Young Whan Kim

Pusan National University, Busan, Busan, South Korea

Are you Young Whan Kim?

Claim your profile

Publications (242)604.62 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at risk for critical events leading to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Coagulopathy in cirrhotic patients is complex and can lead to bleeding as well as thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate bleeding complications in critically ill patients with LC admitted to a medical ICU (MICU). Methods: All adult patients admitted to our MICU with a diagnosis of LC from January 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively assessed. Patients with major bleeding at the time of MICU admission were excluded from the analysis. Results: A total of 205 patients were included in the analysis. The median patient age was 62 years, and 69.3% of the patients were male. The most common reason for MICU admission was acute respiratory failure (45.4%), followed by sepsis (27.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 25 patients (12.2%). The gastrointestinal tract was the most common site of bleeding (64%), followed by the respiratory tract (20%). In a multivariate analysis, a low platelet count at MICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99) and sepsis (OR, 8.35; 95% CI, 1.04 to 67.05) were independent risk factors for major bleeding. The ICU fatality rate was significantly greater among patients with major bleeding (84.0% vs. 58.9%, respectively; p = 0.015). Conclusions: Major bleeding occurred in 12.2% of critically ill cirrhotic patients admitted to the MICU. A low platelet count at MICU admission and sepsis were associated with an increased risk of major bleeding during the MICU stay. Further study is needed to better understand hemostasis in critically ill patients with LC.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Platinum-based chemotherapy has conferred a modest but significant survival benefit and the introduction of newer drugs has led to achieve higher response rate in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed a phase II trial in order to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with vinorelbine (Navelbine) and cisplatin in advanced NSCLC. Materials and methods: Patients with previously untreated, unresectable stage IIIB or IV NSCLC with measurable lesion (s) were eligible for entry into the study. NP chemotherapy consisted of intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2, on day 1 and 8, and intravenous cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on day 1; this cycle was repeated every three weeks. Results: A total of 33 patients were enrolled in the study between July 1999 and Feb 2000. Of the 30 patients deemed eligible for analysis, thirteen patients achieved a partial response and thirteen showed a stable disease. The overall response rate was 43.3%. The median duration of response was 5.7 months (95% CI: 2.8~8.5 months). The median time to progression was 7.6 months (95% CI: 5.5~9.7 months) and the overall median survival time was 15.1 months (95% CI: 9.8~20.4 months) in the intent-to-treat analysis. Chemotherapy-related grade 3 or 4 toxicities were anemia in 1.5%, leukopenia in 4.5%, nausea/vomiting in 2.3%, alopecia in 13.3%, and neurotoxicity in 3.3%. Conclusion: The combination of vinorelbine and cisplatin chemotherapy seems to be active and fairly tolerable in patients with advanced NSCLC.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cancer Research and Treatment
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: According to the Fletcher-Peto curve, rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1) accelerates as age increases. However, recent studies have not demonstrated that the rate of FEV1 decline accelerates with age among COPD patients. The objective of the study is to evaluate annual rate of FEV1 decline as age increases among COPD patients. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled COPD patients who were followed up at two tertiary care university hospitals from January 2000 to August 2013. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator (BD) FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <0.7. All participants had more than two spirometries, including BD response. Age groups were categorized as follows: below versus above median age or four quartiles. Results: A total of 518 participants (94.2% male; median age, 67 years; range, 42-90 years) were included. Mean absolute and predictive values of post-BD FEV1 were 1.57±0.62 L and 52.53%±18.29%, respectively. Distribution of Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease groups did not show statistical differences between age groups categorized by two different criteria. After grouping the population by age quartiles, the rate of FEV1 decline was faster among older patients than younger ones whether expressed as absolute value (-10.60±5.57 mL/year, -15.84±6.01 mL/year, -18.63±5.53 mL/year, 32.94±6.01 mL/year, respectively; P=0.048) or predicted value (-0.34%±0.19%/year, -0.53%±0.21%/year, -0.62%±0.19%/year, -1.26%±0.21%/year, respectively, P=0.010). Conclusion: As suggested conceptually by the Fletcher-Peto curve, annual FEV1 decline among COPD patients is accelerated among older patients than younger ones.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · International Journal of COPD
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Our study aimed to determine the predictive and prognostic values of the serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) level in patients who had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and who had been treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 151 patients who had NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations and had received either gefitinib or erlotinib as first-line treatment between 2005 and 2014. The serum NSE level was measured before initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment. Results: Of the 151 patients, 92 (60.9%) had elevated NSE levels (> 16.3 ng/mL). Patients with elevated NSE levels showed significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) after EGFR-TKI treatment than those with normal NSE levels (median PFS, 10.5 months vs. 15.4 months; P = .034). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that elevated NSE levels (hazard ratio [HR], 1.656; P = .017), CNS metastasis at diagnosis (HR, 1.567; P = .037), and male gender (HR, 1.840; P = .005) were independent predictive factors for short PFS. A significant difference in overall survival (OS) was observed between patient groups with elevated and normal NSE levels (median OS, 17.0 months vs. 29.1 months; P < .001), and serum NSE level remained an independent prognostic factor for OS in multivariate analysis (HR, 2.671; P < .001). Conclusion: Patients with elevated serum NSE levels have significantly shorter PFS and OS. The NSE level is both a predictive marker of EGFR-TKI treatment and a prognostic marker in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Lung Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Whether the causative organism influences the clinical course of pneumonia in the intensive care unit (ICU) is controversial. We assessed the clinical manifestations and prognosis of pneumonia according to the causative pathogens in patients in a medical ICU. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a medical ICU. Among 242 patients who were admitted to the ICU, 103 who were treated for pneumonia were analyzed. Results: The causative pathogen was identified in 50 patients (49.0%); 22 patients (21.6%) had multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The distribution of causative micro-organisms was Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Pseudomonas species (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (12%). No significant difference in ICU mortality rate, duration of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or frequencies of re-intubation and tracheostomy were detected based on the identification of any pathogen. In sub-analyses according to the pneumonia classification, the number of pathogens identified did not differ between pneumonia types, and a higher incidence of identified MDR pathogens was detected in the hospital-acquired pneumonia group than in the community-acquired or healthcare- acquired pneumonia groups. However, the clinical outcomes of pneumonia according to identification status and type of pathogen did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: Neither the causative micro-organism nor the existence of MDR pathogens in critically ill patients with pneumonia was associated with the clinical outcome of pneumonia, including ICU mortality. This result was consistent regardless of the pneumonia classification.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) for endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been advocated to qualitatively diagnose biopsy samples. However, adequate ROSE criteria during EBUS-TBNA are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine adequacy criteria of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA samples and suggest an appropriate algorithm. Methods: Patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for nodal evaluation between March and July 2013 at Seoul National University Hospital were included prospectively. The ROSE slides were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the results were compared to the final pathologic results. Diagnostic yields, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated in order to make nodal evaluations. Results: EBUS-TBNA was performed on 300 lymph nodes in 133 patients. Samples were nondiagnostic in 7.7%, 6.3%, and 1.7% of the cytologic, histologic, and overall pathologic results, respectively. On the ROSE slides, a large tissue core size (≥2 cm), microscopic anthracotic pigment (MAP), and increased lymphocyte density (LD; ≥40 cells/field [40×, mean of 10 fields]) were significantly associated with adequate final cytologic or histologic results. Malignant cells were not statistically associated with adequacy but were considered a parameter indicating an adequate diagnosis. Using four sequential criteria, tissue core size, the presence of malignant cell, MAP, and LD ≥40 cells/field, the sensitivity and accuracy rates of ROSE increased from 64.4% to 98.6% and from 64.7% to 97.3%, respectively. Conclusions: A high adequacy rate of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA can be achieved by sequentially applying four criteria: tissue core size, malignant cells, MAP, and increased LD.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Tiotropium failed to slow the annual rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with <70% predicted FEV1. However, the rate of FEV1 decline is known to be faster at early stages, which suggests that the effects of tiotropium may be more prominent in early-stage of COPD patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tiotropium modifies the rate of FEV1 decline in COPD patients with an FEV1≥70%. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of COPD patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004, and July 31, 2012, at Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥40 years, postbron-chodilator (BD) FEV1≥70% of predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) <0.70, and spirometry more than two times at certain times of the year. Conversely, the exclusion criteria were as follows: asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary resection, or long-term use of a short-acting muscarinic antagonist. The annual lung function decline in patients using tiotropium was compared with that in patients not using the drug. Results Of the 587 patients enrolled in the study, 257 took tiotropium. Following propensity score matching, 404 patients were included in the analysis. The mean annual rate of post-BD FEV1 decline was 23.9 (tiotropium) and 22.5 (control) mL/yr (P=0.86); corresponding pre-BD values were 30.4 and 21.9 mL/yr (P=0.31), respectively. Mean annual rate of post-BD FVC decline was 55.1 (tiotropium) and 43.5 (control) mL/yr (P=0.33); corresponding pre-BD values were 37.1 and 33.3 mL/yr (P=0.13). Conclusion Therefore, tiotropium does not reduce the rate of lung function decline in COPD patients with FEV1≥70%.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of COPD
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. Methods: This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus < 2 was evaluated by comparing the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) and by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Results: Among 428 COPD patients, the percentages of patients classif ied into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores < 10, but they did have a lower exacerbation risk compared to those with CAT scores of 15 to 19. Conclusions: A CAT score ≥ 15 is a better indicator for the 'more symptoms group' in the management of COPD patients.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Critical Care
  • Source
    Bin Ahn · Joohae Kim · Chul-Gyu Yoo · Young Whan Kim · Sung Koo Han · Jae-Joon Yim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic methods for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have recently advanced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in TB diagnostic tests that prompted the initiation of anti-TB treatment over time in South Korea, an industrialized country with an intermediate TB burden. Patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB in the first halves of 2005 and 2013 at a tertiary referral hospital were included. Diagnostic methods that prompted the initiation of anti-TB treatment were compared between the 2 groups of patients. A greater proportion of patients were diagnosed with pulmonary TB using bronchoscopy in 2013 than in 2005 (26.7% vs. 6.6%, respectively; p<0.001), while the proportion of patients clinically diagnosed with pulmonary TB was lower in 2013 than in 2005 (24.7% vs. 49.0%, respectively; p<0.001). Additionally, more patients started anti-TB treatment based on positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in 2013 than in 2005 (47.3% vs. 7.9%, respectively; p<0.001). The initiation of treatment for pulmonary TB in South Korea has become more frequently based on PCR and the use of bronchoscopic specimens.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is dependent on Hsp90 for protein stability, Hsp90 inhibitors are effective in controlling growth of lung cancer cells with ALK rearrangement. We investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to 17-(Dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a geldanamycin analogue Hsp90 inhibitor, in H3122 and H2228 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with ALK rearrangement. Resistant cell lines (H3122/DR-1, H3122/DR-2 and H2228/DR) were established by repeated exposure to increasing concentrations of 17-DMAG. Mechanisms for resistance by either NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), previously known as a factor related to 17-DMAG resistance, or P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1/MDR1) were queried using RT-PCR, western blot analysis, chemical inhibitors, the MTT cell proliferation/survival assay, and cellular efflux of rhodamine 123. The resistant cells showed no cross-resistance to AUY922 or ALK inhibitors, suggesting that ALK dependency persists in cells with acquired resistance to 17-DMAG. Although expression of NQO1 was decreased in H3122/DR-1 and H3122/DR-2, NQO1 inhibition by dicumarol did not affect the response of parental cells (H2228 and H3122) to 17-DMAG. Interestingly, all resistant cells showed the induction of P-gp at the protein and RNA levels, which was associated with an increased efflux of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123). Transfection with siRNA directed against P-gp or treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, restored the sensitivity to the drug in all cells with acquired resistance to 17-DMAG. Furthermore, we also observed that the growth-inhibitory effect of 17-DMAG was decreased in A549/PR and H460/PR cells generated to over-express P-gp by long-term exposure to paclitaxel, and these cells recovered their sensitivity to 17-DMAG through the inhibition of P-gp. P-gp over-expression is a possible mechanism of acquired resistance to 17-DMAG in cells with ALK rearrangement.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Cancer
  • Source
    Keunhee Oh · Myung Won Seo · Young Whan Kim · Dong-Sup Lee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung fibrosis is a life-threatening disease caused by overt or insidious inflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of tissue injury-induced inflammation and subsequent fibrogenesis remains unclear. Recently, we and other groups reported that Th17 responses play a role in amplification of the inflammatory phase in a murine model induced by bleomycin (BLM). Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine and extracellular-matrix-associated signaling molecule. However, whether tissue injury causes inflammation and consequent fibrosis through OPN should be determined. In this study, we observed that BLM-induced lung inflammation and subsequent fibrosis was ameliorated in OPN-deficient mice. OPN was expressed ubiquitously in the lung parenchymal and bone-marrow-derived components and OPN from both components contributed to pathogenesis following BLM intratracheal instillation. Th17 differentiation of CD4(+) αβ T cells and IL-17-producing γδ T cells was significantly reduced in OPN-deficient mice compared to WT mice. In addition, Th1 differentiation of CD4(+) αβ T cells and the percentage of IFN-γ-producing γδ T cells increased. T helper cell differentiation in vitro revealed that OPN was preferentially upregulated in CD4(+) T cells under Th17 differentiation conditions. OPN expressed in both parenchymal and bone marrow cell components and contributed to BLM-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis by affecting the ratio of pathogenic IL-17/protective IFN-γ T cells.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Immune Network
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hemodynamic forces causing mechanical stretch (MS) of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) play an important role in vascular remodeling, but the underlying mechanism involved is not fully understood. Thus, this study investigated whether osteopontin (OPN) expression in VSMC was induced by MS, and identified the intracellular signaling pathways involved in OPN production. The plasma level of OPN and its expression in aortic tissue were increased in various animal models of hypertension including spontaneous hypertensive rats and hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II or L-NAME. When aortic VSMC was stimulated with MS, OPN production was increased, which was markedly attenuated in VSMC treated with PI3K/Akt inhibitor as well as in Akt1-depleted cells, but not in Akt2-depleted cells, suggesting a pivotal role of Akt1 isoform in OPN expression in VSMC. In the promoter assay, MS increased OPN promoter activity, which was attenuated when the region harboring AP-1 binding sites was mutated. The MS-enhanced promoter activity and OPN expression were also decreased in cells treated with AP-1 siRNA or inhibitor. Moreover, MS-induced MMP-2 production was attenuated in cells treated with OPN siRNA or anti-OPN antibody as well as in OPN-deficient VSMC cultured from aorta of OPN deficient mice. In in vivo experiments, the expressions of OPN and MMP-2 were increased in the aortic tissues from hypertensive mice, but these increases were markedly attenuated in OPN-deficient mice with hypertension. In conclusion, these results suggested that OPN expression in the hypertensive vasculature was increased via signaling pathways that involve Akt1/AP-1, leading to vascular remodeling by increasing the production of MMP-2. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: History of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. However, it has been unclear whether the clinical characteristics of patients with destroyed lung by TB differ according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in acute exacerbations and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in patients with destroyed lung by TB according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. We performed a retrospective cohort study and enrolled patients with destroyed lung by TB. The presence of airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and 128 (80.5%) had airflow limitation. The proportion of patients who experienced acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation compared to those without (89.1 vs. 67.7%, respectively; P = 0.009). The rate of acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.27). Low body mass index (X vs. X + 1; HR, 0.944; 95% CI, 0.895-0.996) in addition to airflow limitation (HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.012-2.638), was an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation. The annual decline of FEV1 was 2 mL in patients with airflow limitation and 36 mL in those without (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of airflow limitation is an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation in patients with the destroyed lung by TB.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is important for prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation. Here, we showed that proliferation of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cells such as LNCaP was significantly enhanced by testosterone stimulation whereas hormone-insensitive prostate cancer cells such as PC3 and VCaP did not respond to testosterone stimulation. Blocking of AR using bicalutamide abolished testosterone-induced proliferation of LNCaP cells. In addition, knockdown of AR blocked testosterone-induced proliferation of LNCaP cells. Basal expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) was elevated in VCaP cells whereas stimulation of testosterone did not affect the expression of LRP6. However, expression of LRP6 in LNCaP cells was increased by testosterone stimulation. In addition, knockdown of LRP6 abrogated testosterone-induced proliferation of LNCaP cells. Given these results, we suggest that androgen-dependent expression of LRP6 plays a crucial role in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell proliferation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in many countries, including Korea. The majority of patients are inoperable at the time of diagnosis because symptoms are typically manifested at an advanced stage. A recent large clinical trial demonstrated significant reduction in lung cancer mortality by using low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. A Korean multisociety collaborative committee systematically reviewed the evidences regarding the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening, and developed an evidence-based clinical guideline. There is high-level evidence that annual screening with LDCT can reduce lung cancer mortality and all-cause mortality of high-risk individuals. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms. Annual LDCT screening should be recommended to current smokers and ex-smokers (if less than 15 years have elapsed after smoking cessation) who are aged 55 to 74 years with 30 pack-years or more of smoking-history. LDCT can discover non-calcified lung nodules in 20 to 53% of the screened population, depending on the nodule positivity criteria. Individuals may undergo regular LDCT follow-up or invasive diagnostic procedures that lead to complications. Radiation-associated malignancies associated with repetitive LDCT, as well as overdiagnosis, should be considered the harms of screening. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers. Chest radiograph, sputum cytology at regular intervals, and serum tumor markers should not be used as screening methods. These guidelines may be amended based on several large ongoing clinical trial results.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of the Korean Medical Association
  • Seo Yeon Jin · Jung Min Ha · Young Whan Kim · Hye Sun Lee · Sun Sik Bae

    No preview · Article · Feb 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group distribution and self-awareness of COPD. We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ≥40 years) who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7. We analyzed self-administered COPD questionnaires for the assessment of the frequency of acute exacerbation over the previous year and dyspnea severity using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test. Among 3029 patients aged >40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44-93 years) were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5%) patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%), emphysema (0.8%), or chronic bronchitis (2.5%). The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D. The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple comorbidities related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make it a difficult disease to treat. The relationship between these comorbidities and COPD has not been fully investigated. We aimed to determine whether COPD was independently associated with various comorbidities. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V conducted between 2010 and 2012. Survey design analysis was employed to determine the association between COPD and 15 comorbidities. A COPD patient was defined as a smoker with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7 and comorbidities were defined based on objective laboratory findings and questionnaires. Results: Of a total of 9488 patient who underwent spirometry, 744 (7.84%) COPD cases and 3313 non-COPD controls were included in the analyses. Although the prevalence rates of the majority of the comorbidities were high among the COPD patients, only hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.33 in Stage 1 COPD group; aOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.36-2.72 in Stage 2-4 COPD group) and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.90-5.99 in Stage 2-4 COPD group) were independently associated with COPD after adjustment for age, smoking status, and confounders. Conclusions: Only hypertension and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis were independently associated with COPD after adjustment for confounders among 15 comorbidities. The results suggest that majority of COPD patients might have similar risk factors with its comorbidities, including age and smoking status.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Respiratory Medicine

Publication Stats

2k Citations
604.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 1996-2015
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Institute on Aging
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1992-2015
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Busan National University of Education
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2011-2014
    • Keimyung University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Korea University
      • Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Cancer Research Institute
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University
      • College of Medicine
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Korea Medical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998-2005
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea