[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence supports a role for the substance P (SP) in the control of anxiety and epilepsy disorders. Aversive stimuli alter SP levels and SP immunoreactivity in limbic regions, suggesting that changes in SP-NK1 receptor signaling may modulate the neuronal excitability involved in seizures and anxiogenesis. The involvement of NK1 receptors of the dorsal hippocampus and lateral septum in the anxiogenic-like effects induced by a single injection of pilocarpine (PILO) was examined in non-convulsive rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Male Wistar rats were systemically injected with methyl-scopolamine (1mg/kg) followed 30min later by saline or PILO (350mg/kg) and only rats that did not present status epilepticus were used. One month later, vehicle or FK888 (100pmol)-an NK1 receptor antagonist-were infused in the dorsal hippocampus or the lateral septum of the rats and then behaviorally evaluated in the EPM. Previous treatment with PILO decreased the time spent in and the frequency of entries in the open arms of the EPM, besides altering risk-assessment behaviors such as the number of unprotected head-dipping, protected stretch-attend postures and the frequency of open-arms end activity, showing thus a long-lasting anxiogenic-like profile. FK888 did not show any effect per se but inhibited the anxiogenic responses induced by PILO when injected into the dorsal hippocampus, but not into the lateral septum. Our data suggest that SP-NK1 receptor signalling of the dorsal hippocampus is involved in the anxiogenic-like profile induced by PILO in rats evaluated in the EPM test.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cholinergic system is implicated in emotional regulation. The injection of non-convulsant doses of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine (PILO) induces long-lasting anxiogenic responses in rats evaluated at different time-points (24h-3 months). To investigate the underlying mechanisms, rats treated with PILO (150mg/kg) were injected 24h or 1 month later with an anxiolytic (diazepam, 1mg/kg, DZP) or anxiogenic (pentylenetetrazole, 15mg/kg, PTZ) drug and evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal (HIP) electroencephalographic recordings and acetylcolinesterase (AChE) activity were also analyzed after PILO treatment. Anxiogenic responses observed in the EPM 24h or 1 month after PILO treatment (e.g., decreased time spent and number of entries into the open arms of the maze) were blocked by DZP but not affected by PTZ. No epileptiform events were registered in the HIP or PFC at 24h or 1 month after PILO injection, but enhanced theta activity was observed in the HIP. DZP decreased hippocampal theta of PILO-treated rats in contrast with PTZ, which increased this parameter in saline- and PILO-treated rats. The HIP and PFC AChE activity did not change after PILO treatment. Our findings demonstrate that the long-term effects on the emotionality of rats induced by PILO are associated with electrophysiological changes in the HIP and sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of the GABAergic system. The present work may support this new research model of long-lasting anxiety, while also highlighting the muscarinic system as a potential target involved in anxiety disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: There is extensive evidence indicating the influence of seizures on emotional responses observed in human and animals, but so far few studies are focusing on the behavioral profile of animals that do not have seizures despite being treated with convulsant agents. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish the behavioral profile, biochemical, and electrographic features of rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy METHODS: Rats treated with pilocarpine (20 to 350 mg/kg, i.p.) that did not develop status epilepticus or spontaneous recurrent seizures were evaluated 1 month later in the elevated plus maze (EPM), T-maze (ETM), open-field (OF), and step-down avoidance tests. Electroencephalographic (EEG), glutamate uptake, and hippocampal neuronal death assays were also performed RESULTS: Pilocarpine (150 or 350 mg/kg) promoted anxiogenic-like effects in rats evaluated in the EPM, ETM, and OF tests, whereas only the highest dose evoked spike-wave discharges during EEG recordings. Hippocampal theta rhythm was increased by pilocarpine 150 or 350 mg/kg and only the highest dose reduced the L-[(3)H]-glutamate uptake and cell viability on hippocampal slices. CONCLUSIONS: Subconvulsant doses of pilocarpine promote long-lasting alterations on neural circuitry, reflected by an increased theta activity in the hippocampus and an anxiety-like profile of rats evaluated 1 month after the treatment which is independent of seizure occurrence and is not related to changes in glutamate uptake or hippocampal damage. These results prompt us to suggest that a systemic administration of subconvulsant doses of pilocarpine could be useful as a new tool to model trait anxiety in rats.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aloysia gratissima (Gill. et Hook) Tronc. (Verbenaceae) is native to South America with folk therapeutic applications for a wide range of diseases. The polyphenolic and carotenoid profile, toxicity, and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Aloysia gratissima were investigated. HPLC analyses showed high amounts of ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, and also trans-β- carotene and lutein which fluctuated throughout the seasons. Furthermore, the extract investigated not only exerted antioxidant activity but also inhibited lipid peroxidation. Toxicity was achieved only at the highest dose tested. Therefore, A. gratissima is a potential species for medicinal purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Searching for new therapeutic strategies through modulation of glutamatergic transmission using effective neuroprotective agents is essential. Glutamatergic excitotoxicity is a common factor to neurodegenerative diseases and acute events such as cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses of mice cerebral cortex and hippocampus to subconvulsant and convulsant application of NMDA and quinolinic acid (QA), respectively. Moreover, it aimed to evaluate if EEG responses may be related to the neuroprotective effects of NMDA. Mice were preconditioned with NMDA (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and EEG recordings were performed for 30 min. One day later, QA was injected (36.8 nmol/site) and EEG recordings were performed during 10 min. EEG analysis demonstrated NMDA preconditioning promotes spike-wave discharges (SWDs), but it does not display behavioral manifestation of seizures. Animals that were protected by NMDA preconditioning against QA-induced behavioral seizures, presented higher number of SWD after NMDA administration, in comparison to animals preconditioned with NMDA that did display behavioral seizures after QA infusion. No differences were observed in latency for the first seizure or duration of seizures. EEG recordings after QA infusion demonstrated there were no differences in the number of SWD, latency for the first seizure or duration of seizures in animals pretreated with saline or in animals preconditioned by NMDA that received QA. A negative correlation was identified between the number of NMDA-induced SWD and QA-induced seizures severity. These results suggest a higher activation during NMDA preconditioning diminishes mice probability to display behavioral seizures after QA infusion.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Neurotoxicity Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allosteric modulation of G-protein-coupled receptors represents a key goal of current pharmacology. In particular, endogenous allosteric modulators might represent important targets of interventions aimed at maximizing therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects of drugs. Here we show that the anti-inflammatory lipid lipoxin A(4) is an endogenous allosteric enhancer of the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor. Lipoxin A(4) was detected in brain tissues, did not compete for the orthosteric binding site of the CB(1) receptor (vs. (3)H-SR141716A), and did not alter endocannabinoid metabolism (as opposed to URB597 and MAFP), but it enhanced affinity of anandamide at the CB1 receptor, thereby potentiating the effects of this endocannabinoid both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, lipoxin A(4) displayed a CB(1) receptor-dependent protective effect against β-amyloid (1-40)-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. The discovery of lipoxins as a class of endogenous allosteric modulators of CB(1) receptors may foster the therapeutic exploitation of the endocannabinoid system, in particular for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a neuronal-anchored glycoprotein that has been associated with several functions in the CNS such as synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neuroprotection. There is great interest in understanding the role of PrP(C) in the deleterious effects induced by the central accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but the existent results are still controversial. Here we compared the effects of a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of aggregated Aβ(1-40) peptide (400pmol/mouse) on the spatial learning and memory performance as well as hippocampal cell death biomarkers in adult wild type (Prnp(+/+)), PrP(C) knockout (Prnp(0/0)) and the PrP(C) overexpressing Tg-20 mice. Tg-20 mice, which present a fivefold increase in PrP(C) expression in comparison to wild type mice, were resistant to the Aβ(1-40)-induced spatial learning and memory impairments as indicated by reduced escape latencies to find the platform and higher percentage of time spent in the correct quadrant during training and probe test sessions of the water maze task. The protection against Aβ(1-40)-induced cognitive impairments observed in Tg-20 mice was accompanied by a significant decrease in the hippocampal expression of the activated caspase-3 protein and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as reduced hippocampal cell damage assessed by MTT and propidium iodide incorporation assays. These findings indicate that the overexpression of PrP(C) prevents Aβ(1-40)-induced spatial learning and memory deficits in mice and that this response is mediated, at least in part, by the modulation of programed cell death pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Housing conditions are important determinants of animal behavior. Their impact on behavioral output depends on the behavior of interest, species, strain, and age of the animal evaluated. In the present study, male Swiss mice reared from weaning up to 8 weeks in social isolation (SI8), in enriched environment (EE8) or in standard environment (SE8) were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), open-field (OFT) and tail-suspension (TST) tests. The effect of housing for 6 weeks in EE followed by 2 weeks in SI (EE6SI2) and the opposite condition (SI6EE2) was also studied. Housing conditions are reported to affect hippocampal neurogenesis; therefore, the expression of doublecortin (DCX) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) of these mice was monitored. Data showed that SI8, EE8 and EE6SI2 reduced the stretching-attend postures in the EPM and explored more the center of the apparatus when compared to SE8. The time and the number of entries in the closed arms of the EPM was not affected indicating that effects of housing conditions in the EPM were not consequence of motor activity alteration. Accordingly, EE8 mice exploration of the OFT was similar to SE8. However, the SI8 mice explored the OFT more than the EE8 mice, suggesting hyperactivity induced by isolation. Behavior of Swiss mice in the TST was not altered, indicating that this test was not sensitive to the environmental changes in this mice strain. Compared to SE8, EE8 did not affect the number of DCX cells, whereas SI8, EE6SI2, and SI6EE2 decreased it. Taken together, our data suggest that the behavior of adult Swiss mice in the EPM and OFT was affected by environmental changes but that these changes seem to be independent of hippocampal neurogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baicalein (BA), one of the main flavonoids obtained from the Chinese medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis, usually exerts several pharmacological effects. In the central nervous system (CNS), BA exerts a protective effect on neurons against several neuronal insults among other effects, but it is not clear if this effect is due to its metabolite, baicalin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the anxiolytic-like and related properties of BA following its central administration (i.c.v.) in mice. BA (0.02, 0.2pmol) exerted an anxiolytic-like effect at low doses, increasing the time spent in open arms and the head-dipping whereas reducing the stretched-attend postures in the elevated plus-maze. BA also increased the duration of ether-induced sleep without affecting the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions. In addition, pretreatment with flumazenil (FMZ), PTZ, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and dl-p-chlorophenilalanine ethyl ester (PCPA) were conducted in order to investigate its mechanism of action. PTZ and DHEAS, but not FMZ or PCPA, antagonized the BA's anxiolytic-like effect. Taken together our results showed that BA, when directly injected into the CNS, promotes anxiolytic-like and sedative effects, pharmacological activities dependent on GABAergic non-benzodiazepine sites but not on the 5-HT system.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression and anxiety disorders present several genetic and neurobiological similarities. Drugs with antidepressant activity are effective in the treatment of a wide spectrum of anxiety disorders. Preclinical results showed that acute and chronic treatment with the NOP antagonist [Nphe(1),Arg(14),Lys(15)]N/OFQ-NH(2) (UFP-101) produced antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of central administration of UFP-101 on the anxiety-related behavior in rats as evaluated in the elevated T-maze (ETM) test. Our results showed that UFP-101 reduced the latency of inhibitory avoidance in the ETM, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. The endogenous peptide N/OFQ prevented this anxiolytic-like action of UFP-101, demonstrating its modulation via central NOP receptors. However, UFP-101 failed to interfere with the latency to escape. No change was observed in locomotor activity after UFP-101 treatment, ruling out any nonspecific motor effect. In conclusion, our results showed that the central administration of UFP-101 presents an anxiolytic-like effect in rats evaluated in the ETM test, providing new insights for drug development to treat anxiety disorders targeting the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain of human and rodents has been associated with the activation of glial cells, neuroinflammatory and oxidative responses, and cognitive deficits. These oxidative changes leave glutamate transporters more vulnerable and may result in reduction of their functions, resulting in excitotoxic damage. Herein, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, in molecular and behavioral alterations induced by a single intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated Aβ(1-40) (400 pmol) in mice. An increased glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and impairment in the glutathione antioxidant system and cell degeneration was found in the hippocampus of Aβ(1-40)-treated mice. Aβ(1-40) also induced a marked decrease in glutamatergic transporters (GLAST and GLT-1) expression and in l-[³H] glutamate uptake in mice hippocampus, in addition to spatial learning and memory deficits. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day v.o.) was administered after Aβ(1-40) injection and through seven consecutive days. Atorvastatin treatment was neuroprotective against cell degeneration induced by Aβ(1-40), reducing inflammatory and oxidative responses and increasing the expression of glutamatergic transporters. On the other hand, atorvastatin did not reverse the cognitive impairments and failed to alter the hippocampal glutamate uptake in Aβ(1-40)-treated mice. These results reinforce and extend the notion of the potential neuroprotective action of atorvastatin against the neuronal toxicity induced by Aβ(1-40). In addition, the present findings suggest that the spatial learning and memory deficits induced by Aβ peptides in rodents may not be entirely related to neuronal damage.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Experimental Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behavioral consequences of convulsive episodes are well documented, but less attention was paid to changes that occur in response to subconvulsant doses of drugs.
We investigated short- and long-term effects of a single systemic injection of a subconvulsant dose of pilocarpine on the behavior of rats as evaluated in the elevated plus maze.
Pilocarpine induced an anxiogenic-like profile 24 h later, and this effect persisted for up to 3 months (% of time spent on open arms at 24 h, control = 35.47 ± 3.23; pilocarpine 150 = 8.2 ± 2.6; 3 months, control = 31.9 ± 5.5; pilocarpine 150 = 9.3 ± 4.9). Temporary inactivation of fimbria-fornix with lidocaine 4% promoted an anxiolytic-like effect per se, suggesting a tonic control of this pathway on the modulation of anxiety-related behaviors. Lidocaine also reduced the anxiogenic-like profile of animals tested 1 month after pilocarpine treatment (% of time spent on open arms, saline + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) = 31.7 + 3.7; saline + lidocaine = 54.4 + 4.7; pilocarpine + PBS = 10.3 + 4.1; pilocarpine + lidocaine = 40.1 + 9.1). To determine whether the anxiogenic-like effect was mediated by septal region or by direct hippocampal projections to the diencephalon, the neural transmission of post-commissural fornix was blocked, and a similar reduction in the anxiogenic-like effect of pilocarpine was observed.
Our findings suggest that a single systemic injection of pilocarpine may induce long-lasting anxiogenic-like behavior in rats, an effect that appears to be mediated, in part, through a direct path from hippocampus to medial hypothalamic sites involved in fear responses.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible neurobehavioural effects in rats of the proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF) isolated from the bark of Croton celtidifolius (Euphorbiaceae).
Adult Wistar rats were treated with the PRF (0.3-30 mg/kg) and evaluated in different behavioural paradigms classically used for the screening of drugs with psychoactive effects.
Acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of PRF decreased spontaneous locomotor activity (open field arena and activity cage), enhanced the duration of ethyl ether-induced hypnosis, increased the latency to the first convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and attenuated apomorphine-induced (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) stereotyped behaviour. In lower doses, PRF (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the frequency of open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze test.
The present findings suggest that the systemic administration of PRF induces a wide spectrum of behavioural alterations in rats, consistent with the putative existence of hypnosedative, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a chronic degenerative and inflammatory brain disorder characterized by neuronal dysfunction and loss, is linked to accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are proteins that have key roles in immune cell activation, inflammation and cognitive function in the brain. Here, we evaluated the link between TNF-alpha and COX-2 on the acute responses elicited by Abeta. Behavioral and molecular analyses were performed in mice after an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Abeta(1-40). Genetic and/or pharmacological approaches were used to inhibit TNF-alpha and COX-2. I.c.v. Abeta(1-40) injection in mice activates TNF-alpha signaling pathway resulting in COX-2 upregulation, synaptic loss and cognitive decline. Pharmacological studies revealed that COX-2 is involved in the cognitive impairment mediated by TNF-alpha. However, COX-2 inhibition failed in reducing the synaptophysin loss induced by Abeta(1-40). The COX-2 upregulation induced by Abeta(1-40) was attributed to activation of different protein kinases and transcriptional factors that are greatly regulated by TNF-alpha. Together, these results indicate that Abeta(1-40) induces the activation of several TNF-alpha-dependent intracellular signaling pathways that play a key role in the control of COX-2 upregulation and activation, synaptic loss and cognitive decline in mice. Therefore, selective TNF-alpha inhibitors may be potentially interesting tools for AD drug development.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the decline in cognitive functions, but it is also related to emotional disturbances. Since pain experience results from a complex integration of sensory, cognitive and affective processes, it is not surprising that AD patients display a distinct pattern of pain responsivity. We evaluated whether mice treated with amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-thought to be critical in the pathogenesis of AD-exhibit altered pain responses and its relation to altered emotionality. Mice received a single i.c.v. injection of vehicle (PBS) or Aβ fragment (1-40) (400. pmol/mice) and after 30 days, they were evaluated in tests of pain (hotplate, footshock-sensitivity), learning/memory (water-maze), emotionality (elevated plus-maze, forced swim) and locomotion (open-field). Aβ(1-40)-treated mice presented similar latencies to the control group in the hotplate test and similar nociceptive flinch threshold in the footshock-sensitivity test. However, they presented an increased jump threshold in footshock-sensitivity, suggesting increased pain tolerance. Altered emotionality was observed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swim tests (FST), suggesting anxiogenic-like and depressive-like states, respectively. A multifactorial principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that jump threshold of the footshock-sensitivity test falls within 'Emotionality' and 'Pain', showing moderate correlation with each one of the components of behavior. Acute treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (10. mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the jump threshold (i.e. pain tolerance) and time of immobility in FST (i.e. depressive-like state). Flinch threshold (i.e. pain sensitivity), locomotion and anxiety were not altered with desipramine treatment. These results suggest that Aβ(1-40) peptide increases pain tolerance, but not pain sensitivity in mice, which seems to be linked to alterations in cognitive/emotional components of pain processing.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Behavioural brain research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, and the neuro-pathological hallmarks of AD include neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in extracellular plaques. In addition, chronic inflammation due to recruitment of activated glial cells to amyloid plaques are an invariant component in AD, and several studies have reported that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provide a measure of protection against AD. In this report we have investigated whether phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma), which is important in inflammatory cell migration, plays a critical role in the neuro-inflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficits induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Abeta(1-40) in mice. We found that the selective inhibitor of PI3Kgamma, AS605240, was able to attenuate the Abeta(1-40)-induced accumulation of activated astrocytes and microglia in the hippocampus, and decrease immuno-staining for p-Akt and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Interestingly, Abeta(1-40) activated macrophages treated with AS605240 or another PI3Kgamma inhibitor, AS252424, displayed impaired chemotaxis in vitro, but their expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was unaffected. Finally, AS605240 prevented Abeta(1-40)-induced cognitive deficits and synaptic dysfunction, but failed to modify scopolamine-induced amnesia. Our data suggests that inhibition of PI3Kgamma may represent a novel therapeutic target for treating AD patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include the deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta), neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits. The accumulation of activated glial cells in cognitive-related areas is critical for these alterations, although little is known about the mechanisms driving this event. Herein we used macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha(-/-))- or CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5(-/-))-deficient mice to address the role played by chemokines in molecular and behavioral alterations induced by Abeta(1-40). Abeta(1-40) induced a time-dependent increase of MIP-1alpha mRNA followed by accumulation of activated glial cells in the hippocampus of wild-type mice. MIP-1alpha(-/-) and CCR5(-/-) mice displayed reduced astrocytosis and microgliosis in the hippocampus after Abeta(1-40) administration that was associated with decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, as well as reduced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, activator protein-1 and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha(-/-) and CCR5(-/-) macrophages showed impaired chemotaxis in vitro, although cytokine production in response to Abeta(1-40) was unaffected. Notably, the cognitive deficits and synaptic dysfunction induced by Abeta(1-40) were also attenuated in MIP-1alpha(-/-) and CCR5(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results indicate that the MIP-1alpha/CCR5 signaling pathway is critical for the accumulation of activated glial cells in the hippocampus and, therefore, for the inflammation and cognitive failure induced by Abeta(1-40). Our data suggest MIP-1alpha and CCR5 as potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease treatment.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · American Journal Of Pathology