Ki Hyun Baek

Catholic University of Korea, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (59)144.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: While fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) using conventional smear has been widely accepted as the primary diagnostic tool for thyroid lesions, liquid-based preparations (LBPs) are increasingly replacing it. A new automated LBP method, EASYPREP(®) (EP), was recently introduced and has shown relevant diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic samples. We compared the diagnostic utility of EP and SurePath(®) (SP), a more widely established LBP method, in thyroid FNAC. Methods: Under the ultrasonographic guidance, 253 thyroid FNAC samples were collected by sample-splitting manner. Three pathologists made cytologic diagnoses of EP and SP according to the Bethesda system independently and compared the cytomorphologic parameters. Cytohistologic correlation was performed in 30 resected cases. Results: Fifteen (5.9%) and 21 (8.3%) samples were unsatisfactory in SP and EP, respectively, owing to the unequal sample-splitting. Cytologic diagnoses of SP and EP were consistent in 228 cases (90.1%), and inconsistent in remainder mostly owing to the unequal distribution of pathognomic cells. While cytomorphologic parameters were not significantly different between two methods, EP showed less three-dimensional configuration in benign lesions. Cytohistologic correlation showed no significant differences in sensitivity (100% vs. 95.5%) and specificity (100% vs. 100%) between SP and EP. Labor time for processing 48 cases was 42% shorter with EP than with SP (28 min vs. 48 min). Conclusions: The diagnostic utility of EP in thyroid FNAC was comparable to that of SP. EP allowed better visibility owing to better fragmentation of follicular clusters. The automated system of EP has the advantages of a shorter labor time for batch processing. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Diagnostic Cytopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The glycation gap (G-gap) is an empirical measure of the extent of the difference between HbA1C and fructosamine levels. Several studies have shown that the presence of a G-gap is linked to diabetic nephropathy, but possible artifacts caused by dependence of the fructosamine level on the extent of serum protein metabolism require careful consideration. We investigated the consistency of G-gaps measured by assaying glycated albumin (GA) levels to identify factors associated with G-gap variations. Method: A total of 457 pairs of observations, like an HbA1c and GA measurement at the same clinic visit, were obtained from 170 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. HbA1c and GA levels were measured simultaneously in two or three separate occasions. Each G-gap was calculated as the difference between the measured HbA1c level and that predicted by the GA level. All patients underwent abdominal computed tomography, and the areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured. Results: The G-gaps were all significantly inter-correlated over time (γ=0.755, P<0.001).The direction of each G-gap was consistent. The body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased linearly from the lowest to the highest G-gap quartile (all P values <0.05). Upon multivariate analysis, both visceral fat area and the eGFR were significantly associated with a G-gap. Conclusions: A G-gap determined using GA measurements is consistent within an individual over time. The G-gap is associated with visceral fat and kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of diabetes and its complications

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with COPD are at an increased risk of osteoporosis. Although many studies have addressed the relationship between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and bone health, this relationship has not been fully investigated in patients with COPD. In this study, we investigated the association of VDR polymorphisms with bone mineral density (BMD) and other clinical parameters in patients with COPD. Patients and methods In total, 200 patients with COPD were included in this study. The VDR polymorphisms rs1544410 (A/G-BsmI), rs7975232 (A/C-ApaI), rs731236 (C/T-TaqI), and rs10735810 (C/T-FokI) were determined by Sanger sequencing using blood DNA samples. BMD of the lumbar vertebra and the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Other clinical parameters were also evaluated. Haplotype and multivariate analyses were also performed. Results Sex, body mass index, steroid use, percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly influenced the risk of osteoporosis. Patients with osteoporosis were more likely to carry the rs7975232 C allele compared to normal patients with BMD. Haplotypes GCT and GAT were related to osteoporosis. Patients without the haplotype GAT allele showed a significantly lower T-score at the femoral neck and an increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]= 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.20–6.48, P=0.018) compared with carriers in the dominant model. Conclusion Genetic variations in VDR are significantly associated with osteoporosis among patients with COPD. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the VDR polymorphisms in osteoporosis among patients with COPD.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of COPD
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    ABSTRACT: Periostin is preferentially expressed by the periosteum, which mainly covers the long bones. Therefore, the role of periostin in osteoporotic fracture (OF) may differ depending on bone type. We performed a case-control study to investigate whether periostin can serve as a predictor of OF risk, particularly after dividing OFs into non-vertebral and vertebral fractures. Among 532 consecutive postmenopausal women not taking any drug or without any disease that could affect bone metabolism, 133 cases with OF (i.e., non-vertebral and/or vertebral fractures) and 133 age- and body mass index-matched controls were enrolled. Non-vertebral (i.e., forearm, humerus, hip, and pelvis; n = 81) and morphological vertebral (n = 62) fractures were identified by an interviewer-assisted questionnaire and lateral thoracolumbar radiographs, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) and plasma periostin levels were also measured. Plasma periostin was markedly higher in subjects with non-vertebral fracture than their controls even after adjustment for BMD and potential confounders (P = 0.006). Each standard deviation increment of plasma periostin was associated with a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.59 for non-vertebral fracture. The odds for non-vertebral fracture were 2.48-fold higher in subjects in the highest periostin tertile compared with those in the lowest periostin tertile (95% confidence interval = 1.10-5.61). However, associations between plasma periostin and vertebral fracture were not observed, regardless of the adjustment model used. Consistently, plasma periostin levels were inversely associated with proximal femur BMD (P = 0.007 to 0.030) but not lumbar spine BMD. In subgroup analyses, plasma periostin had no correlation with the levels of classical bone turnover markers. Plasma periostin may be a potential biomarker of the risk of OF, especially in non-spinal skeletal sites, such as the limbs, rather than spine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Bone
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    ABSTRACT: Several factors increase the risk of fragility fracture, including low bone mineral density, falls, and poor physical performance. The associations among these factors have been investigated; however, most of the subjects of previous studies were either elderly men or elderly women, and the associations were controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between physical performance and bone mineral density, and the history of falls and fractures, stratified by gender and age group. We analyzed 5368 subjects who were aged 50 years or older, including 1288 younger men (younger than 70 years), 1615 younger women (younger than 70 years), 1087 older men (70 years or older), and 1378 older women (70 years or older). We used the one-leg standing time (OLST) for assessing static balance and the timed up-and-go test (TUGT) for assessing dynamic balance. The subjects in the worst performance quartile for the OLST were more likely to have osteoporosis than those in the best performance quartile. Additionally, women who had experienced a fracture during the past 2 years were 1.68 times more likely to be in the worst performance quartile for the OLST than women without a previous fracture. Although the TUGT time was not associated with either the incidence of osteoporosis or the fracture history, the odds ratios for falling were 1.51 and 1.28 as the TUGT time increased by one standard deviation in younger men and younger women, respectively. The findings of the present study show that the OLST was associated with the incidence of osteoporosis and previous fracture and that the TUGT time was associated with the incidence of falling.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: The bone loss during the first year was − 0.9% in the lumbar spine and − 1.3% in the femoral neck.•Bone loss during the early postoperative period was more evident in postmenopausal women.•Bone loss was greater in the early postoperative group than in the late postoperative group.•TSH-suppressive thyroid hormone therapy accelerates bone loss, predominantly in postmenopausal women and exclusively during the early post-thyroidectomy period.•We recommend screening postmenopausal women at the start of TSH-suppressive therapy and initiating calcium and vitamin D supplementation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Bone
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study aimed to assess insulin resistance according to maternal age at childbirth.Patients and methodsThe data used in this study were obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The present study included a total of 2,233 non-diabetic female subjects ≥ 30 years of age that were subdivided into groups according to their obesity and abdominal obesity (AOB) statuses. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to quantify the insulin resistance according to age at first childbirth and last childbirth.ResultsAge at first childbirth showed a negative relationship with HOMA-IR in both the non-obese and non-AOB groups, while age at last childbirth showed a positive relationship with HOMA-IR in both the non-obese and non-AOB groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age at first and last childbirth were significantly associated with the highest HOMA-IR quartile. The odds ratio was 0.9 [95% confidence interval: 0.82–0.98] for age at first childbirth, and 1.07 [95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.14] for age at last childbirth in the non-obese and non-AOB groups.Conclusion In conclusion, the present study suggests that insulin resistance is increased in females who experienced their first childbirth at a younger age or their last childbirth at a later age, particularly in non-obese individuals. Because these data suggest that childbearing age could be an independent risk factor for diabetes, a high-quality prospective study assessing the relationship between childbearing age and insulin resistance should be performed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The measurement of stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) after total thyroidectomy and remnant radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation is the gold standard for monitoring disease status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). The aim of this study was to determine whether sTg measurement during follow-up can be avoided in intermediate- and high-risk PTC patients. Methods. A total of 346 patients with PTCs with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence were analysed. All of the patients underwent total thyroidectomy as well as remnant RAI ablation and sTg measurements. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were included in the analysis. Results. Among the preoperative parameters, age below 45 years and preoperative Tg above 19.4 ng/mL were significant risk factors for predicting detectable sTg during follow-up. Among the postoperative parameters, thyroid capsular invasion, lymph node metastasis, and ablative Tg above 2.9 ng/mL were independently correlated with a detectable sTg range. The combination of ablative Tg less than 2.9 ng/mL with pre- and postoperative independent risk factors for detectable sTg increased the negative predictive value for detectable sTg up to 98.5%. Conclusions. Based on pre- and postoperative parameters, a substantial proportion of patients with PTCs in the intermediate- and high-risk classes could avoid aggressive follow-up measures.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of ibandronate and cholecalciferol on the restoration of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and various bone markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. This was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, prospective 16-week clinical trial conducted in 20 different hospitals. A total of 201 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were assigned randomly to one of two groups: the IBN group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate (n=99), or the IBN+ group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate and 24,000 IU cholecalciferol (n=102). Serum levels of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and various bone markers were assessed at baseline and at the end of a 16-week treatment period. After 16 weeks of treatment, the mean serum levels of 25(OH)D significantly increased from 21.0 to 25.3 ng/mL in the IBN+ group but significantly decreased from 20.6 to 17.4 ng/mL in the IBN group. Additionally, both groups exhibited significant increases in mean serum levels of PTH but significant decreases in serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) at 16 weeks; no significant differences were observed between the groups. However, in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, IBN+ treatment resulted in a significant decrease in serum CTX levels compared with IBN treatment. The present findings demonstrate that a once-monthly pill containing ibandronate and cholecalciferol may be useful for the amelioration of vitamin D deficiency in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, this treatment combination effectively decreased serum levels of resorption markers, especially in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, over the 16-week treatment period.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Aim As serum beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) levels are usually elevated in patients with renal failure, they have been suggested as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular mortality for patients with chronic kidney disease. Glycation of B2M is cytotoxic and may contribute to the risk of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between B2M and diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and normal kidney function. Methods A total of 366 patients with T2D and preserved renal function with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease were enrolled consecutively into this study. High B2M was defined as a median serum B2M level ≥ 1.8 mg/L. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a carotid artery intima–media thickness (C-IMT) ≥ 0.9 mm or the presence of carotid plaque. The definition of diabetic nephropathy was based on the presence of albuminuria (≥ 30 mg/g creatinine). Results Patients with high B2M were older, and had diabetes of longer duration, higher serum creatinine, microalbuminuria, and increased vascular stiffness and C-IMT compared with patients with low B2M. B2M levels were positively correlated with C-IMT and vascular stiffness, and these associations remained constant after adjusting for age. In addition, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, serum creatinine, hypertension, smoking and alcohol consumption, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for atherosclerosis was 2.01 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–3.94] per 1 mg/L increase in B2M. The prevalences of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were significantly higher with a high B2M than with a low B2M. The multiple adjusted OR for diabetic nephropathy was 2.29 (95% CI: 1.11–4.72) per 1 mg/L increase of B2M. Conclusion Higher serum B2M was an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy in patients with T2D without renal impairment.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Diabetes & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within eight osteoporosis susceptibility genes that were previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A total of 494 men and 493 postmenopausal women participating in the Chungju Metabolic Disease cohort study in Korea were included. The following 10 SNPs were genotyped: ZBTB40 rs6426749, MEF2C rs1366594, ESR1 rs2941740, TNFRSF11B rs3134070, TNFRSF11B rs2073617, SOX6 rs711785, LRP5 rs599083, TNFSF11 rs227438, TNFSF11 rs9594782, and FOXL1 rs10048146; and the association between these SNPs and bone metabolism-related markers was assessed. Two SNPs, TNFSF11 rs2277438 and FOXL1 rs1004816, were associated with lumbar spine BMD. TNFSF11 rs2277438 in men and SOX6 rs7117858 and FOXL1 rs10048146 in postmenopausal women were found to be associated with lumbar BMD. ZBTB40 rs6426749, MEF2C rs1366594, and LRP5 rs599083 showed significant associations with femur neck BMD. These three SNPs in men and MEF2C rs1366594 and ESR1 rs2941740 in postmenopausal women were associated with femur neck BMD. A significant association between MEF2C rs1366594 and serum calcium levels was observed in men. Serum phosphorus levels were related to SOX6 rs7117858. Serum PTH levels were significantly associated with TNFRSF11B rs3134070 in men, and SOX6 rs711858 in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, our study independently confirmed associations between several SNPs: ZBTB40, MEF2C, ESR1, SOX6, LRP5, TNFSF11, and FOXL1 and bone marrow density in the Korean population.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Endocrine Journal
  • E J Rhee · K W Oh · E J Yun · C H Jung · W Y Lee · S W Kim · K H Baek · M I Kang · S W Park
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, klotho has been proposed as a link between cardiovascular diseases and premature aging, but the relationship between KLOTHO genes and cardiovascular risk factors, especially glucose metabolism, in humans is unclear. We investigate the relationship between polymorphisms G395A in promoter and C1818T in exon 4 of the KLOTHO gene with glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean women. In 251 women (mean age 51.3+/-6.9 yr), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were measured. The genotyping of polymorphisms G395A in promoter and C1818T in exon 4 of the KLOTHO gene was performed by allelic discrimination using a 5' nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. Allele frequencies of G395A polymorphism was 0.829 for the G allele and 0.171 for the A allele and allele frequencies of C1818T polymorphism were 0.804 for the C allele and 0.196 for the T allele, both of which were in compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the two polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium (D'=0.43, p<0.01). Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in A allele carriers of G395A polymorphism compared with non-carriers, and the significance was persistent even after adjustment for age and BMI. Mean fasting plasma glucose was significantly higher in T allele carriers of C1818T polymorphism compared with non-carriers, and the significance was persistent even after adjustment for age and BMI. Subjects without any minor allele from either single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) had significantly lower mean values for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels compared with subjects with both minor allele from either SNP. We observed that KLOTHO G395A polymorphism was associated with blood pressure and KLOTHO C1818T polymorphism was associated with glucose metabolism in Korean women. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionLittle is known about the long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in severely obese Asian individuals.Methods and MaterialsA total of 33 severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes underwent RYGB. All patients were followed up for 2 years. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computed tomography (CT) before, and 12 and 24 months after RYGB. The muscle attenuation (MA) of paraspinous muscles observed by CT were used as indices of intramuscular fat.ResultsThe mean percentage weight loss was 22.2 ± 5.3% at 12 months, and 21.3 ± 5.1% at 24 months after surgery. Compared with the baseline values, the visceral fat area was 53.6 ± 17.1% lower 24 months after surgery, and the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was 32.7 ± 16.1% lower 24 months after surgery. The MA increased from 48.7 ± 10.0 at baseline to 52.2 ± 8.9 (P = 0.009) 12 months after surgery. The MA after the first 12 months maintained changes until 24 months. Triglycerides and free fatty acids were reduced after surgery, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased significantly after surgery. At the last follow-up visit, 18 patients (55%) had diabetes remission. The percentage of iron and vitamin D deficiency was 30% and 52%, respectively.Conclusions We found that patients subjected to RYGB had significant sustained reductions in visceral and intramuscular fat. There were durable improvements in the cardiometabolic abnormalities without any significant comorbidities. However, there were mild nutritional deficiencies in these patients despite daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    Dong Jun Lim · Ki Hyun Baek

    Preview · Article · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The natural course of cytologically benign thyroid nodules remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasonographic (US) changes are associated with changes in nodule volume during follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed over 4 years of clinical records of patients with benign thyroid nodules as confirmed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). In total, 186 patients with 202 benign thyroid nodules were included for study. We assessed for changes in nodule volume and examined the cystic portion of the nodule as well as four US features (echogenicity, margin, calcification pattern, and shape). During follow-up (mean, 21.7±10.7 months) and using 50% as a cutoff value, nodule volumes increased in 11.8%, exhibited no change in 79.9%, and decreased in 8.3% of patients. Proportion of nodules demonstrating at least one US change was 20.8% (42/202). The most common US changes (in descending order of frequency) were cystic change, margin change, and calcification pattern change. Nodule shape and echogenicity rarely changed. Increased nodule volume was not significantly associated with any US features or with the number of FNAs but was associated with younger age at time of diagnosis. Although a portion of thyroid nodules confirmed as benign showed US changes or volume changes during the follow-up period, these findings may only represent the natural course of benign nodules. Frequent follow-up with US might be needed for only a small number of cases with suspicious US findings.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: 2-[18F]Fluoro-2-D-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT), which can detect a change in glucose metabolism in cancer cells, has been introduced as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, differences in the clinicopathological and biological characteristics between primary PTCs with FDG uptake and those whithout FDG uptake are not well established. Methods: A total of 188 patients with PTC who had preoperative PET/CT scans were enrolled to compare the differences of clinicopathological parameters between FDG-avid (F-PTC) (n=150) and FDG-non-avid tumors (FN-PTC) (n=38). Immunohistochemical staining for glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) was performed. Results: FN-PTCs were smaller, had a lower incidence of lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, multiplicity, and central lymph node metastasis, and had a lower maximum standardized uptake value than F-PTCs. After exclusion of high-risk patients for recurrence, FN-PTCs remained smaller (P<0.001) and had less lymphatic invasion (P=0.061). Among tumors larger than the spatial resolution of the PET/CT scan, macrocalcification was more frequent in FN-PTC than in F-PTC (P=0.043). While FN-PTC and F-PTC showed no difference in GLUT-1 expression (50% vs. 75%, P=0.363), FN-PTC showed lower immunoreactivity of HIF-1α than F-PTC (25.0% vs. 75.0%, P=0.032). Conclusion: Tumor size and macrocalcification are clinicopathological differences between FN-PTC and F-PTC. Biologically, HIF-1α may be responsible for increased FDG uptake in PTC.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest an association of vitamin D with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We analyzed the association of serum vitamin D level assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) {25(OH)D(3)} with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in apparently healthy men. We performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D(3) levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram. Of the participants, 43.6% had NAFLD and 21.1% had metabolic syndrome. Age, serum calcium, and aspartate aminotransferase levels showed weak but significant positive correlations with 25(OH)D(3) level; total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting insulin level showed weak but significant negative correlations with 25(OH)D(3) level. The mean 25(OH)D(3) level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 ± 9.0 vs. 39.7 ± 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D(3) level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D(3) level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D(3) levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D(3) showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D(3) groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Endocrine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence body weight and composition; however, the relationship between daily calcium intake and muscle mass has not been well established. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia. We analyzed data for older adults (over 60 years) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2009. A total of 1339 Non-Obese (BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m(2)), older adults (592 men and 707 women) were enrolled. Dietary variables were assessed using a nutrition survey that used a 24-hour recall method. Daily calcium intake based on the consumption of each food item was calculated. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 2 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. We found that daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with total body fat percentage and positively correlated with appendicular skeletal mass (p<0.001). Participants with sarcopenia appear to have significantly lower daily calcium intakes than participants without sarcopenia (p<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence of sarcopenia according to daily calcium intake tertiles were 6.3%, 4.3%, and 2.7% in tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and lifestyle factors, compared with those in the lowest tertile of daily calcium intake, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio for sarcopenia of 0.295 (95% confidence interval, 0.087-0.768; p for trend = 0.014). We found that daily calcium intake, corrected for total energy intake and serum 25(OH)D status, was significantly lower in subjects with sarcopenia than in those without. Our results suggest a strong inverse association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in non-obese, older Korean adults.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Endocrine Journal