- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cortical folding mainly takes place in the third trimester of pregnancy and may therefore be influenced by preterm birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of specific cortical structures between early age (around 30weeks postmenstrual age) and term-equivalent age (TEA, around 40weeks postmenstrual age) in 71 extremely preterm infants, and to associate this to clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age. First, analysis showed that the central sulcus (CS), lateral fissure (LF) and insula (INS) were present at early MRI in all infants, whereas the other sulci (post-central sulcus [PCS], superior temporal sulcus [STS], superior [SFS] and inferior [IFS] frontal sulcus) were only seen in part of the infants. Relative growth from early to TEA examination was largest in the SFS. A rightward asymmetry of the surface area was seen in development between both examinations except for the LF, which showed a leftward asymmetry at both time points. Second, lower birth weight z-score, multiple pregnancy and prolonged mechanical ventilation showed negative effects on cortical folding of the CS, LF, INS, STS and PCS, mainly on the first examination, suggesting that sulci developing the earliest were the most affected by clinical factors. Finally, in this cohort, a clear association between cortical folding and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years corrected age was found, particularly for receptive language.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the relationship between brain volumes at term and neurodevelopmental outcome through early school age in preterm infants. Study design: One hundred twelve preterm infants (born mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.7 weeks) were studied prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging (imaged at mean 41.6 ± 1.0 weeks). T2- and T1-weighted images were automatically segmented, and volumes of 6 tissue types were related to neurodevelopmental outcome assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (cognitive, fine, and gross motor scores) at 24 months corrected age (n = 112), Griffiths Mental Development Scales (developmental quotient) at age 3.5 years (n = 98), Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (n = 85), and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition at age 5.5 years (n = 44). Corrections were made for intracranial volume, maternal education, and severe brain lesions. Results: Ventricular volumes were negatively related to neurodevelopmental outcome at age 24 months and 3.5 years, as well as processing speed at age 5.5 years. Unmyelinated white matter (UWM) volume was positively associated with motor outcome at 24 months and with processing speed at age 5.5 years. Cortical gray matter (CGM) volume demonstrated a negative association with motor performance and cognition at 24 months and with developmental quotient at age 3.5 years. Cerebellar volume was positively related to cognition at these time points. Adjustment for brain lesions attenuated the relations between cerebellar and CGM volumes and cognition. Conclusions: Brain volumes of ventricles, UWM, CGM, and cerebellum may serve as biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. The relationship between larger CGM volumes and adverse neurodevelopment may reflect disturbances in neuronal and/or axonal migration at the UWM-CGM boundary and warrants further investigation.
Dataset: Supplementary material 1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. Methods: We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII) and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive-or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85. Results: We found 61 (27%) children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5%) children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70). Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73%) children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%), its specificity was acceptable (76%), and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds. Conclusion: The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure both fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) and volume of the thalami in preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (c-PVL) and to compare these measurements with control infants. Preterm infants with c-PVL and controls with magnetic resonance imaging data acquired between birth and term equivalent age (TEA) were retrospectively identified in 2 centers. Tractography of the CST and segmentation of the thalamus were performed, and values from infants with c-PVL and controls were compared. Thirty-three subjects with c-PVL and 31 preterm controls were identified. All had at least 1 scan up to TEA, and multiple scans were performed in 31 infants. A significant difference in FA values of the CST was found between cases and controls on the scans both before and at TEA. Absolute thalamic volumes were significantly reduced at TEA but not on the earlier scans. Data acquired in infancy showed lower FA values in infants with c-PVL. Damage to the CST can be identified on the early scan and persists, whereas the changes in thalamic volume develop in the weeks between the early and term equivalent magnetic resonance imaging. This may reflect the difference between acute and remote effects of the extensive injury to the white matter caused by c-PVL. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the association between early neonatal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the development of unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) in preterm infants with periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI). Preterm infants with PVHI were assessed with early (≤4 weeks after birth) and term-equivalent age MRI-DTI. Involvement of corticospinal tracts was assessed by visual assessment of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) on DTI (classified asymmetrical, equivocal, or symmetrical) and by an atlas based approach calculating fractional anisotropy asymmetry index in the PLIC. Motor outcome was assessed at ≥15 months corrected age. Seven out of 23 infants with PVHI developed USCP. Their PLIC was visually scored as asymmetrical in 6 and equivocal in1 on the early DTI. Thirteen out of 16 infants with a symmetrical motor development had a symmetrical PLIC on early DTI, the remaining 3 were equivocal. All infants with USCP had a fractional anisotropy asymmetry index of >0.05 (optimal cut-off value) on early DTI. In infants with a symmetrical motor development (n=16), 14 had an asymmetry index ≤0.05 whilst 2 had an index >0.05. DTI in preterm infants with PVHI within a few weeks after birth is associated with later motor development.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.94.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT?: Diffusion-weighted MRI has demonstrated changes in the corpus callosum of term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. The severity of cerebral changes demonstrated using diffusion-weighted MRI is difficult to assess without measuring values of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC). WHAT IS NEW?: ADC values of the anterior part of the corpus callosum are slightly higher than of the posterior part in full term infants with perinatal asphyxia. Low ADC values of the corpus callosum were associated with an adverse outcome in infants with perinatal asphyxia. In infants treated with hypothermia lower ADC values than with normothermia were associated with a poor outcome, supporting neuroprotective effects of hypothermia.Using MRI, changes can be detected in the corpus callosum (CC) following perinatal asphyxia which are associated with later neurodevelopmental outcome.To study the association between the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) in the CC on MRI in neonates with perinatal asphyxia and neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age.Of 121 infants 32 (26%) died and 13 (11%) survived with an adverse neurological outcome. Sixty-five (54%) received therapeutic hypothermia. MRI was performed within 7 days after birth using a 1.5 T or 3.0 T system, and ADC values were measured in the anterior and posterior CC. The association between ADC and composite outcome (death or abnormal neurodevelopment) was analyzed for both normothermia and hypothermia cases using receiver operating characteristics.ADC values of the posterior CC were lower than of the anterior part (mean difference 0.050 x 10-3 mm2/s, p
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the contribution of sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and term-equivalent age magnetic resonance imaging (TEA-MRI) including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to the early prognosis of neurodevelopmental outcome in a cohort of very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <31 weeks). Study design In total, 93 preterm infants (median [range] GA in weeks: 28.3 [25.0–30.9]) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study and underwent early and term cUS as well as TEA-MRI including DWI. Early cUS abnormalities were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe. Term cUS was evaluated for ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly (VM) and enlargement of the extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF) space. Abnormalities on T1- and T2-weighted TEA-MRI were scored according to Kidokoro et al. Using DWI at TEA, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured in four white matter regions bilaterally and both cerebellar hemispheres. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at two years’ corrected age (CA) using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the correlation between the different neuroimaging modalities and outcome. Results Moderate/severe abnormalities on early cUS, ex-vacuo VM and enlargement of the eCSF space on term cUS and increased cerebellar ADC values on term DWI were independently associated with worse motor outcome (p<.05). Ex-vacuo VM on term cUS was also related to worse cognitive performance at two years’ CA (p<.01). Conclusion These data support the clinical value of sequential cUS and recommend repeating cUS at TEA. In particular, assessment of moderate/severe early cUS abnormalities and ex-vacuo VM on term cUS provides important prognostic information. Cerebellar ADC values may further aid in the prognostication of gross motor function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose With the increased use of MRI in preterm infants, punctate white matter lesions (PWML) are more often recognized. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of these lesions as well as short-term outcome in a cohort of serially scanned preterm infants, using both conventional imaging, diffusion (DWI) and susceptibility (SWI) weighted imaging. Materials and Methods 112 preterm infants with 2 MRIs in the neonatal period, with evidence of punctate white matter lesions, were included. Appearance, lesion load, location, and abnormalities on DWI and SWI were scored and outcome data were collected. Results Different patterns of punctate white matter lesions did appear: a linear appearance associated with signal loss on SWI, and a cluster appearance associated with restricted diffusion on DWI on the first MRI. Cluster and mixed lesions on the first scan changed in appearance in over 50% on the second scan, whereas linear lesions generally kept their appearance. Lesions were only visible on the early scan in 33%, and were only seen at term equivalent age in 20%. Nine infants developed cerebral palsy, due to additional overt white matter lesions in six. Conclusion Two patterns of punctate white matter lesions were identified: one with loss of signal on SWI in a linear appearance, and the other with DWI lesions with restricted diffusion in a cluster appearance. These different patterns are suggestive of a difference in underlying pathophysiology. To reliably classify PWML in the preterm infant in either pattern, an early MRI with DWI and SWI sequences is required.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives To assess the association of brain tissue volumes at term-equivalent age (TEA) with long-term neurodevelopment. Methods 108 preterm infants (median GA 28.6 weeks; 25.0–30.9 weeks) were prospectively studied at TEA (median 41.6 weeks PMA; 39.7–43.6). Volumes of eight different tissue types were quantified using an automatic segmentation method (Anbeek, PLOSOne2013)and related to neurodevelopmental outcome using cognitive (CCs), fine motor (FMss), and gross motor scaled scores (GMss) of the BSITD-III at two years corrected age, Griffiths Mental Development Scales (DQ) at age 3.5, and WPPSI at age 5.5. Corrections were made for PMA at scan, intracranial volume and maternal education. Results Significant results are presented in the table. Both ventricular (Vent) and cortical grey matter volume (CoGM) were inversely related to all included subscales of the BSITD-III and DQ. However, the association at age 3.5 was lost after excluding infants with severe brain lesions (venous infarction, PHVD with neurosurgical intervention, and severe cerebellar haemorrhages). CoGM volume demonstrated a borderline significant inverse correlation with performal IQ at age 5.5 (coefficient-3.2;-6.6–0.08), that did not change after adjustment for severe brain lesions. Cerebellar volume was related to cognitive outcome at 2 and 3.5 years, but the association was mediated by cerebellar injury. Conclusion Vent and CoGM volumes at TEA may serve as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. The relationship between larger CoGM volumes and adverse neurodevelopment may reflect disturbances in white matter-CoGM boundaries and warrants further investigation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to compare clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) located in the temporal or frontal periventricular white matter. The study was a retrospective hospital-based study of preterm infants with a frontal PVHI (n=21; 11 males, 10 females; mean birthweight 1527g; mean gestational age 30.3wks) or temporal PVHI (n=13; five males, eight females; mean birthweight 1205g; mean gestational age 30.2wks) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 1990 and 2012. The clinical course, results of neuroimaging studies, and neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants with a gestational age less than 34 weeks with a confirmed PVHI on early cranial ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed. For assessment of neurodevelopmental outcome we used the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, the Child Behavior Checklist, and ophthalmological assessment. An unfavourable neurodevelopmental outcome was defined as moderately or severely atypical neurological examination during the last visit: presence of cerebral palsy, epilepsy, a hearing or visual impairment, and/or atypical cognitive development (Griffiths Mental Development Scales developmental quotient or Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence <85). Unfavourable outcome was observed in 12 out of 13 children with a temporal PVHI compared with six out of 21 children with a frontal PVHI (p=0.002). Only one of the included infants with a PVHI in the temporal white matter developed cerebral palsy, which was due to a parietal PVHI in the contralateral hemisphere. Cognitive impairment was noted in seven infants with a frontal PVHI and five with a temporal PVHI. There were more infants with a temporal PVHI who developed visual impairment (n=5) or behavioural problems (n=7) compared with those with a frontal PVHI (visual impairment (n=2), behavioural problems (n=3). PVHI located in the temporal or frontal lobe is almost invariably related to a typical motor outcome, but carries a risk of cognitive, behavioural, and visual problems, especially in infants with a PVHI located in the temporal lobe.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare neurodevelopmental outcome, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and regional cerebral oxygenation (rSco2) between preterm neonates treated for hypotension and controls. Preterm neonates (N = 66) with a gestational age (GA) ≤32 weeks, without a patent ductus arteriosus, treated for hypotension (dopamine ≥5 μg/kg/min) were included. Neonates were matched to controls for GA, birth weight, sex, and year of birth. The rSco2 was determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Monitoring of MABP, rSco2, and arterial saturation was started at admission and continued for at least 72 hours. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 18 and 24 months' corrected age by using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales or the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. Infants treated for hypotension spent more time with an MABP less than GA (median 9% vs 0%, P < .001) and time with an MABP/rSco2 correlation >0.5 (27% vs 17%, P < .001). Time spent with an rSco2 <50% and neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 and 24 months' corrected age were not significantly different between infants treated for hypotension and controls. The 26 neonates with an rSco2 <50% for >10% of time had a lower neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months (median 99 vs 104, P = .02). An MABP less than GA (in weeks) was not associated with lower rSco2 or with lower neurodevelopmental outcome scores. However, regardless of MABP, low rSco2 was associated with lower neurodevelopmental outcome scores. Perfusion/oxygenation variables could be of additional value in neonatal intensive care.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex neonatal cardiac surgery is associated with cerebral injury. Especially aortic arch repair, requiring either deep hypothermic circulatory arrest(DHCA) or antegrade cerebral perfusion(ACP), entail a high risk of peri-operative injury. It is unknown, whether ACP results in less cerebral injury than DHCA. Thirty-seven neonates with an aortic arch obstruction presenting for uni- or biventricular repair, were randomized to either DHCA or ACP. Pre-operatively and one week after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) was performed in 36 patients(one patient died during hospital stay). The presence of new postoperative cerebral injury was scored, and results were entered into a sequential analysis, which allows for immediate data analysis. After the 36th patient, it was clear that there was no difference between DHCA and ACP in terms of new cerebral injury. Pre-operatively, 50% of patients had evidence of cerebral injury. Postoperatively, 14/18(78%) of DHCA patients had new injury, versus 13/18(72%) of ACP(p=0.66). White matter injury(WMI) was the most common type of injury in both groups, but central infarctions occurred exclusively after ACP(0 vs. 6/18[33%];p=0.02). Early motor and cognitive outcome at 24 months was assessed and was similar between groups(p=0.28 and p=0.25,respectively). Additional analysis revealed lower postoperative arterial pCO2 as risk factor for new WMI(p=0.04). In this group of neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery, we were unable to demonstrate a difference in the incidence of peri-operative cerebral injury after ACP compared to DHCA. Both techniques resulted in a high incidence of new WMI, with central infarctions occurring exclusively following ACP.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Detection of white matter (WM) abnormalities on MRI is important regarding the neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. The long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has not been studied extensively. Objectives: We aimed to assess WM microstructure in preterm infants with postnatal CMV infection using diffusion tensor imaging. Methods: Infants <32 weeks' gestational age (GA) admitted to our hospital between 2007 and 2010, who had cerebral diffusion tensor imaging at term-equivalent age (40 weeks' GA) were included. CMV PCR in urine collected at term-equivalent age was performed to diagnose postnatal CMV infection. Congenital infection was excluded. In the frontal, parietal and occipital WM mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial and axial diffusivity were calculated. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 16 months' corrected age using Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales. Results: Twenty-one postnatally infected and 61 noninfected infants were eligible. Both groups were comparable regarding GA, birth weight and age at MRI. There was a significant difference in median FA of the occipital WM between infected and noninfected infants (0.13 [IQR 0.11-0.16] versus 0.16 [IQR 0.14-0.18], p = 0.002). There were no differences in short-term neurodevelopmental outcome between infected and noninfected infants. Conclusions: A significantly reduced FA suggests microstructural changes in the occipital WM of postnatally infected infants. These microstructural changes do not appear to result in impaired neurodevelopmental outcome at 16 months' corrected age.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: One objective of a neonatal follow-up program is to examine and predict gross motor outcome of infants born preterm. AIMS: To assess the concurrent validity of the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), the ability to predict gross motor outcome around 15months corrected age (CA), and to explore factors associated with the age of independent walking. METHODS: 95 infants, born at a gestational age <30weeks, were assessed around 3, 6 and 15months CA. At 3months CA, correlations of raw-scores, Z-scores, and diagnostic agreement between TIMP and AIMS were determined. AIMS-score at 15months CA and parental-reported walking age were outcome measures for regression analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between TIMP and AIMS raw-scores was 0.82, and between Z-scores 0.71. A cut-off Z-score of -1.0 on the TIMP had 92% diagnostic agreement (κ=0.67) with an AIMS-score<P10. Neither TIMP- nor AIMS-scores at 3months CA were associated with the gross motor outcome at 15months CA. The AIMS-scores at 6months CA predicted the AIMS-scores at 15months CA with an explained variance of 19%. Median walking age was 15.7months CA, with which only the hazard ratio of the AIMS at 6months CA and ethnicity were significantly associated. CONCLUSIONS: Prediction of gross motor development at 15months CA and independent walking was not possible prior to 6months CA using the AIMS, with restricted predictive value. Cultural and infant factors seem to influence the onset of independent walking.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe the clinical courses of positional preference and deformational plagiocephaly up to 6 months corrected age (CA) in infants born at gestational age <30 weeks or birth weight <1000 g, and to explore predictive factors for the persistence of these phenomena. Study design: A total of 120 infants were examined 3 times each. The presence of deformational plagiocephaly and a score of 0-6 on an asymmetry performance scale served as outcome measures at 6 months CA. Predictive factors were determined using regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of a positional preference of the head was 65.8% (79 of 120) at term-equivalent age (TEA) and 36.7% (44 of 120) at 3 months CA and that of deformational plagiocephaly was 30% (36 of 120) at TEA and 50% (60 of 120) at 3 months CA. At 6 months CA, 15.8% of the infants (19 of 120) scored ≥ 2 of a possible 6 on the asymmetry performance scale and 23.3% (28 of 120) had deformational plagiocephaly. Sleeping in the supine position was predictive of an asymmetric motor performance at 6 months CA. Chronic lung disease and/or slow gross motor maturation at 3 months CA predicted the persistence of deformational plagiocephaly. Conclusion: Infants born very preterm may develop deformational plagiocephaly. A positional preference of the head at TEA seems to be a normal aspect of these infants' motor repertoire, with limited ability to predict persistence of an asymmetric motor performance. The decreased prevalence of deformational plagiocephaly between 3 and 6 months CA indicates an optimistic course. Infants with a history of chronic lung disease and/or slow gross motor maturation merit timely intervention.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patterns of injury in term-born infants with neonatal encephalopathy following hypoxia–ischaemia are seen earlier and are more conspicuous on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) than on conventional imaging. Although the prognostic value of DW-MRI in infants with basal ganglia and thalamic damage has been established, data in infants in whom there is extensive injury in a watershed distribution are limited. The aim of this study was to assess cognitive and functional motor outcome in a cohort of infants with changes in a predominantly watershed distribution injury on neonatal cerebral MRI, including DWI. DW-MRI findings in infants with neonatal encephalopathy following hypoxia–ischaemia were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty-two infants in whom DWI changes exhibited a predominantly watershed distribution were enrolled in the study (10 males, 12 females; mean birthweight 3337g, 2830–3900g; mean gestational age 40.5wks, 37.9–42.1wks). Follow-up MRI data at the age of 3 months (n=15) and over the age of 18 months (n=7) were analysed. In survivors, neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at the age of at least 18 months. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography was used to score background patterns and the occurrence of epileptiform activity. DW-MRI revealed abnormalities that were bilateral in all infants and symmetrical in 10. The posterior regions were more severely affected in five infants and the anterior regions in three. Watershed injury occurred in isolation in 10 out of 22 infants and was associated with involvement of the basal ganglia and thalami in the other 12, of whom seven died. Cystic evolution, seen on MRI at age 3 months, occurred in three of the 15 surviving infants. Neurodevelopmental assessment of the surviving infants was performed at a median age of 35 months (range 18–48mo). Of the five survivors with basal ganglia and thalamic involvement, two developed cerebral palsy, one had a developmental quotient of less than 85, and two had a normal outcome. Of the 10 infants with isolated watershed injury, nine had an early normal motor and cognitive outcome. In all infants with a favourable outcome, background recovery was seen on amplitude integrated EEG within 48 hours after birth. Extensive DWI changes in a watershed distribution in term-born neonates are not invariably associated with adverse sequelae, even in the presence of cystic evolution. Associated lesions of the basal ganglia and thalami are a better predictor of adverse sequelae than the extent and severity of the watershed abnormalities seen on DW-MRI.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The screening assessment tool of the Dubowitz neonatal neurologic assessment was adapted for preterm infants. The findings identified as "warning signs" in preterm infants were identical to those found in full-term infants, suggesting that this screening tool can also be used in preterm infants at term age.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common pathogens causing late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal sepsis can be associated with cerebral white matter damage in preterm infants. Neurodevelopment has been shown to be correlated with apparent diffusion coefficients, fractional anisotropy, and axial and radial diffusivities of the white matter. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: Twenty-eight-bed neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS:: Seventy preterm infants (gestational age <32 wks), 28 with coagulase-negative staphylococcal sepsis (group 1) and 42 without sepsis (group 2). INTERVENTION:: The values of apparent diffusion coefficients, fractional anisotropy, and axial and radial diffusivity of three white matter regions (parietal, frontal, and occipital), estimated with diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system, were obtained at term-equivalent age. Neurodevelopmental outcome assessments were performed at 15 months (Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales) and 24 months (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition) corrected age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Values of apparent diffusion coefficients, fractional anisotropy, and axial and radial diffusivity of the left and right white matter regions were equal in all patients. There was no significant difference in apparent diffusion coefficient values (mean of total: 1.593 ± 0.090 × 10mm/sec and 1.601 ± 0.117 × 10mm/sec, respectively, p = .684), fractional anisotropy values (mean of total: 0.19 ± 0.04 and 0.19 ± 0.03, respectively, p = .350), radial diffusivity (mean of total: 1.420 ± 0.09 × 10mm/sec and 1.425 ± 0.12 × 10mm/sec, respectively, p = .719), and axial diffusivity (mean of total: 1.940 ± 0.12 × 10mm/sec and 1.954 ± 0.13 × 10mm/sec, respectively, p = .590) in the three combined regions between the two groups. No significant differences were found in neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS:: No association was found between coagulase-negative staphylococcal sepsis in preterm infants and cerebral white matter damage as determined by values of apparent diffusion coefficients, fractional anisotropy, and radial and axial diffusivity at term-equivalent age, and no adverse effect was seen on early neurodevelopmental outcome.
Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
- • Department of Neonatology
- • Division of General and Special Education
University Medical Center Utrecht
Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
- Department of Neonatology