S.K. Alex Law

Nanyang Technological University, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (109)359.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency 1 (LAD-1) is caused by defects in the β2 integrin subunit. We studied 18 missense mutations, 14 of which fail to support the surface expression of the β2 integrins. Integrins with the β2-G150D mutation fail to bind ligands, possibly due to the failure of the α1 segment of the βI domain to assume an α-helical structure. Integrins with the β2-G716A mutation are not maintained in their resting states, and the patient has the severe phenotype of LAD-1. The β2-S453N and β2-P648L mutants support the expression of integrins and adhesion functions. They should be re-classified as polymorphic variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases
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    Siyu Guan · Ming Cheng · S. K. Alex Law
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown that Mg/EGTA (5 mM Mg2+ and 1.5 mM EGTA) could effectively promote the adhesion of integrin αLβ2 to its ligand ICAM-1 but could not promote that of the αMβ2 to denatured BSA. In order to determine the structural differences between αL and αM that specifically contribute to Mg/EGTA sensitivity, a series of αL/αM chimeras were constructed. Our results showed that αLβ2 with αM calf-1 domain completely lost the response to Mg/EGTA activation. In the reverse experiment, αMβ2 would require the presence of both the αL calf-1 and calf-2 domain to initiate the Mg/EGTA sensitivity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • Yan Ren · Piliang Hao · S K Alex Law · Siu Kwan Sze
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a critical microenvironmental factor that drives cancer progression through angiogenesis and metastasis. Glycoproteins, especially those on the plasma membrane, orchestrate this process; however, hypoxia-perturbed protein glycosylation in cancer cells remains unclear. We focused on the effects of hypoxia on the integrin family of glycoproteins, which are central to the cellular processes of attachment and migration and have been linked with cancer in humans. The ERLIC coupled with iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS was employed to identify and quantify glycoproteins expressed in A431, which revealed that independent of its protein level change, N-glycosylation modifications of integrin alpha 3 (ITGA3) were inhibited by hypoxia, which was different from other integrin subunits. A combination of Western blot, flow cytometry and cell staining assays showed that hypoxia-induced alterations to ITGA3 glycosylation prevented its efficient translocation to the plasma membrane. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that simultaneous mutation of glycosites 6 and 7 of ITGA3 prevented its accumulation at K562 cell surface, which blocked integrin alpha 3 and beta 1 heterodimer formation and thus abolished its interaction with extracellular ligands. By generating A431 cells stably expressing ITGA3 mutated at glycosites 6 and 7, we showed that lower levels of ITGA3 on the cell surface, as induced by hypoxia, conferred an increased invasive ability to cancer cells in vitro under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, these results revealed that ITGA3 translocation to the plasma membrane suppressed by hypoxia through inhibition of its glycosylation facilitated cell invasion in A431.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an immunodeficiency caused by defects in the adhesion of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) to the blood vessel wall. As a result, patients with LAD suffer from severe bacterial infections and impaired wound healing, accompanied by neutrophilia. In LAD-I, mutations are found in ITGB2, the gene that encodes the β subunit of the β(2) integrins. This syndrome is characterized directly after birth by delayed separation of the umbilical cord. In the rare LAD-II disease, the fucosylation of selectin ligands is disturbed, caused by mutations in SLC35C1, the gene that encodes a GDP-fucose transporter of the Golgi system. LAD-II patients lack the H and Lewis Le(a) and Le(b) blood group antigens. Finally, in LAD-III (also called LAD-I/variant) the conformational activation of the hematopoietically expressed β integrins is disturbed, leading to leukocyte and platelet dysfunction. This last syndrome is caused by mutations in FERMT3, encoding the kindlin-3 protein in all blood cells that is involved in the regulation of β integrin conformation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of endothelial cell-biomaterial interaction is crucial for the development of blood-contacting biomedical devices and implants. However, a crucial parameter that has largely been overlooked is the cell-seeding density. This study investigated how varying cell-seeding density influences human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation on three different substrata: gelatin, tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA). The fastest proliferation was seen on gelatin, followed by TCPS and PLLA, regardless of seeding density. On both TCPS and gelatin, maximal proliferation was attained at an initial seeding density of 1000 cells/cm(2). At seeding densities above and below 1000 cells/cm(2), the proliferation rate decreased sharply. On PLLA, there was a decrease in cell numbers over 7 days of culture, below a certain threshold seeding density (c. 2500-3000 cells/cm(2)), which meant that some of the cells were dying off rather than proliferating. Above this threshold seeding density, HUVEC displayed slow proliferation. Subsequently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis of eight gene markers associated with adhesion and endothelial functionality (VEGF-A, integrin-α5, VWF, ICAM1, ICAM2, VE-cadherin, endoglin and PECAM1) was carried out on HUVEC seeded at varying densities on the three substrata. A significant downregulation of gene expression was observed at an ultralow cell-seeding density of 100 cells/cm(2). This was accompanied by an extremely slow proliferation rate, probably because of an acute lack of intercellular contacts and paracrine signaling. Hence, this study demonstrates that seeding density has a profound effect on the proliferation and gene expression profile of endothelial cells seeded on different biomaterial surfaces.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Cytotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity and modulation of glutamatergic excitatory transmission. Effect of NMDAR activation on inhibitory GABAergic transmission remains largely unknown. Here, we report that a brief application of NMDA could induce two distinct actions in CA1 pyramidal neurons in mouse hippocampal slices: 1) an inward current attributed to activation of postsynaptic NMDARs; and 2) fast phasic synaptic currents, namely spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), mediated by GABA(A) receptors in pyramidal neurons. The mean amplitude of sIPSCs was also increased by NMDA. This profound increase in the sIPSC frequency and amplitude was markedly suppressed by the sodium channel blocker TTX, whereas the frequency and mean amplitude of miniature IPSCs were not significantly affected by NMDA, suggesting that NMDA elicits repetitive firing in GABAergic interneurons, thereby leading to GABA release from multiple synaptic sites of single GABAergic axons. We found that the NMDAR open-channel blocker MK-801 injected into recorded pyramidal neurons suppressed the NMDA-induced increase of sIPSCs, which raises the possibility that the firing of interneurons may not be the sole factor and certain retrograde messengers may also be involved in the NMDA-mediated enhancement of GABAergic transmission. Our results from pharmacological tests suggest that the nitric oxide signaling pathway is mobilized by NMDAR activation in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which in turn retrogradely facilitates GABA release from the presynaptic terminals. Thus NMDARs at glutamatergic synapses on both CA1 pyramidal neurons and interneurons appear to exert feedback and feedforward inhibition for determining the spike timing of the hippocampal microcircuit.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Neurophysiology
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell coverage of blood-contacting devices is crucial to their eventual success in the clinic. Two established human cell lines derived from HUVEC (human umbilical vascular endothelial cells), CRL 2922 and CRL 2873, have been widely utilized to study and model endothelial cell biology. However, it is not clear if these two cell lines would be useful for modeling primary endothelial cell interaction with newly-formulated biomaterials in tissue engineering applications. Hence, this study was conducted to compare the adhesion and proliferation characteristics of HUVEC grown on seven different substrata, tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), gelatin, chitosan, poly-L-lysine, hyaluronan, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The short-term adhesive behavior (2 h) of HUVEC on the various substrata was not closely-replicated by either CRL 2873 or CRL 2922. This was likely because the 2 h timeframe is too short for identification of differences in the interaction among the three cell types grown on various substrata. There was much faster proliferation of CRL 2922 on all seven substrata when compared to HUVEC and CRL 2873. Moreover, the proliferation rates of CRL 2922 on the various substrata showed little variation. In contrast, HUVEC and CRL 2873 displayed similar trends in proliferation rates, with gelatin and TCPS yielding the highest rates, and PLLA and PLGA yielding the lowest rates. Hence, CRL 2873 is better suited for modeling primary endothelial cell interaction with newly-formulated biomaterials than CRL 2922. The advantage of using CRL 2873 over HUVEC for biomaterial screening is that it is immortalized and displays much less inter-batch variability than primary culture. Keywordsadhesion–CRL 2873–CRL 2922–endothelial–HUVEC–proliferation
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: A patient was diagnosed with leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1. She was born in 1996 and her parents are not known to be related. Her leukocytes expressed less than 2% of the CD18 antigens relative to normal individuals. Molecular analysis revealed that she is a compound heterozygote. She inherited a 27,703bp deletion from her father (g.43201_PTTG1IP:10890del27703), spanning from intron 11 of the gene for the β2 integrin (ITGB2, CD18, NG_007270.2) to intron 2 of the gene for the Pituitary Tumor-Transforming Gene 1 Interacting Protein (PTTG1IP, NC_000021.8). The maternal allele has a g.23457C>A mutation at position -10 in intron 2 of the ITGB2 gene, resulting in the activation of a cryptic 3' splice site in intron 2 to include 43 intronic nucleotides (r.[59-43_59-1ins;59-10C>A]).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    M. Neira · J. Rincon · H. Arias · S. K. A. Law · M. Patarroyo
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    ABSTRACT: : Adhesion to cells and matrices participates in the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation, maturation and tissue localization. Consequently, abnormal patterns of adhesion molecule expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of lymphoprohferative disorders. Integrins are major cell-surface adhesive proteins composed by a and β subunits. In contrast to normal lymphocytes, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells lack the β2 integrin CD11a/CD18. To study the molecular mechanism underlying this deficiency, presence of the transcript for each subunit was analysed by Northern blotting in group I BL lines (BL biopsy-like) and, for comparison, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). While transcripts for both CD11a (α subunit) and CD18 (β subunit) were readily detected in LCLs, BL lines contained the transcript for the α subunit only. Treatment of BL cells with phorbol ester for 72 h induced expression of the β subunit mRNA and the CD11a and CD18 antigens on the cell surface. The results indicate that the CD11a/CD18 deficiency of BL is due to absence of the β subunit transcript and that this defect is restored by stimulation of the cells.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are alpha/beta heterodimers, but recent in vitro and in vivo experiments also suggest an ability to associate through their transmembrane domains to form homomeric interactions. While the results of some in vitro experiments are consistent with an interaction mediated by a GxxxG-like motif, homo-oligomers observed after in vivo cross-linking are consistent with an almost opposite helix-helix interface. We have shown recently that both models of interaction are compatible with evolutionary conservation data, and we predicted that the alpha-helices in both models would have a similar rotational orientation. Herein, we have tested our prediction using in vitro asparagine scan of five consecutive residues along the GxxxG-like motif of the transmembrane domain of alpha and beta integrins, alphaM and beta2. We show that Asn-mediated dimerization occurs twice for every turn of the helix, consistent with two almost opposite forms of interaction as suggested previously for alphaIIb and beta3 transmembrane domains. The orientational parameters helix tilt and rotational orientation of each of these two Asn-stabilized dimers were measured by site-specific infrared dichroism (SSID) in model lipid bilayers and were found to be consistent with our predicted computational models. Our results highlight an intrinsic tendency for integrin transmembrane alpha-helices to form two opposite types of homomeric interaction in addition to their heteromeric interactions and suggest that integrins may form complex and specific networks at the transmembrane domain during function.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: The current paradigm is that integrin is activated via inside-out signalling when its cytoplasmic tails and TMs (transmembrane helices) are separated by specific cytosolic protein(s). Perturbations of the helical interface between the alpha- and beta-TMs of an integrin, as a result of mutations, affect its function. Previous studies have shown the requirement for specific pairing between integrin subunits by ectodomain-exchange analyses. It remains unknown whether permissive alpha/beta-TM pairing of an integrin is also required for pairing specificity and the expression of a functionally regulated receptor. We performed scanning replacement of integrin beta2-TM with a TM of other integrin beta-subunits. With the exception of beta4 substitution, others presented beta2-integrins with modified phenotypes, either in their expression or ligand-binding properties. Subsequently, we adopted alphaLbeta2 for follow-on experiments because its conformation and affinity-state transitions have been well defined as compared with other members of the beta2-integrins. Replacement of beta2- with beta3-TM generated a chimaeric alphaLbeta2 of an intermediate affinity that adhered to ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) but not to ICAM-3 constitutively. Replacing alphaL-TM with alphaIIb-TM, forming a natural alphaIIb/beta3-TM pair, reversed the phenotype of the chimaera to that of wild-type alphaLbeta2. Interestingly, the replacement of alphaLbeta2- with beta3-TM showed neither an extended conformation nor the separation of its cytoplasmic tails, which are well-reported hallmarks of an activated alphaLbeta2, as determined by reporter mAb (monoclonal antibody) KIM127 reactivity and FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) measurements respectively. Collectively, our results suggest that TM pairing specificity is required for the expression of a functionally regulated integrin.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type-1 (LAD-1) is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the beta2 integrin, CD18, that impair CD11/CD18 heterodimer surface expression and/or function. Absence of functional CD11/CD18 integrins on leukocytes, particularly neutrophils, leads to their incapacity to adhere to the endothelium and migrate to sites of infection. We studied 3 LAD-1 patients with markedly diminished neutrophil CD18 expression, each of whom had a small population of lymphocytes with normal CD18 expression (CD18(+)). These CD18(+) lymphocytes were predominantly cytotoxic T cells, with a memory/effector phenotype. Microsatellite analyses proved patient origin of these cells. Sequencing of T-cell subsets showed that in each patient one CD18 allele had undergone further mutation. Interestingly, all 3 patients were young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Somatic reversions of inherited mutations in primary T-cell immunodeficiencies are typically associated with milder clinical phenotypes. We hypothesize that these somatic revertant CD18(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) may have altered immune regulation. The discovery of 3 cases of reversion mutations in LAD-1 at one center suggests that this may be a relatively common event in this rare disease.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Blood
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    S. K. Alex Law · Alister W. Dodds
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    ABSTRACT: The covalent binding of complement components C3 and C4 is critical for their activities. This reaction is made possible by the presence of an internal thioester in the native protein. Upon activation, which involves a conformational change initiated by the cleavage of a single peptide bond, the thioester becomes available to react with molecules with nucleophilic groups. This description is probably sufficient to account for the binding of the C4A isotype of human C4 to amino nucleophiles. The binding of the C4B isotype, and most likely C3, to hydroxyl nucleophiles, however, involves a histidine residue, which attacks the thioester to form an intramolecular acyl-imidazole bond. The released thiolate anion then acts as a base to catalyze the binding of hydroxyl nucleophiles, including water, to the acyl function. This mechanism allows the complement proteins to bind to the hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates found on all biological surfaces, including the components of bacterial cell walls. In addition, the fast hydrolysis of the thioester provides a means to contain this very damaging reaction to the immediate proximity of the site of activation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins mediate cell adhesion in response to activation signals that trigger conformational changes within their ectodomain. It is thought that a compact bent conformation of the molecule represents its physiological low affinity state and extended conformations its active state. We have determined the structure of two integrin fragments of the beta2 subunit. The first structure, consisting of the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain, hybrid, integrin-epidermal growth factor 1 (I-EGF1), and I-EGF2 domains (PHE2), showed an L-shaped conformation with the bend located between the I-EGF1 and I-EGF2 domains. The second structure, which includes, in addition, the I-EGF3 domain, showed an extended conformation. The major reorientation of I-EGF2 with respect to the other domains in the two structures is accompanied by a change of torsion angle of the disulfide bond between Cys(461)-Cys(492) by 180 degrees and the conversion of a short alpha-helix (residues Ser(468)-Cys(475)) into a flexible coil. Based on the PHE2 structure, we introduced a disulfide bond between the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain and I-EGF2 domains in the beta2 subunit. The resultant alphaLbeta2 integrin (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1) variant was locked in a bent state and could not be detected with the monoclonal antibody KIM127 in Mg(2+)/EGTA. However, it retained the binding activity to ICAM-1. These results provide a structural hypothesis for our understanding of the transition between the resting and active states of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The integrin αLβ2 mediates leukocyte adhesion and migration that are required for a functional immune system. It is known that inside-out signaling triggers αLβ2 conformational changes, which affect its ligand-binding affinity. At least three αLβ2 affinity states (low, intermediate, and high) were described. The cytosolic protein talin connects αLβ2 to the actin filament. The talin head domain is also known to activate αLβ2 ligand binding. However, it remains to be determined whether talin promotes an intermediate or high affinity αLβ2. In this study using transfectants and T cells, we showed that talin induced an intermediate affinity αLβ2 that adhered constitutively to its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 but not ICAM-3. Adhesion to ICAM-3 was induced when an additional exogenous activating agent was included. Similar profiles were observed with soluble ICAMs. In addition, the intermediate affinity αLβ2 induced by talin allowed adhesion and migration of T cells on immobilized ICAMs.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The leukocyte β2 integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors required for a functional immune system. Many leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD-1) mutations disrupt the expression and function of β2 integrins. Herein, we further characterized the LAD-1 mutation N329S in the β2 inserted (I)-like domain. This mutation converted αLβ2 from a resting into a high affinity conformer because αLβ2N329S transfectants adhered avidly to ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 in the absence of additional activating agent. An extended open conformation is adopted by αLβ2N329S because of its reactivity with the β2 activation reporter monoclonal antibodies MEM148 and KIM127. A corresponding mutation inβ3 generated constitutively activeαIIbβ3 that adhered to fibrinogen. This Asn is conserved in all human β subunits, and it resides before the last helix of the I-like domain, which is known to be important in activation signal propagation. By mutagenesis studies and review of existing integrin structures, we conjectured that this conserved Asn may have a primary role in shaping the I-like domain by stabilizing the conformation of theα7 helix and the β6-α7 loop in the I-like domain.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The leukocyte β2 integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors required for a functional immune system. Many leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD-1) mutations disrupt the expression and function of β2 integrins. Herein, we further characterized the LAD-1 mutation N329S in the β2 inserted (I)-like domain. This mutation converted αLβ2 from a resting into a high affinity conformer because αLβ2N329S transfectants adhered avidly to ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 in the absence of additional activating agent. An extended open conformation is adopted by αLβ2N329S because of its reactivity with the β2 activation reporter monoclonal antibodies MEM148 and KIM127. A corresponding mutation inβ3 generated constitutively activeαIIbβ3 that adhered to fibrinogen. This Asn is conserved in all human β subunits, and it resides before the last helix of the I-like domain, which is known to be important in activation signal propagation. By mutagenesis studies and review of existing integrin structures, we conjectured that this conserved Asn may have a primary role in shaping the I-like domain by stabilizing the conformation of theα7 helix and the β6-α7 loop in the I-like domain.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Xin Lin · Suet Mien Tan · S K Alex Law · Jaume Torres
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    ABSTRACT: Part of the interaction between the alpha- and beta-subunits of integrins is known to take place at the transmembrane (TM) domain, where both heteromeric and homomeric aggregates have been reported in vivo and in vitro. In a recent computational study, totally independent from biochemical or biophysical data, we explored the plausibility of various TM homo-oligomers using evolutionary conservation data as a filter for non-native interactions. We showed that several homodimeric and homotrimeric interactions for alpha- and beta-chains are evolutionarily conserved. We report herein the results of the application of the same exhaustive approach to the integrin heterodimer. We have studied all known human TM integrin alphabeta pairs, and we show unambiguously that two models of interaction are evolutionarily conserved. These two models are consistent with those proposed previously based on mutagenesis and crosslinking. Comparison with previous experimental data strongly supports that a glycophorin A-like model is an intermediate form of interaction between the resting state and the active form, where chain separation occurs. Surprisingly, these two models are also conserved when considering most of the possible alphabeta pair combinations, suggesting that specific pairing of integrins is not determined by the TM domain, which has remained unchanged in spite of the variety of known integrin functions. This fact highlights a common ancestral mechanism for signal transduction that has remained through evolution. In a broader context, our results show that it is possible to obtain correct and detailed interactions of alpha-helical heterodimers with total independence of experimental data.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics
  • Man-Li Tang · Le-Sheng Kong · S K Alex Law · Suet-Mien Tan
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    ABSTRACT: The cell adhesion molecule integrin alphaMbeta2 associates with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) on monocytes and neutrophils. uPAR also associates with members of the beta1 and beta3 integrins, and it modulates the ligand-binding function of these integrins. In this study, we showed that co-expressing uPAR with alphaMbeta2 in 293 transfectants down-regulated the ligand-binding capacity of alphaMbeta2 to denatured protein, fibrinogen, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Migration of transfectants on fibrinogen mediated by alphaMbeta2 was reduced in the presence of uPAR. In addition, the constitutive ligand-binding property of an alphaMbeta2 mutant was attenuated by its association with uPAR. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses using a panel of alphaMbeta2-specific mAbs suggest shielding of the ligand-recognition site of alphaMbeta2 by uPAR.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    Ren-Hong Tang · S K Alex Law · Suet-Mien Tan
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    ABSTRACT: Integrins are type I heterodimeric (alpha/beta) cell adhesion molecules. They trigger cell-signaling by recruiting cytosolic molecules to their cytoplasmic tails. Integrin alpha cytoplasmic tail contributes towards integrin function specificity, an important feature of integrins having different alpha subunits but sharing the same beta subunit. Herein, we show that the src family kinase Hck co-capped selectively with leukocyte integrin alpha(M)beta(2) but not alpha(L)beta(2) or alpha(X)beta(2). This was disrupted when the alpha(M) cytoplasmic tail was substituted with that of alpha(L) or alpha(X). Co-capping was recovered by alpha(L) or alpha(X) cytoplasmic tail truncation or forced separation of the alpha and beta cytoplasmic tails via salt-bridge disruption.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · FEBS Letters

Publication Stats

2k Citations
359.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • Nanyang Technological University
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 1985-2008
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada