Samir S Shah

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (251)1095.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pediatric frequent emergency department (ED) utilizers contribute a significant proportion of ED visits, but no studies specifically address children with cancer. Methods: A retrospective study of Pediatric Health Information System analyzing ED visits for children with cancer, including ED visits within 365 days from the first inpatient encounter with a discharge diagnosis code for malignancy. We defined frequent ED utilizers as those with four or more visits in the year (top 10th percentile). Patient characteristics and ED services (medications, laboratory, or imaging) for discharged children were assessed. Factors associated with being a frequent ED utilizer were examined with multivariable regression. Results: Frequent utilizers accounted for 58% of ED visits. Frequent utilizers differed from infrequent utilizers in terms of type of cancer; 39.3% of frequent utilizers had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 16.0% had central nervous system (CNS) tumors compared with infrequent utilizers (21.9% had ALL and 24.8% CNS tumors, P-value < 0.001). Frequent utilization was associated with age 5-9 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.6) or 1-4 years (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.4) or <1 year (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6) compared to 15-19 years and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5) compared to white, non-Hispanics, and urban residence (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7). Few children with cancer received no medication, laboratory, or imaging during their ED visit (frequent 11.0% vs. infrequent 12.5%, P = 0.01). Conclusions: The ED is integral to the care provided to children with cancer. The subset of frequent utilizers should be the focus of future research and quality improvement efforts.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The aims of this study were: (1) to explore the family perspective on pediatric hospital-to-home transitions; (2) to modify an existing nurse-delivered transitional home visit to better meet family needs; (3) to study the effectiveness of the modified visit for reducing healthcare re-use and improving patient- and family-centered outcomes in a randomized controlled trial. Background: The transition from impatient hospitalization to outpatient care is a vulnerable time for children and their families; children are at risk for poor outcomes that may be mitigated by interventions to address transition difficulties. It is unknown if an effective adult transition intervention, a nurse home visit, improves postdischarge outcomes for children hospitalized with common conditions. Design: (1) Descriptive qualitative; (2) Quality improvement; (3) Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Aim 1 will use qualitative methods, through focus groups, to understand the family perspective of hospital-to-home transitions. Aim 2 will use quality improvement methods to modify the content and processes associated with nurse home visits. Modifications to visits will be made based on parent and stakeholder input obtained during Aims 1 & 2. The effectiveness of the modified visit will be evaluated in Aim 3 through a randomized controlled trial. Discussion: We are undertaking the study to modify and evaluate a nurse home visit as an effective acute care pediatric transition intervention. We expect the results will be of interest to administrators, policy makers and clinicians interested in improving pediatric care transitions and associated postdischarge outcomes, in the light of impending bundled payment initiatives in pediatric care.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Advanced Nursing
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Children with neurologic impairment (NI) are commonly hospitalized for different types of pneumonia, including aspiration pneumonia. We sought to compare hospital management and outcomes of children with NI diagnosed with aspiration versus nonaspiration pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective study of 27 455 hospitalized children aged 1 to 18 years with NI diagnosed with pneumonia from 2007 to 2012 at 40 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. The primary exposure was pneumonia type, classified as aspiration or nonaspiration. Outcomes were complications (eg, acute respiratory failure) and hospital utilization (eg, length of stay, 30-day readmission). Multivariable regression was used to assess the association between pneumonia type and outcomes, adjusting for NI type, comorbid conditions, and other characteristics. Results: In multivariable analysis, the 9.7% of children diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia experienced more complications than children with nonaspiration pneumonia (34.0% vs 15.2%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.3). Children with aspiration pneumonia had significantly longer length of stay (median 5 vs 3 days; ratio of means 1.2; 95% CI 1.2-1.3); more ICU transfers (4.3% vs 1.5%; aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9); greater hospitalization costs (median $11 594 vs $5162; ratio of means 1.2; 95% CI 1.2-1.3); and more 30-day readmissions (17.4% vs 6.8%; aOR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.5). Conclusions: Hospitalized children with NI diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia have more complications and use more hospital resources than when diagnosed with nonaspiration pneumonia. Additional investigation is needed to understand the reasons for these differences.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine across and within hospital differences in the predictors of 365-day admission frequency for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children at US children's hospitals. Study design: Multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of 12 449 children 2-18 years of age with a diagnosis of DKA in 42 US children's hospitals between 2004 and 2012. The main outcome of interest was the maximum number of DKA admissions experienced by each child within any 365-day interval during a 5-year follow-up period. The association between patient characteristics and the maximum number of DKA admissions within a 365-day interval was examined across and within hospitals. Results: In the sample, 28.3% of patients admitted for DKA experienced at least 1 additional DKA admission within the following 365 days. Across hospitals, patient characteristics associated with increasing DKA admission frequency were public insurance (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.71-2.26), non-Hispanic black race (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.02-2.85), age ≥12 (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.7-2.32), female sex (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.29-1.55), and mental health comorbidity (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). Within hospitals, non-Hispanic black race was associated with higher odds of 365-day admission in 59% of hospitals, and public insurance was associated with higher odds in 56% of hospitals. Older age, female sex, and mental health comorbidity were associated with higher odds of 365-day admission in 42%, 29%, and 15% of hospitals, respectively. Conclusions: Across children's hospitals, certain patient characteristics are associated with more frequent DKA admissions. However, these factors are not associated with increased DKA admission frequency for all hospitals.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: National guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children were published in 2011. These guidelines discourage most diagnostic testing for outpatients, as well as repeat testing for hospitalized patients who are improving. We sought to evaluate the temporal trends in diagnostic testing associated with guideline implementation among children with CAP. Methods: Children 1 to 18 years old who were discharged with pneumonia after emergency department (ED) evaluation or hospitalization from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014 at any of 32 children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System were included. We excluded children with complex chronic conditions and those requiring intensive care or who underwent early pleural drainage. We compared use of diagnostic testing (blood culture, complete blood count [CBC], C-reactive protein [CRP], and chest radiography [CXR]) before and after release of the guidelines, and assessed for temporal trends using interrupted time series analysis. We also calculated the cost impact of these changes on diagnostic utilization and evaluated the variability of the guideline's impact across hospitals. Results: Overall, 220,539 patients were included; 53% were male and the median age was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-7). For patients discharged from the ED with CAP, diagnostic utilization rates for blood culture, CBC, CRP, and CXR were higher after guideline publication compared with expected utilization rates without guidelines. In contrast, initial testing and repeat testing among patients hospitalized with CAP was lower after guideline publication. There were modest reductions in estimated costs associated with these changes. However, wide variability was observed in the impact of the guidelines across hospitals. Conclusions: Publication of national pneumonia guidelines in 2011 was associated with modest changes in diagnostic testing for children with CAP. However, the changes varied across hospitals, and the financial impact was modest. Local implementation efforts are warranted to ensure widespread guideline adherence. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Hospital Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hospital Pediatrics

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Emergency department (ED) utilization by children with cancer is poorly understood. Among children with cancer, we explored reasons for ED visits and factors associated with admission within U.S. children's hospitals. Methods: A retrospective study of the 2011-2013 Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) was conducted. Eligible ED visits included those within 365 days from the first inpatient encounter with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code for cancer. Patient characteristics and reasons for ED visits were assessed. Factors associated with admission from the ED were examined with multivariable regression. Results: There were 26,770 ED visits by 17,943 children with cancer at 39 children's hospitals during the study period. Half of children with cancer visited the ED within 1 year after their first cancer hospitalization in PHIS. Fifty-six percent of ED visits resulted in admission. Fever or neutropenia accounted for the largest proportion of reasons for visits (34.6%). Risk factors for admission were as follows: "Other" race/ethnicity as compared to white, non-Hispanic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.6), history of transplant (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), and ED visits reasons including neutropenia (OR = 43.4, 95% CI 36.0-52.3), blood stream infection (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 2.8-3.9), pancytopenia (OR = 28.8, 95% CI 18.1-45.9), dehydration (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.9-2.9), or pneumonia (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 2.8-5.1). Conclusions: Children with cancer have high ED usage within 1 year after their first cancer hospitalization. Age, demographic factors, and reasons for ED visits significantly impacted admission from the ED. Further research should focus on ED utilization among children with cancer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Transitions from the hospital to home can be difficult for patients and families. Family-informed characterization of this vulnerable period may facilitate the identification of interventions to improve transitions home. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive understanding of hospital-to-home transitions from the family perspective. Methods: Using qualitative methods, focus groups and individual interviews were held with caregivers of children discharged from the hospital in the preceding 30 days. Focus groups were stratified based upon socioeconomic status. The open-ended, semistructured question guide included questions about communication and understanding of care plans, transition home, and postdischarge events. Using inductive thematic analysis, investigators coded the transcripts, resolving differences through consensus. Results: Sixty-one caregivers participated across 11 focus groups and 4 individual interviews. Participants were 87% female and 46% nonwhite; 38% were the only adult in their household, and 56% resided in census tracts with ≥15% of residents living in poverty. Responses from participants yielded a conceptual model depicting key elements of families' experiences with hospital-to-home transitions. Four main concepts resulted: (1) "In a fog" (barriers to processing and acting on information), (2) "What I wish I had" (desired information and suggestions for improvement), (3) "Am I ready to go home?" (discharge readiness), and (4) "I'm home, now what?" (confidence and postdischarge care). Conclusions: Transitions from hospital to home affect the lives of families in ways that may affect patient outcomes postdischarge. The caregiver is key to successful transitions, and the family perspective can inform interventions that support families and facilitate an easier re-entry to the home.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chest radiography is increasingly used to diagnose pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether chest radiographic findings predict outcomes of children with clinically suspected pneumonia in these settings. Methods: Hospital-based, prospective cohort study of children 1-23 months of age meeting clinical criteria for pneumonia in Botswana. Chest radiographs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists to generate a consensus interpretation using standardized World Health Organization criteria. We assessed whether final chest radiograph classification was associated with our primary outcome, treatment failure at 48 hours, and secondary outcomes. Results: From April 2012 to November 2014, we enrolled 249 children with evaluable chest radiographs. Median age was 6.1 months and 58% were male. Chest radiograph classifications were primary end-point pneumonia (35%), other infiltrate/abnormality (42%), or no significant pathology (22%). The prevalence of end-point consolidation was higher in children with HIV infection (P=0.0005), while end-point pleural effusions were more frequent among children with moderate or severe malnutrition (P=0.0003). Ninety-one (37%) children failed treatment and 12 (4.8%) children died. Primary end-point pneumonia was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure at 48 hours (P=0.002), a requirement for more days of respiratory support (P=0.002), and a longer length of stay (P=0.0003) compared with no significant pathology. Primary end-point pneumonia also predicted a higher risk of treatment failure than other infiltrate/abnormality (P=0.004). Conclusions: Chest radiograph provides useful prognostic information for children meeting clinical criteria for pneumonia in Botswana. These findings highlight the potential benefit of expanded global access to diagnostic radiology services.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine if household income is associated with hospitalization costs for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Study design: Retrospective cohort study of inpatient, nonrehabilitation hospitalizations at 43 freestanding children's hospitals for patients <19 years old with unintentional severe TBI and SCI from 2009-2012. Standardized cost of care for hospitalizations was modeled using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, primary payer, presence of chronic medical condition, mechanism of injury, injury severity, distance from residence to hospital, and trauma center level. Main exposure was zip code level median annual household income. Results: There were 1061 patients that met inclusion criteria, 833 with TBI only, 227 with SCI only, and 1 with TBI and SCI. Compared with those with the lowest-income zip codes, patients from the highest-income zip codes were more likely to be older, white (76.7% vs 50.4%), have private insurance (68.9% vs 27.9%), and live closer to the hospital (median distance 26.7 miles vs 81.2 miles). In adjusted models, there was no significant association between zip code level household income and hospitalization costs. Conclusions: Children hospitalized with unintentional, severe TBI and SCI showed no difference in standardized hospital costs relative to a patient's home zip code level median annual household income. The association between household income and hospitalization costs may vary by primary diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To quantify rates and variation in emergency department (ED) cranial computed tomography (CT) utilization in children with ventricular shunts, estimate radiation exposure, and evaluate the association between CT utilization and shunt revision. Study design: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study of ED visits from 2003-2013 in children 0-18 years old with initial shunt placement in 2003. Data were examined from 31 hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System. Main outcomes were cranial CT performed during an ED visit, estimated cumulative effective radiation dose, and shunt revision within 7 days. Multivariable regression modeled the relationship between patient- and hospital-level covariates and CT utilization. Results: The 1319 children with initial shunt placed in 2003 experienced 6636 ED visits during the subsequent decade. A cranial CT was obtained in 49.4% of all ED visits; 19.9% of ED visits with CT were associated with a shunt revision. Approximately 6% of patients received ≥10 CTs, accounting for 37.2% of all ED visits with a CT. The mean number of CTs per patient varied nearly 20-fold across hospitals; the individual hospital accounted for the most variation in CT utilization. The median (IQR) cumulative effective radiation dose was 7.2 millisieverts (3.6-14.0) overall, and 33.4 millisieverts (27.2-43.8) among patients receiving ≥10 CTs. Conclusions: A CT scan was obtained in half of ED visits for children with a ventricular shunt, with wide variability in utilization by hospitals. Strategies are needed to identify children at risk of shunt malfunction to reduce variability in CT utilization and radiation exposure in the ED.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the relationship between hospital volume and intensive care unit (ICU) transfer among hospitalized children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Study design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 83 477 SCD-related hospitalizations at children's hospitals (2009-2012) using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Hospital-level all-cause and SCD-specific volumes were dichotomized (low vs high). Outcomes were within-hospital ICU transfer (primary) and length of stay (LOS) total (secondary). Multivariable logistic/linear regressions assessed the association of hospital volumes with ICU transfer and LOS. Results: Of 83 477 eligible hospitalizations, 1741 (2.1%) involving 1432 unique children were complicated by ICU transfer. High SCD-specific volume (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.91) was associated with lower odds of ICU transfer while high all-cause hospital volume was not (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.73-1.04). A statistically significant interaction was found between all-cause and SCD-specific volumes. When results were stratified according to all-cause volume, high SCD-specific volume was associated with lower odds of ICU transfer at low all-cause volume (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38-0.55). High hospital volumes, both all-cause (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.97) and SCD-specific (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84-0.88), were associated with shorter LOS. Conclusions: Children's hospitals vary substantially in their transfer of children with SCD to the ICU according to hospital volumes. Understanding the practices used by different institutions may help explain the variability in ICU transfer among hospitals caring for children with SCD.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate accuracy of 2 established administrative methods of identifying children with sepsis using a medical record review reference standard. Study design: Multicenter retrospective study at 6 US children's hospitals. Subjects were children >60 days to <19 years of age and identified in 4 groups based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes: (1) severe sepsis/septic shock (sepsis codes); (2) infection plus organ dysfunction (combination codes); (3) subjects without codes for infection, organ dysfunction, or severe sepsis; and (4) infection but not severe sepsis or organ dysfunction. Combination codes were allowed, but not required within the sepsis codes group. We determined the presence of reference standard severe sepsis according to consensus criteria. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether addition of codes for sepsis therapies improved case identification. Results: A total of 130 out of 432 subjects met reference SD of severe sepsis. Sepsis codes had sensitivity 73% (95% CI 70-86), specificity 92% (95% CI 87-95), and positive predictive value 79% (95% CI 70-86). Combination codes had sensitivity 15% (95% CI 9-22), specificity 71% (95% CI 65-76), and positive predictive value 18% (95% CI 11-27). Slight improvements in model characteristics were observed when codes for vasoactive medications and endotracheal intubation were added to sepsis codes (c-statistic 0.83 vs 0.87, P = .008). Conclusions: Sepsis specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes identify pediatric patients with severe sepsis in administrative data more accurately than a combination of codes for infection plus organ dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
  • Joanna Thomson · Samir S Shah

    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Observation unit (OU) use has been promoted recently to decrease resource utilization and costs for select patients, but little is known about the operations of pediatric OUs. This study aimed to characterize the infrastructure and function of OUs within freestanding children's hospitals and to compare characteristics between hospitals with and without OUs. Methods: All 43 freestanding children's hospitals that submit data to the Pediatric Health Information System were contacted in 2013 to identify OUs that admitted unscheduled patients from their emergency department (ED) in 2011. Semistructured interviews were conducted with representatives at hospitals with these OUs. Characteristics of hospitals with and without OUs were compared. Results: Fourteen (33%) of 43 hospitals had an OU during 2011. Hospitals with OUs had more beds and more annual ED visits compared to those without OUs. Most OUs (65%) were located in the ED and had <12 beds (65%). Staffing models and patient populations differed between OUs. Nearly 60% were hybrid OUs, providing scheduled services. OUs lacked uniform outcome measures. Themes included: admissions were intuition based, certain patients were not well suited for OUs, OUs had rapid-turnover cultures, and the designation of observation status was arbitrary. Challenges included patient discontent with copayments and payer-driven utilization reviews. Conclusions: OUs were located in higher volume hospitals and varied by location, size, and staffing. Most functioned as hybrid OUs. OUs based admissions on intuition, had staffing cultures centered on rapid turnover of patient care, lacked consistent outcome measures, and faced challenges regarding utilization review and patient copayments.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Academic pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Many families involved in research are well versed in the care system due to chronic conditions. Engagement of families of children with serious acute illnesses is infrequent, and no studies have documented the feasibility or acceptability of different methods of family engagement. We describe a model used in the Hospital-to-Home Outcomes study, which utilized a novel approach of short-term focused engagement of families and other stakeholders to incorporate the unique viewpoints of families whose care experience is primarily focused around the period surrounding their child's hospitalization for acute illness. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2015. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Hospital Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To study the comparative effectiveness of dexamethasone vs prednisone/prednisolone in children hospitalized with asthma exacerbation not requiring intensive care. This multicenter retrospective cohort study, using the Pediatric Health Information System, included children aged 4-17 years who were hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of asthma between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Children with chronic complex condition and/or initial intensive care unit (ICU) management were excluded. Propensity score matching was used to detect differences in length of stay (LOS), readmissions, ICU transfer, and cost between groups. 40 257 hospitalizations met inclusion criteria; 1166 (2.9%) received only dexamethasone. In the matched cohort (N = 1284 representing 34 hospitals), the LOS was significantly shorter in the dexamethasone group compared with the prednisone/prednisolone group. The proportion of subjects with a LOS of 3 days or more was 6.7% in the dexamethasone group and 12% in the prednisone/prednisolone group (P = .002). Differences in all-cause readmission at 7- and 30 days were not statistically significant. The dexamethasone group had lower costs of index admission ($2621 vs $2838; P < .001) and total episode of care (including readmissions) ($2624 vs $2856; P < .001) compared with the prednisone/prednisolone group. There were no clinical significant differences in ICU transfer or readmissions between groups. Dexamethasone may be considered an alternative to prednisone/prednisolone for children hospitalized with asthma exacerbation not requiring admission to intensive care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    Samir S Shah · Lilliam Ambroggio · Todd A Florin

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of beta-lactam monotherapy and beta- lactam/macrolide combination therapy in the outpatient management of children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).Methods This retrospective cohort study included children, ages 1–18 years, with CAP diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2010 during outpatient management in the Geisinger Health System. The primary exposure was receipt of beta-lactam monotherapy or beta-lactam/macrolide combination therapy. The primary outcome was treatment failure, defined as a follow-up visit within 14 days of diagnosis resulting in a change in antibiotic therapy. Logistic regression within a propensity score- restricted cohort was used to estimate the likelihood of treatment failure.ResultsOf 717 children in the analytical cohort, 570 (79.4%) received beta-lactam monotherapy and 147 (20.1%) received combination therapy. Of those who received combination therapy 58.2% of children were under 6 years of age. Treatment failure occurred in 55 (7.7%) children, including in 8.1% of monotherapy recipients, and 6.1% of combination therapy recipients. Treatment failure rates were highest in children 6–18 years receiving monotherapy (12.9%) and lowest in children 6–18 years receiving combination therapy (4.0%). Children 6–18 years of age who received combination therapy were less likely to fail treatment than those who received beta-lactam monotherapy (propensity-adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.28, 0.95).Conclusion Children 6–18 years of age who received beta- lactam/macrolide combination therapy for CAP in the outpatient setting had lower odds of treatment failure compared with those who received beta-lactam monotherapy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 9999:XX–XX. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Pediatric Pulmonology

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,095.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2016
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2012-2015
    • University of Cincinnati
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2002-2013
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Division of General Pediatrics
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States