[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies of 146 plasma protein levels in 818 individuals revealed 56 genome-wide significant associations (28 novel) with 47 analytes. Loci associated with plasma levels of 39 proteins tested have been previously associated with various complex traits such as heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Type 2 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. These data suggest that these plasma protein levels may constitute informative endophenotypes for these complex traits. We found three potential pleiotropic genes: ABO for plasma SELE and ACE levels, FUT2 for CA19-9 and CEA plasma levels, and APOE for ApoE and CRP levels. We also found multiple independent signals in loci associated with plasma levels of ApoH, CA19-9, FetuinA, IL6r, and LPa. Our study highlights the power of biological traits for genetic studies to identify genetic variants influencing clinically relevant traits, potential pleiotropic effects, and complex disease associations in the same locus.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropathologic heterogeneity is often present among Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. We sought to determine whether amyloid imaging measures of AD are affected by concurrent pathologies. Thirty-eight clinically and pathologically defined AD and 17 nondemented patients with quantitative florbetapir F-18 (F-AV-45) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging during life and postmortem histological β-amyloid quantification and neuropathologic examination were assessed. AD patients were divided on the basis of concurrent pathologies, including those with Lewy bodies (LBs) (n = 21), white matter rarefaction (n = 27), severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy (n = 11), argyrophilic grains (n = 5), and TAR DNA binding protein-43 inclusions (n = 18). Many patients exhibited more than 1 type of concurrent pathology. The ratio of cortical to cerebellar amyloid imaging signal (SUVr) and immunohistochemical β-amyloid load were analyzed in 6 cortical regions of interest. All AD subgroups had strong and significant correlations between SUVr and histological β-amyloid measures (p < 0.001). All AD subgroups had significantly greater amyloid measures versus nondemented patients, and mean amyloid measures did not significantly differ between AD subgroups. When comparing AD cases with and without each pathology, AD cases with LBs had significantly lower SUVr measures versus AD cases without LBs (p = 0.002); there were no other paired comparison differences. These findings indicate that florbetapir-PET imaging is not confounded by neuropathological heterogeneity within AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the performance characteristics of florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects (HCs).
Florbetapir PET was acquired in 184 subjects (45 AD patients, 60 MCI patients, and 79 HCs) within a multicenter phase 2 study. Amyloid burden was assessed visually and quantitatively, and was classified as positive or negative.
Florbetapir PET was rated visually amyloid positive in 76% of AD patients, 38% of MCI patients, and 14% of HCs. Eighty-four percent of AD patients, 45% of MCI patients, and 23% of HCs were classified as amyloid positive using a quantitative threshold. Amyloid positivity and mean cortical amyloid burden were associated with age and apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status.
: The data are consistent with expected rates of amyloid positivity among individuals with clinical diagnoses of AD and MCI, and indicate the potential value of florbetapir F18 PET as an adjunct to clinical diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The goal of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cognitive performance and beta amyloid (Aβ) load determined by florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography (PET) in nondemented oldest-old.
Thirteen nondemented (normal or cognitively impaired nondemented) participants (median age, 94.2 years) from The 90+ Study underwent florbetapir-PET scanning within 3 months of baseline neuropsychological testing. Amyloid load was measured with a semi-automated quantitative analysis of average cortical-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) and a visual interpretation (Aβ- or Aβ+). Neuropsychological testing was repeated every 6 months.
At baseline, SUVr correlated significantly with tests of global cognition and memory. During follow-up (median, 1.5 years), the Aβ+ group had steeper declines on most cognitive tests, particularly global cognitive measures.
This preliminary study suggests that greater amyloid load is associated with poorer cognition and faster cognitive decline in nondemented oldest-old. Amyloid load may identify individuals at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The correlation between neuropathological lesions and cognition is modest. Some individuals remain cognitively intact despite the presence of significant Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, whereas others manifest cognitive symptoms and dementia in the same context. The aim of the present study was to examine cognitive and cerebral reserve factors associated with resilient functioning in the setting of AD pathology.
University of Pennsylvania Alzheimer's Disease Center research participants with biochemical biomarker evidence of AD pathology (cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 <192 pg/mL) and comparable medial temporal lobe atrophy were categorized by Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) score as AD dementia (CDR-SOB >1) or AD resilient (CDR-SOB ≤0.5). Groups were compared for a variety of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging variables to identify factors that are associated with resilience to AD pathology.
A univariate model identified education and intracranial volume (ICV) as significant covariates. In a multivariate model with backward selection procedure, ICV was retained as a factor most significantly associated with resilience. The interaction term between ICV and education was not significant, suggesting that larger cranial vault size is associated with resilience even in the absence of more education.
Premorbid brain volume, as measured through ICV, provided protection against clinical manifestations of dementia despite evidence of significant accumulations of AD pathology. This finding provides support for the brain reserve hypothesis of resilience to AD.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of amyloid burden, as assessed by florbetapir F 18 ((18)F-AV-45) amyloid positron emission tomography, and cognition in healthy older control (HC) subjects. Seventy-eight HC subjects were assessed with a brief cognitive test battery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-AV-45. A standard uptake value ratio was computed for mean data from 6 cortical regions using a whole cerebellum reference region. Scans were also visually rated as amyloid positive or amyloid negative by 3 readers. Higher standard uptake value ratio correlated with lower immediate memory (r = -0.33; p = 0.003) and delayed recall scores (r = -0.25; p = 0.027). Performance on immediate recall was also lower in the visually rated amyloid positive compared with amyloid negative HC (p = 0.04), with a similar trend observed in delayed recall (p = 0.06). These findings support the hypothesis that higher amyloid burden is associated with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects. Longitudinal follow-up is ongoing to determine whether (18)F-AV-45 may also predict subsequent cognitive decline.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Neurobiology of aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While plasma biomarkers have been proposed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), few biomarkers have been validated in independent patient cohorts. Here we aim to determine plasma biomarkers associated with AD in 2 independent cohorts and validate the findings in the multicenter Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI).
Using a targeted proteomic approach, we measured levels of 190 plasma proteins and peptides in 600 participants from 2 independent centers (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Washington University, St. Louis, MO), and identified 17 analytes associated with the diagnosis of very mild dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. Four analytes (apoE, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, pancreatic polypeptide) were also found to be altered in clinical MCI/AD in the ADNI cohort (n = 566). Regression analysis showed CSF Aβ42 levels and t-tau/Aβ42 ratios to correlate with the number of APOE4 alleles and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide and pancreatic polypeptide.
Four plasma analytes were consistently associated with the diagnosis of very mild dementia/MCI/AD in 3 independent clinical cohorts. These plasma biomarkers may predict underlying AD through their association with CSF AD biomarkers, and the association between plasma and CSF amyloid biomarkers needs to be confirmed in a prospective study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid imaging provides in vivo detection of the fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB-C11), is the most well studied amyloid imaging agent, but the short half-life of carbon-11 limits its clinical viability. Florbetapir-F18 recently demonstrated in vivo correlation with postmortem Aβ histopathology, but has not been directly compared with PiB-C11.
Fourteen cognitively normal adults and 12 AD patients underwent PiB-C11 and florbetapir-F18 PET scans within a 28-day period.
Both ligands displayed highly significant group discrimination and correlation of regional uptake.
These data support the hypothesis that florbetapir-F18 provides comparable information with PiB-C11.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Florbetapir F 18 PET can image amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates in the brains of living subjects. We prospectively evaluated the prognostic utility of detecting Aβ pathology using florbetapir PET in subjects at risk for progressive cognitive decline.
A total of 151 subjects who previously participated in a multicenter florbetapir PET imaging study were recruited for longitudinal assessment. Subjects included 51 with recently diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 69 cognitively normal controls (CN), and 31 with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease dementia (AD). PET images were visually scored as positive (Aβ+) or negative (Aβ-) for pathologic levels of β-amyloid aggregation, blind to diagnostic classification. Cerebral to cerebellar standardized uptake value ratios (SUVr) were determined from the baseline PET images. Subjects were followed for 18 months to evaluate changes in cognition and diagnostic status. Analysis of covariance and correlation analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between baseline PET amyloid status and subsequent cognitive decline.
In both MCI and CN, baseline Aβ+ scans were associated with greater clinical worsening on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog (p < 0.01) and Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes (CDR-SB) (p < 0.02). In MCI Aβ+ scans were also associated with greater decline in memory, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (p < 0.05). In MCI, higher baseline SUVr similarly correlated with greater subsequent decline on the ADAS-Cog (p < 0.01), CDR-SB (p < 0.03), a memory measure, DSS, and MMSE (p < 0.05). Aβ+ MCI tended to convert to AD dementia at a higher rate than Aβ- subjects (p < 0.10).
Florbetapir PET may help identify individuals at increased risk for progressive cognitive decline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results of previous studies have shown associations between PET imaging of amyloid plaques and amyloid-β pathology measured at autopsy. However, these studies were small and not designed to prospectively measure sensitivity or specificity of amyloid PET imaging against a reference standard. We therefore prospectively compared the sensitivity and specificity of amyloid PET imaging with neuropathology at autopsy.
This study was an extension of our previous imaging-to-autopsy study of participants recruited at 22 centres in the USA who had a life expectancy of less than 6 months at enrolment. Participants had autopsy within 2 years of PET imaging with florbetapir ((18)F). For one of the primary analyses, the interpretation of the florbetapir scans (majority interpretation of five nuclear medicine physicians, who classified each scan as amyloid positive or amyloid negative) was compared with amyloid pathology (assessed according to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease standards, and classed as amyloid positive for moderate or frequent plaques or amyloid negative for no or sparse plaques); correlation of the image analysis results with amyloid burden was tested as a coprimary endpoint. Correlation, sensitivity, and specificity analyses were also done in the subset of participants who had autopsy within 1 year of imaging as secondary endpoints. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 01447719 (original study NCT 00857415).
We included 59 participants (aged 47-103 years; cognitive status ranging from normal to advanced dementia). The sensitivity and specificity of florbetapir PET imaging for detection of moderate to frequent plaques were 92% (36 of 39; 95% CI 78-98) and 100% (20 of 20; 80-100%), respectively, in people who had autopsy within 2 years of PET imaging, and 96% (27 of 28; 80-100%) and 100% (18 of 18; 78-100%), respectively, for those who had autopsy within 1 year. Amyloid assessed semiquantitatively with florbetapir PET was correlated with the post-mortem amyloid burden in the participants who had an autopsy within 2 years (Spearman ρ=0·76; p<0·0001) and within 12 months between imaging and autopsy (0·79; p<0·0001).
The results of this study validate the binary visual reading method approved in the USA for clinical use with florbetapir and suggest that florbetapir could be used to distinguish individuals with no or sparse amyloid plaques from those with moderate to frequent plaques. Additional research is needed to understand the prognostic implications of moderate to frequent plaque density.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · The Lancet Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Investigate apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) gene and aging effects on florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography (PET) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Florbetapir F18 PET images were analyzed from 245 participants, 18-92 years of age, from Avid Radiopharmaceutical's multicenter registered trials, including 86 younger healthy control volunteers (yHC), 61 older healthy control volunteers (oHC), 53 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 45 AD dementia patients (DAT). Mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were used to evaluate the effects of APOE4 carrier status, older age, and their interaction in each of these groups. Results: In comparison with non-carriers, the APOE4 carriers in each of the oHC, MCI, and DAT groups had higher mean cortical-to-cerebellar florbetapir SUVRs, patterns of florbetapir PET elevations characteristic of DAT, and a higher proportion meeting florbetapir PET positivity criteria. Only the oHC group had a significant association between mean cortical florbetapir SUVRs and age. In cognitively normal adults, without regards to APOE4 genotype, amyloid began to increase at age 58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.3-63.7), with a predicted typical age of florbetapir positivity occurring around age 71 years. Presence of the APOE4 gene reduced the age of predicted florbetapir positivity in normal aging to around age 56 years, approximately 20 years younger than non-carriers. Interpretation: Cerebral amyloid deposition is associated with APOE4 carrier status in older healthy control subjects and symptomatic AD patients, and increases with age in older cognitively normal individuals. Amyloid imaging positivity appears to begin near age 56 years in cognitively intact APOE4 carriers and age 76 years in APOE4 non-carriers.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Neurobiology of aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The best-studied biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the pathologically-linked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins amyloid-β 42 (Aβ(1-42)), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated on amino acid 181 (p-tau(181)). Many laboratories measure these proteins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multiplex xMAP Luminex is a semi-automated assay platform with reduced intra-sample variance, which could facilitate its use in CLIA-approved clinical laboratories. CSF concentrations of these three biomarkers reported using xMAP technology differ from those measured by the most commonly used ELISA, confounding attempts to compare results. To develop a model for converting between xMAP and ELISA levels of the three biomarkers, we analyzed CSF samples from 140 subjects (59 AD, 30 controls, 34 with mild cognitive impairment, and 17 with Parkinson's disease, including 1 with dementia). Log-transformation of ELISA and xMAP levels made the variance constant in all three biomarkers and improved the linear regression: t-tau concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.94); p-tau(181) concentrations by ELISA can be better predicted using both the t-tau and p-tau(181) xMAP values (r = 0.96) as compared to p-tau(181) concentrations alone (r = 0.82); correlation of Aβ(1-42) concentrations was relatively weaker but still high (r = 0.77). Among all six protein/assay combinations, xMAP Aβ(1-42) had the best accuracy for diagnostic classification (88%) between AD and control subjects. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that multiplex xMAP is an appropriate assay platform providing results that can be correlated with research-based ELISA values, facilitating the incorporation of this diagnostic biomarker into routine clinical practice.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible cause of dementia and gait disturbance that is typically treated by operative placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The outcome from shunting is variable, and some evidence suggests that the presence of comorbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact shunt outcome. Evidence also suggests that AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may predict the presence of AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated tau/amyloid beta 1-42 (ptau/Aβ1-42) ratio in ventricular CSF and shunt outcome in patients with iNPH.
We conducted a prospective trial with a cohort of 39 patients with suspected iNPH. Patients were clinically and psychometrically assessed prior to and approximately 4 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Lumbar and ventricular CSF obtained intraoperatively, and tissue from intraoperative cortical biopsies were analyzed for AD biomarkers. Outcome measures included performance on clinical symptom scales, supplementary gait measures, and standard psychometric tests. We investigated relationships between the ptau/Aβ1-42 ratio in ventricular CSF and cortical AD pathology, initial clinical features, shunt outcome, and lumbar CSF ptau/Aβ1-42 ratios in the patients in our cohort.
We found that high ptau/Aβ1-42 ratios in ventricular CSF correlated with the presence of cortical AD pathology. At baseline, iNPH patients with ratio values most suggestive of AD presented with better gait performance but poorer cognitive performance. Patients with high ptau/Aβ1-42 ratios also showed a less robust response to shunting on both gait and cognitive measures. Finally, in a subset of 18 patients who also underwent lumbar puncture, ventricular CSF ratios were significantly correlated with lumbar CSF ratios.
Levels of AD biomarkers in CSF correlate with the presence of cortical AD pathology and predict aspects of clinical presentation in iNPH. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that CSF biomarkers of AD may prove useful for stratifying shunt prognosis in patients being evaluated and treated for this condition.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether antioxidant supplements presumed to target specific cellular compartments affected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Intervention Random assignment to treatment for 16 weeks with 800 IU/d of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) plus 500 mg/d of vitamin C plus 900 mg/d of α-lipoic acid (E/C/ALA); 400 mg of coenzyme Q 3 times/d; or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes from baseline to 16 weeks in CSF biomarkers related to Alzheimer disease and oxidative stress, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), and function (Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale). RESULTS: Seventy-eight subjects were randomized; 66 provided serial CSF specimens adequate for biochemical analyses. Study drugs were well tolerated, but accelerated decline in Mini-Mental State Examination scores occurred in the E/C/ALA group, a potential safety concern. Changes in CSF Aβ42, tau, and P-tau(181) levels did not differ between the 3 groups. Cerebrospinal fluid F2-isoprostane levels, an oxidative stress biomarker, decreased on average by 19% from baseline to week 16 in the E/C/ALA group but were unchanged in the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidants did not influence CSF biomarkers related to amyloid or tau pathology. Lowering of CSF F2-isoprostane levels in the E/C/ALA group suggests reduction of oxidative stress in the brain. However, this treatment raised the caution of faster cognitive decline, which would need careful assessment if longer-term clinical trials are conducted. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00117403.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Archives of neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Florbetapir F 18 (F-AV-45) is a positron emission tomography imaging ligand for the detection of amyloid aggregation associated with Alzheimer disease. Earlier data showed that florbetapir F 18 binds with high affinity to β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in human brain homogenates (Kd=3.7 nM) and has favorable imaging pharmacokinetic properties, including rapid brain penetration and washout. This study used human autopsy brain tissue to evaluate the correlation between in vitro florbetapir F 18 binding and Aβ density measured by established neuropathologic methods.
The localization and density of florbetapir F 18 binding in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of postmortem brain tissue from 40 patients with a varying degree of neurodegenerative pathology was assessed by standard florbetapir F 18 autoradiography and correlated with the localization and density of Aβ identified by silver staining, thioflavin S staining, and immunohistochemistry.
There were strong quantitative correlations between florbetapir F 18 tissue binding and both Aβ plaques identified by light microscopy (Silver staining and thioflavin S fluorescence) and by immunohistochemical measurements of Aβ using 3 antibodies recognizing different epitopes of the Aβ peptide. Florbetapir F 18 did not bind to neurofibrillary tangles.
Florbetapir F 18 selectively binds Aβ in human brain tissue. The binding intensity was quantitatively correlated with the density of Aβ plaques identified by standard neuropathologic techniques and correlated with the density of Aβ measured by immunohistochemistry. As Aβ plaques are a defining neuropathologic feature for Alzheimer disease, these results support the use of florbetapir F 18 as an amyloid positron emission tomography ligand to identify the presence of Alzheimer disease pathology in patients with signs and symptoms of progressive late-life cognitive impairment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Alzheimer disease and associated disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess regions and patterns of brain atrophy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with normal cognition (PD-NC), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and dementia-level cognitive deficits (PDD).
Images were quantified using a region-of-interest approach and voxel-based morphometry analysis. We used a high-dimensional pattern classification approach to delineate brain regions that collectively formed the Spatial Pattern of Abnormalities for Recognition of PDD.
The Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center at the University of Pennsylvania.
Eighty-four PD patients (61 PD-NC, 12 PD-MCI, and 11 PDD) and 23 healthy control subjects (HCs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.
The PD-NC patients did not demonstrate significant brain atrophy compared with HCs. Compared with PD-NC patients, PD-MCI patients had hippocampal atrophy (β = -0.37; P = .001), and PDD patients demonstrated hippocampal (β = -0.32; P = .004) and additional medial temporal lobe atrophy (β = -0.36; P = .003). The PD-MCI patients had a different pattern of atrophy compared with PD-NC patients (P = .04) and a similar pattern to that of PDD patients (P = .81), characterized by hippocampal, prefrontal cortex gray and white matter, occipital lobe gray and white matter, and parietal lobe white matter atrophy. In nondemented PD patients, there was a correlation between memory-encoding performance and hippocampal volume.
Hippocampal atrophy is a biomarker of initial cognitive decline in PD, including impaired memory encoding and storage, suggesting heterogeneity in the neural substrate of memory impairment. Use of a pattern classification approach may allow identification of diffuse regions of cortical gray and white matter atrophy early in the course of cognitive decline.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Archives of neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research suggests overlap in brain regions undergoing neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. To assess the clinical significance of this, we applied a validated Alzheimer's disease-spatial pattern of brain atrophy to patients with Parkinson's disease with a range of cognitive abilities to determine its association with cognitive performance and decline. At baseline, 84 subjects received structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans and completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2, and new robust and expanded Dementia Rating Scale-2 norms were applied to cognitively classify participants. Fifty-nine non-demented subjects were assessed annually with the Dementia Rating Scale-2 for two additional years. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were quantified using both a region of interest approach and voxel-based morphometry analysis, and a method for quantifying the presence of an Alzheimer's disease spatial pattern of brain atrophy was applied to each scan. In multivariate models, higher Alzheimer's disease pattern of atrophy score was associated with worse global cognitive performance (β = -0.31, P = 0.007), including in non-demented patients (β = -0.28, P = 0.05). In linear mixed model analyses, higher baseline Alzheimer's disease pattern of atrophy score predicted long-term global cognitive decline in non-demented patients [F(1, 110) = 9.72, P = 0.002], remarkably even in those with normal cognition at baseline [F(1, 80) = 4.71, P = 0.03]. In contrast, in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses there was no association between region of interest brain volumes and cognitive performance in patients with Parkinson's disease with normal cognition. These findings support involvement of the hippocampus and parietal-temporal cortex with cognitive impairment and long-term decline in Parkinson's disease. In addition, an Alzheimer's disease pattern of brain atrophy may be a preclinical biomarker of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize quantitative florbetapir F 18 (hereafter referred to as simply florbetapir) positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements of fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) burden in a large clinical cohort of participants with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and older healthy controls (OHCs).
Cerebral-to-whole-cerebellar florbetapir standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were computed. Mean cortical SUVRs were compared. A threshold of SUVRs greater than or equal to 1.17 was used to reflect pathological levels of amyloid associated with AD based on separate antemortem PET and postmortem neuropathology data from 19 end-of-life patients. Similarly, a threshold of SUVRs greater than 1.08 was used to signify the presence of any identifiable Aβ because this was the upper limit from a separate set of 46 individuals 18 to 40 years of age who did not carry apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4.
Multiple research imaging centers.
A total of 68 participants with probable AD, 60 participants with MCI, and 82 OHCs who were 55 years of age or older. Main Outcome Measure Florbetapir-PET activity.
All of the participants (ie, those with probable AD or MCI and those who were OHCs) differed significantly in mean (SD) cortical florbetapir SUVRs (1.39 [0.24], 1.17 [0.27], and 1.05 [0.16], respectively; P < 1.0 × 10⁻⁷), in percentage meeting levels of amyloid associated with AD by SUVR criteria (80.9%, 40.0%, and 20.7%, respectively; P < 1.0 × 10⁻⁷), and in percentage meeting SUVR criteria for the presence of any identifiable Aβ (85.3%, 46.6%, and 28.1%, respectively; P < 1.0 × 10⁻⁷). Among OHCs, the percentage of florbetapir positivity increased linearly by age decile (P = .05). For the 54 OHCs with available APOE genotypes, APOE ε4 carriers had a higher mean (SD) cortical SUVR than did noncarriers (1.14 [0.2] vs 1.03 [0.16]; P = .048).
The findings of our analysis confirm the ability of florbetapir-PET SUVRs to characterize amyloid levels in clinically probable AD, MCI, and OHC groups using continuous and binary measures of fibrillar Aβ burden. It introduces criteria to determine whether an image is associated with an intermediate-to-high likelihood of pathologic AD or with having any identifiable cortical amyloid level above that seen in low-risk young controls.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Archives of neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study of chronic brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease in patients is typically limited to brain imaging or psychometric testing. Given the epidemic rise and insufficient knowledge about pathological pathways in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, new tools are required to identify the molecular changes underlying this disease. We hypothesize that levels of specific secreted cellular signaling proteins in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma correlate with pathological changes in the Alzheimer's disease brain and can thus be used to discover signaling pathways altered in the disease. Here we measured 91 proteins of this subset of the cellular communication proteome in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal controls to mathematically model disease-specific molecular traits. We found small numbers of signaling proteins that were able to model key pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease, including levels of cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid and tau, and classify disease in independent samples. Several of these factors had previously been implicated in Alzheimer's disease supporting the validity of our approach. Our study also points to proteins which were previously unknown to be associated with Alzheimer's disease thereby implicating novel signaling pathways in this disorder.