis—with the exception of the H37Rv strain—ESX-1 expression is regulated by WhiB6 as part of the PhoP regulon, which adds another level of complexity to the regulation of ESAT-6 secretion with a potential role in virulence adaptation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Infection and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Among the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates, SO2 is the prototype of the first live-attenuated vaccine that recently entered into clinical trials. To investigate the capacity of SO2 to stimulate an appropriate immune response in vitro within a human immunological context, a comparative analysis of the effects promoted by SO2, the current Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was conducted in human primary dendritic cells (DC), which are critical modulators of vaccine-induced immunity. In particular, we found that SO2 promotes the expression of maturation markers similarly to BCG but at a lower extent than Mtb. Moreover, SO2-infected DC released higher levels of interleukin (IL)-23 than BCG-infected cells, which account for the expansion of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing T cells in an IL-12-independent manner. In the autologous mixed leukocyte reaction setting, the expansion of IL-17-producing T cells was also observed in response to SO2 infection. Interestingly, apoptosis and autophagic flux, events required for the antigen presentation within MHC class II complex, were not affected in DC infected with SO2, conversely to what observed upon Mtb stimulation. Collectively, our results indicate that SO2 represents a promising TB vaccine candidate, which displays an attenuated phenotype and promotes in DC a stronger capacity to stimulate the Th response than BCG vaccine. Interestingly, the data obtained by using the human DC-based experimental setting mirrored the results derived from studies in animal models, suggesting that this system could be used for an efficient and rapid down-selection of new TB vaccine candidates, contributing to achieve the "3Rs" objective.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria
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    ABSTRACT: The PhoPR two-component system is essential for virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where it controls expression of approximately 2% of the genes, including those for the ESX-1 secretion apparatus, a major virulence determinant. Mutations in phoP lead to compromised production of pathogen-specific cell wall components and attenuation both ex vivo and in vivo. Using antibodies against the native protein in ChIP-seq experiments (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing) we demonstrated that PhoP binds to at least 35 loci on the M. tuberculosis genome. The PhoP regulon comprises several transcriptional regulators as well as genes for polyketide synthases and PE/PPE proteins. Integration of ChIP-seq results with high-resolution transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) revealed that PhoP controls 30 genes directly, whilst regulatory cascades are responsible for signal amplification and downstream effects through proteins like EspR, which controls Esx1 function, via regulation of the espACD operon. The most prominent site of PhoP regulation was located in the intergenic region between rv2395 and PE_PGRS41, where the mcr7 gene codes for a small non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Northern blot experiments confirmed the absence of Mcr7 in an M. tuberculosis phoP mutant as well as low-level expression of the ncRNA in M. tuberculosis complex members other than M. tuberculosis. By means of genetic and proteomic analyses we demonstrated that Mcr7 modulates translation of the tatC mRNA thereby impacting the activity of the Twin Arginine Translocation (Tat) protein secretion apparatus. As a result, secretion of the immunodominant Ag85 complex and the beta-lactamase BlaC is affected, among others. Mcr7, the first ncRNA of M. tuberculosis whose function has been established, therefore represents a missing link between the PhoPR two-component system and the downstream functions necessary for successful infection of the host.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines. However, it appears to be ineffective in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis. Here, we show that pulmonary BCG vaccination of mice with a broad dose range provides superior protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge compared to that of subcutaneous vaccination.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: Different polymorphisms have been described as markers to classify the lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The analysis of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to describe seven SNPs cluster groups (SCGs). We attempted to classify those strains that could not been categorized into lineages by the genotyping methods used in the routine testing. The M. tuberculosis complex isolates collected in 2010 in our region were analysed. A new method based on multiplex-PCRs and pyrosequencing to analyse these SNPs was designed. For the pyrosequencing assay nine SNPs that defined the seven SCGs were selected from the literature: 1977, 74092, 105139, 232574, 311613, 913274, 2460626, 3352929 and gyrA95. In addition, SNPs in katG463, mgtC182, Ag85C103 and RDRio deletion were detected. This work has permitted to achieve a better classification of Aragonian strains into SCGs and in some cases, to assign strains to its certain lineage. Besides, the description of a new pattern shared by two isolates "SCG-6c" reinforces the interest of SNPs to follow the evolution of M. tuberculosis complex.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The major Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor ESAT-6 exported by the ESX-1 secretion system has been described as a pro-apoptotic factor by several independent groups in recent years, sustaining a role for apoptosis in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. This role has been supported by independent studies in which apoptosis has been shown as a hallmark feature in human and mouse lungs infected with virulent strains. Nevertheless, the role of apoptosis during mycobacterial infection is subject to an intense debate. Several works maintain that apoptosis is more evident with attenuated strains, whereas virulent mycobacteria tend to inhibit this process, suggesting that apoptosis induction may be a host mechanism to control infection. In this review, we summarize the evidences that support the involvement of ESX-1-induced apoptosis in virulence, intending to provide a rational treatise for the role of programmed cell death during M. tuberculosis infection.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Publication Stats

3k Citations
363.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • University of Zaragoza
      • • Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2008
    • University of Central Florida
      • Graduate Program in Molecular Biology and Microbiology
      Orlando, Florida, United States