[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) may be discovered more often as incidental findings during the normal diagnostic process for other cardiac diseases or less frequently on the basis of manifestations of myocardial ischemia. The cardiovascular professional may be involved in their angiographic diagnosis, functional assessment and eventual endovascular treatment. A complete angiographic definition is mandatory in order to understand the functional effects and plan any intervention in CAAs: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful non-invasive tools to detect three-dimensional morphology of the anomalies and its relationships with contiguous cardiac structures, whereas coronary arteriography remains the gold standard for a definitive anatomic picture. A practical idea of the possible functional significance is mandatory for deciding how to manage CAAs: non-invasive stress tests and in particular the invasive pharmacological stress tests with or without intravascular ultrasound monitoring can assess correctly the functional significance of the most CAAs. Finally, the knowledge of the particular endovascular techniques and material is of paramount importance for achieving technical and clinical success. CAAs represent a complex issue, which rarely involve the cardiovascular professional at different levels. A timely practical knowledge of the main issues regarding CAAs is important in the management of such entities.
Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Geriatric Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To assess the impact on stent implantation rate and mid-term outcomes of prolonged high pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions.
We retrospectively enrolled 620 consecutive patients from January 2011 to December 2011 (75.6 ± 12.3 years, 355 males, 76.5% in Rutherford class 5–6), referred for critical limb ischemia and submitted to prolonged high-pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions. The definition of prolonged high-pressure angioplasty includes dilation to at least 18 atm for at least 120 s. Procedural data, and clinical and instrumental follow-up were analyzed to assess stent implantation rate and mid-term outcomes.
The preferred approach was ipsilateral femoral antegrade in 433/620 patients (69.7%) and contralateral cross-over in 164/620 (26.4%) and popliteal retrograde + femoral antegrade in 23/620 (3.7%). Techniques included subintimal angioplasty in 427/620 patients (68.8%) and endoluminal angioplasty in 193/620 patients (31.2%). The prolonged high pressure balloon angioplasty procedure was successful in 86.2% (minor intra-procedural complications rate 15.7 %), stent implantation was performed in 74 patients (11.9%), with a significant improvement of ankle-brachial index (0.29 ± 0.6 vs. 0.88 ± 0.3, P < 00.1) and Rutherford class (5.3 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 1.9, P < 0.01), a primary patency rate of 86.7%, restenosis of 18.6 % on Doppler ultrasound and a target lesion revascularization of 14.8% at a mean follow-up of 18.1 ± 6.4 months (range 1–24 months). Secondary patency rate was 87.7%.
Prolonged high pressure angioplasty of femoropopliteal lesions appears to be safe and effective allowing for an acceptable patency and restenosis rates on mid-term.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Geriatric Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hostile anatomy of the subclavian artery (severe tortuosity and/or heavy calcification) remains a significant obstacle for the transradial approach during coronary angiography and interventions.Objective
To assess impacts on fluoroscopy and procedural times, complications, and radial artery patency in patients with hostile subclavian anatomy by using multiple catheter-guide techniques.Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical and equipment data of 4,580 consecutive patients (mean age 74.4 ± 26.7 years, 49.5% females) who have been referred for transradial coronary angiography and/or interventions within the last 3 years (September 2010–September 2013). In order to overcome the strangling hold of a hostile subclavian artery, 2 techniques have been used: (1) for a coronary angiography-only procedure, a double mother and child technique; (2) for percutaneous coronary intervention, a triple mother and child technique.ResultsNinety-five patients (2.1%) from the entire study population exhibited a hostile subclavian artery. Fifty-two patients (1.1%) underwent coronary angiography only and 43 patients (1%) underwent interventions requiring the use of the above double or triple mother and child techniques, respectively. The 2 techniques were successful in 94.7% of patients (90/95 patients). The procedural time was significantly longer in the patients with hostile subclavian artery while there were no differences in the fluoroscopy time. The radial artery was patent at 30 days in 92.6% of patients (88/95 patients).Conclusion
Our data showed that in the presence of hostile subclavian anatomy, the mother and child techniques appeared safe and effective, allowing for the completion of the intended procedure.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Interventional Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Detailed anatomic variants of the interatrial septum in patients with right-to-left shunt and contribution of specific anatomies to the risk of ischaemic recurrences has not yet been comprehensively classified. Objective: To report a classification of the anatomic variants of the interatrial septum as observed by intracardiac echocardiography and its correlation with clinical and functional characteristics. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical and instrumental data of 520 consecutive patients (mean age 44±15. 5 years, 355 women) who had over a 10-year period undergone intracardiac echocardiography and right-to-left shunt catheter-based closure. The four main features used to analyse were: (a) diameter of the oval fossa, (b) presence and length of the channel, (c) presence and degree of atrial septal aneurysm, and (d) rim thickness. The presence of Eustachian valve was also tabulated. Results: The combinations of interatrial septum anatomical features were classified into six main anatomical subgroups. Recurrent embolism, multiple ischaemic foci on brain magnetic resonance imaging, high grade shunt, and permanent shunt before transcatheter closure procedure were associated with type 2, type 4, and type 6. Type 4 anatomical subtype (OR 4.1, 1.5-8 [95% CI], p<0.001) and type 2+presence of Eustachian valve (OR 4.3, 1.6-9 [95% CI], p<0.001) were the strongest predictors of recurrent ischaemic events before transcatheter closure. Conclusion: Our study showed that interatrial septum anatomy greatly differs among patients with right-to-left shunt, as well as the risk of ischaemic recurrences in different anatomies.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Cardiology in the Young
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported the short- and long-term results of our institutional single center registry Interatrial Septum Interventions Study (ISIS) about the impact of different anatomic characteristics and related device selection in patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure.
Over a 9 year period (September 2003-September 2012) we prospectively enrolled 340 consecutive patients (mean age 44 ± 15. 5 years, 198 females) who had been referred to our center for PFO catheter-based closure. The first 105 patients received a single type of device independently from the anatomy (single device strategy). The remaining 235 patients received a different device based on intracardiac echocardiographic study of interatrial septum anatomy (anatomic strategy).
Immediate success rate was 100% in both groups, whereas the rate of immediate complications was 10.4% and 2.5% (P < 0.01) in the single strategy group and anatomic strategy group, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 59.3 ± 28.9 months, the occlusion rate was 86.6% and 94%, whereas the incidence of recurrences was 1.8% and 0% in the single device strategy group and anatomic strategy group, respectively.
The results from ISIS registry showed that anatomy of interatrial septum associated with PFO is quite complex leading to an increased rate of complications and a slightly lower closure rate if treated with a single device strategy.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Interventional Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The need for sizing the secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) with the balloon sizing technique is still debated at least in adult patients. We sought to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE)-aided sizing technique for transcatheter closure of secundum ASD, without using a balloon sizing.
In a prospective 5-year registry, we enrolled 81 patients (mean age 48 ± 13.7 years, 54 females) who had been referred to three different centers for atheter-based closure of secundum ASD. Eligible patients underwent ICE study and closure attempt. In a preliminary group of 21 patients, sizing balloon was performed under ICE guidance to assess the value of rim thickness necessary for device anchorage. In the remaining 60 patients, the retrieved value of the rim thickness was measured on ICE and used as key points to measure the defect and select the device.
In the preliminary group of patients, the value of thickness at point of initial deflection by the balloon was 1.23 ± 0.1 mm. ASD diameter in the study group was measured at the point of rim with at least 1.2 mm and the mean ASD diameter was 26.2 ± 10.1 mm. Rates of procedural success, predischarge occlusion, and major complications rate were 100%, 93.3%, and 0%, respectively. On mean follow-up of 5.4 ± 1.8 years, the occlusion rate was 98.7% with no long-term complications.
Our novel ICE-sizing technique appears to be safe and effective in adult patients, thus eventually minimizing overestimation, costs, and potential complications of balloon sizing.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Interventional Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the long-term faith of migraine in patients with high risk anatomic and functional characteristics predisposing to paradoxical embolism submitted to patent foramen ovale (PFO) transcatheter closure.
In a prospective single-center non randomized registry from January 2004 to January 2010 we enrolled 80 patients (58 female, mean age 42±2.7 years, 63 patients with aura) submitted to transcatheter PFO closure in our center. All patients fulfilled the following criteria: basal shunt and shower/curtain shunt pattern on transcranial Doppler and echocardiography, presence of interatrial septal aneurysm (ISA) and Eustachian valve, 3-4 class MIDAS score, coagulation abnormalities, medication-refractory migraine with or without aura. Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) was used to assess the incidence and severity of migraine before and after mechanical closure. High risk features for paradoxical embolism included all of the following.
Percutaneous closure was successful in all cases (occlusion rate 91.2%), using a specifically anatomically-driven tailored strategy, with no peri-procedural or in-hospital complications; 70/80 of patients (87.5%) reported improved migraine symptomatology (mean MIDAS score decreased 33.4±6.7 to 10.6±9.8, p<0.03) whereas 12.5% reported no amelioration: none of the patients reported worsening of the previous migraine symptoms. Auras were definitively cured in 61/63 patients with migraine with aura (96.8%).
Transcatheter PFO closure in a selected population of patients with severe migraine at high risk of paradoxical embolism resulted in a significant reduction in migraine over a long-term follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastases are the most common tumors of the central nervous system which may lie dormant behind the brain blood- barrier sheltering from chemiotherapeutic drugs, and whose presence usually indicates a poor prognosis. Development of brain metastases includes the intravasation of the cancer cells through the tumor blood vessels, their circulation within the venous system, passing through the pulmonary filter thus reaching the systemic circulation. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a natural communication between the right and left atrium with a prevalence of about 25% in the general population. It may predispose to a right-to-left shunt by-passing the pulmonary filter. Recent literature suggests that the presence of a permanent shunt, large shunt, atrial septal aneurysm and/or venous valve remnants, all increase the risk of paradoxical embolism in PFO patients. The hypothesis that cancer cells may reach the brain circulation through a significant PFO, might open up new fields in brain metastases pathophysiology and prevention.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of patients with concomitant patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) poses a number of challenges; while some authors have suggested the off-label use of the Amplatzer Cribriform Occluder in such anatomy, the long-term outcomes of this strategy is unknown. Our study aimed to assess the long-term impact on closure rate, left atrial functional remodelling, and clinical outcomes of off-label implantation of Amplatzer ASD Cribriform Occluder in patients with PFO and ASA.
We prospectively enrolled 160 consecutive patients with previous stroke (mean age 36 ± 9.5 years, 109 females), significant PFO and ASA. All patients were treated with Amplatzer Cribriform Occluder to ensure the most complete possible coverage of the ASA. Residual shunt and LA passive and active emptying, LA conduit function, and LA ejection fraction were computed before and after 6 months from the procedure and then yearly. All patients underwent successful transcatheter closure (mean ratio device/diameter of interatrial septum = 0.74).
Incomplete ASA coverage during intraprocedural intracardiac echocardiography was observed in 71 patients. During mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 1.8 years, when compared to patients with complete coverage, there were no differences in LA functional parameters and complete occlusion achieved in 150/160 patients (93.7%). No new cerebral ischemic events, aortic erosions or device thrombosis were recorded during the follow-up.
THE USE OF THE AMPLATZER ASD CRIBRIFORM TO TREAT PFO AND ASSOCIATED ASA SEEMS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE: relatively small Occluder devices are probably effective enough to promote left atrial functional remodelling.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is rapidly becoming in Europe, more than in the USA, a matter of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. A migrainous 34-year-old female with episodic hypostenia and even paralysis of the left arm was referred to a peripheral hospital for a complete neurological work-up. Being the Doppler ultrasound of carotid and vertebral arteries negative and angio-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) positive for multiple white-matter lesions. A transthoracic echocardiography revealed a possible shunt through a patent foramen ovale with a right-to-left shunt and a mild buldging of interatrial septum, but the patient did not tolerate a further attempt of transesophageal echocardiography to confirm the diagnosis. Coagulation screening essay demonstrated a moderate hyperhomocisteinemia. In the hypothesis of embolic PFO mediated by a moderate prothrombotic state caused by hyperhomocisteinemia, the patient was referred to our attention for an attempt of PFO closure but on intracardiac echocardiography normal fossa ovalis without any shunt was revealed. One year later, during the follow-up, the patient became severely symptomatic for left arm hypostenia and parhestesia, both at rest and during efforts. Thus, the patient was submitted to a thoracic and upper limbs angio-MRI in order to exclude disease of the main arteries causing functional impotence. The MRI demonstrated thoracic outlet syndrome of both arms, more severe in the left arm with functional occlusion of the subclavian vein with abduction of the arm and possible cloth image at the subclavian vein next to the joint. The patient was referred to the thoracic surgeon for surgical repair.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Minerva cardioangiologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to prospectively evaluate risk of stroke and impact of transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure in patients with permanent right-to left shunt compared with those with Valsalva maneuver-induced right-to-left shunt.
Pathophysiology and properly management of PFO still remain far from being fully clarified: in particular, the contribution of permanent right-to-left shunt remains unknown.
Between March 2006 and October 2010, we enrolled 180 (mean age 44 ± 10.9 years, 98 women) of 320 consecutive patients referred to our center for transcatheter PFO closure, who had spontaneous permanent right-to-left shunt on transcranial Doppler and transthoracic/transesophageal echocardiography. All patients fulfilled the standard current indications for transcatheter closure and underwent preoperative transesophageal echocardiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging, with subsequent intracardiac echocardiographic-guided transcatheter PFO closure. We compared the clinical echocardiographic characteristics of these patients (Permanent Group) with the rest of 140 patients with right-to-left shunt only during Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva Group).
Compared with the Valsalva Group patients, patients of the Permanent Group had increased frequency of multiple ischemic brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, previous recurrent stroke, previous peripheral arteries embolism, migraine with aura, and-more frequently-atrial septal aneurysm and prominent Eustachian valve. The presence of permanent shunt confers the highest risk of recurrent stroke (odds ratio: 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 12, p < 0.001). No differences were recorded between the 2 groups with regard to recurrence of ischemic events after the closure procedure.
Despite its small-sample nature, our study suggests that patients with permanent right-to-left shunt have potentially a higher risk of paradoxical embolism compared with those without.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term results of interventional treatment of diabetic foot using mixed coronary and peripheral equipments and techniques. The interventional diabetic foot syndrome treatment is rapidly becoming the therapy of choice in such patients, but proper materials and techniques are still debated. From January 2006 to December 2010, we prospectively enrolled 220 diabetic patients (78.5 ± 15.8 years, 107 females, all with Fontaine III or IV class), referred to our center for diabetic foot syndrome and severe limb ischemia. Mixed coronary and peripheral guidewires and balloons techniques were used. Doppler ultrasonography and foot transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TCPO2) before and after the procedure were calculated as well as the amputation rate. The preferred approach was ipsilateral femoral antegrade in 170/220 patients (77.7%), contralateral cross-over in 40/220 patients (18.8%), and popliteal retrograde + femoral antegrade in 10/220 patients (4.5%). The techniques included combined use of coronary and dedicated peripheral guidewires and coronary and peripheral dedicated balloons. Balloon angioplasty was performed in 252 legs (32 patients with bilateral disease): the procedure was successful in 239/252 legs with an immediate success rate of 94.8% and a significant improvement in TCPO2 and ankle-brachial index with ulcer healing in 233/252 legs (92.4%). The freedom from major amputation was 82.8% at a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 1.8 years (range 1 to 5 years). The endovascular diabetic foot syndrome treatment using mixed coronary and peripheral materials and techniques seems to lead to high immediate success and limb salvage rates compared to historical series.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Interventional Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to prospectively evaluate long-term follow-up results of intracardiac echocardiography-aided transcatheter closure of interatrial shunts in adults.
Intracardiac echocardiography improves the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter device-based closure of interatrial shunts, but its impact on long-term follow-up is unknown.
Over a 5-year period, we prospectively enrolled 258 consecutive patients (mean age 48 ± 19.1 years, 169 females) who had been referred to our centre for catheter-based closure of interatrial shunts. All patients were screened with transesophageal echocardiography before the operation. Eligible patients underwent intracardiac echocardiography study and attempted closure.
After intracardiac echocardiography study and measurements, 18 patients did not proceed to transcatheter closure due to unsuitable rims, atrial myxoma not diagnosed by preoperative transesophageal echocardiography or inaccurate transesophageal echocardiography measurement of defects more than 40 mm. The remaining 240 patients underwent transcatheter closure: transesophageal echocardiography-planned device type and size were modified in 108 patients (45%). Rates of procedural success, predischarge occlusion and complication were 100%, 94.2% and 5%, respectively. On mean follow-up of 65 ± 15.3 months, the follow-up occlusion rate was 96.5%. There were no cases of aortic/atrial erosion, device thrombosis or atrioventricular valve inferences.
Intracardiac echocardiography-guided interatrial shunt transcatheter closure is safe and effective and appears to have excellent long-term results, potentially minimizing the complications resulting from incorrect device selection and sizing.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Cardiovascular revascularization medicine: including molecular interventions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the long-term results of global coronary and peripheral interventional treatment of diabetic foot patients.
We retrospectively included 220 diabetic patients (78.5 ± 15.8 years, 107 females, all with Fontaine III or IV class) who were referred to our centre for diabetic foot syndrome and severe limb ischemia from January 2006 to December 2010. Patients were evaluated by a team of interventional cardiologists and diabetologists in order to assess presence of concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) and eventual need for coronary revascularization. Stress-echo was performed in all patients before diagnostic peripheral angiography. Patients with indications for coronary angiography were submitted to combined diagnostic angiography and then to eventual staged peripheral and coronary interventions. Doppler ultrasonography and foot transcutaneous oximetry of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) before and after the procedure were performed as well as stress-echocardiography and combined cardiologic and diabetic examination at 1 and 6 month and yearly.
Stress-echocardiography was performed in 94/220 patients and resulted positive in 56 patients who underwent combined coronary and peripheral angiography. In the rest of 126 patients, combined coronary and peripheral angiography was performed directly for concomitant signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease in 35 patients. Coronary revascularization was judged necessary in 85/129 patients and was performed percutaneously after peripheral interventions in 72 patients and surgically in 13 patients. For Diabetic foot interventions the preferred approach was ipsilateral femoral antegrade in 170/220 patients (77.7%) and contralateral cross-over in 40/220 patients (18.8%) and popliteal retrograde + femoral antegrade in 10/220 patients (4.5%). Balloon angioplasty was performed in 252 legs (32 patients had bilateral disease): the procedure was successful in 239/252 legs with an immediate success rate of 94.8% and a significant improvement in TcPO2 and ABI with ulcer healing in 233/252 legs (92.4%). Freedom from major amputation was 82.8% at a mean follow-up of 3.1 ± 1.8 years (range 1 to 5 years) whereas survival was 88%.
Global coronary and peripheral endovascular management of diabetic foot syndrome patients seems to lead to an high immediate success and limb salvage rates and increasing survival compared to historical series.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Geriatric Cardiology