J. Romeo

Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (54)136.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8±1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.0 5) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.10 2) and positively with body mass index (r=0.10 0). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.0 5). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents. © 2015, Center for Academic Publications Japan. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

  • No preview · Chapter · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between specific dietary habits and body fatness in Spanish adolescents, and to analyze the role of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in this association. In this cross-sectional study, 1,978 adolescents (1,017 girls) aged 13.0-18.5 years from the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study were included. Particular dietary habits (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and nighttime snack, as well as time spent eating, number of meals, consumption of soft drinks, and ready-to-eat foods) and LTPA were self-reported and analyzed as dichotomic variables (yes/no). The sum of six skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference (WC) values were the main body fatness variables. Skinfolds and WC values were lower in adolescents who reported consumption of mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, more than four meals per day, and an adequate speed of eating, independently of participation in LTPA. Moreover, a beneficial influence of breakfast consumption on skinfolds and WC values was observed in those adolescent boys who did not participate in LTPA (p for interactions = .044 and .040, respectively). In Spanish adolescents, certain healthy dietary habits (i.e., mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, > 4 meals per day, adequate eating speed) are associated with lower body fatness, independently of engaging in LTPA. In addition, among boys with non-LTPA, those who skipped breakfast showed the highest body fatness values, indicating a beneficial influence of daily breakfast on body fat in this particular group.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Adolescent Health
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    ABSTRACT: The diet in the elderly does not provide a sufficient level of nutrients needed to maintain an adequate healthy status leading to micronutrient deficiencies and impaired immune response with subsequent development of degenerative diseases. Nutrient "zinc" is a relevant micronutrient involved in maintaining a good integrity of many body homeostatic mechanisms, including immune efficiency, owing to its requirement for the biological activity of many enzymes, proteins and for cellular proliferation and genomic stability. Old people aged 60-65 years and older have zinc intakes below 50% of the recommended daily allowance on a given day. Many causes can be involved: among them, altered intestinal absorption, inadequate mastication, psychosocial factors, drugs interactions, altered subcellular processes (zinc transporters (Zip and ZnT family), metallothioneins, divalent metal transporter-1). Zinc supplementation may remodel the immune alterations in elderly leading to healthy ageing. Several zinc trials have been carried out with contradictory data, perhaps due to incorrect choice of an effective zinc supplementation in old subjects showing subsequent zinc toxic effects on immunity. Old subjects with specific IL-6 polymorphism (GG allele carriers; named C-) are more prone for zinc supplementation than the entire old population, in whom correct dietary habits with foods containing zinc (Mediterranean diet) may be sufficient in restoring zinc deficiency and impaired immune response. We summarise the main causes of low zinc dietary intake in elderly reporting an update on the impact of zinc supplementation upon the immune response also on the basis of individual IL-6 polymorphism.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Age
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a running bout under hot conditions on cognitive performance in physically active men. Sixteen participants ran at 60% of maximum aerobic speed for an average time of 52.4 ± 7.6 minutes under hot environmental conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity). Changes in body mass, lean mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, serum urea, creatinine, and thirst score were assessed to evaluate the state of hydration immediately before and after exercise. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Vienna Test System battery before and after exercise. The running protocol led to a decreased body mass, lean mass, plasma volume and an increased hematocrit, serum urea, creatinine and thirst score (all p < 0.05), implying that there was significant impairment in the state of hydration. After the running bout, complex and peripheral reaction time consistently improved, whereas visual angle was impaired (all p < 0.05). A running bout in the heat improves the speed of response in complex tasks but impairs the field of vision and leads to a deleterious hydration state.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of exercise science and fitness (JESF)
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of the EVASYON program on body fatness, cardiometabolic risk factors, gut appetite-controlling hormones and serum levels of cytokines in adolescents with overweight or obesity (OW/OB). This study comprised 13 boys (10 obese) and 12 girls (8 obese), aged 13-16 years, from a Madrid Hospital. The EVASYON program was based on a calorie-restricted diet (10-40%), increased physical activity (at least 60 min/day 5 days a week), psychological therapy and nutritional education for 13 months. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were measured before and after intervention. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, total peptide YY and insulin levels were determined before and after intervention. Serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α were also assessed before and after intervention. A decrease in body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, thigh, and calf), sum of six skinfolds and body circumferences (arm relaxed and flexed, waist, hip, and proximal thigh) values were observed after the intervention program (all p < 0.05). In addition, diastolic blood pressure also decreased (p < 0.05). A decrease in serum leptin levels (-48.4%, p < 0.001) was observed after intervention without changes in total peptide YY and insulin levels. Levels of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α also decreased (all p < 0.05) after the intervention program. These preliminary results evidence that the EVASYON program may improve body fat, leptin, and some pro-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents with OW/OB.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Pediatric Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the combined influence of four lifestyle risk factors related to physical activity, television viewing, sleep duration, and meal frequency on body fat (BF) in adolescents. This cross-sectional study comprised 1,310 Spanish adolescents (age 13-18.5 years). Lifestyle variables were self-reported and BF indicators (weight, height, six skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference) measured during the years 2000-2002. Lifestyle risk factors were: physically inactive, ≥ 3 h/day watching television, <8 h/day sleep duration, and <5 meals a day. The number of lifestyle risk factors was calculated for each participant, ranging from 0 to 4. The number of lifestyle risk factors was positively associated with sum of six skinfolds, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio (all p < 0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight (including obesity) for groups with 1, 2, and 3-4 lifestyle risk factors compared with those with 0 were 2.86 (1.77-4.62), 3.61 (2.16-6.04), and 5.81 (3.07-10.99), respectively (p for trend <0.001). All the observations were independent of age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and fat free mass. The combined influence of four lifestyle risk factors is positively associated with BF and an approximately sixfold risk of overweight in adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Obesity Facts
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):2, Export Date: 18 October 2014
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):2, Export Date: 18 October 2014
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011
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    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
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    ABSTRACT: Adipocytokines may have a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with adiponectin and leptin in adolescents. A sample of 198 adolescents (96 girls), aged 13-17-year, was selected. Participants completed anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference) and percentage of body fat (%BF) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. PA was measured by accelerometer for 7-day. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to assess CRF and two MF tests (handgrip strength and standing broad jump) were used to create an MF score. A cluster score of health status (0-3 risks) was created. Serum adiponectin and plasma leptin were also determined. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, pubertal status and waist circumference showed that PA was not significantly associated with adiponectin and vigorous PA showed a significant inverse association with leptin. Both CRF and MF were significantly and inversely associated with adiponectin and leptin. Further analyses revealed that the 'healthy' group (0 risks) had significantly lower adiponectin and leptin than 'medium-healthy' (1 risk) and 'unhealthy' (2-3 risks) status groups. PA, CRF and MF are inversely and jointly associated with adiponectin and leptin concentrations in adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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    ABSTRACT: Table s1. Clinical characteristics of the study subjects. This table describes the main clinical characteristics of the 3 studies. Table s2. LXRβ gene sequencing primers. This table reports the sequence of the primers used for the sequencing of the LXRβ gene. Table s3. Associations for the 5 LXRβ SNPs in non-diabetic subjects from HUNT 2. This table reports the associations observed for the 5 SNPs in non-diabetic subjects from HUNT 2. Table s4. Associations for the 5 LXRβ SNPs in the MONICA study. This table reports the associations observed for the 5 SNPs in MONICA. Table s5. Associations for the 5 LXRβ SNPs in the HELENA study. This table reports the associations observed for the 5 SNPs in HELENA.
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2010
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    ABSTRACT: The liver X receptors (LXR) α and β regulate lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis and inflammation. Lxrβ⁻/⁻ mice are glucose intolerant and at the same time lean. We aimed to assess the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LXRβ and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and related traits in 3 separate cohort studies. Twenty LXRβ SNPs were identified by sequencing and genotyped in the HUNT2 adult nested case-control study for T2DM (n = 835 cases/1986 controls). Five tag-SNPs (rs17373080, rs2695121, rs56151148, rs2303044 and rs3219281), covering 99.3% of the entire common genetic variability of the LXRβ gene were identified and genotyped in the French MONICA adult study (n = 2318) and the European adolescent HELENA cross-sectional study (n = 1144). In silico and in vitro functionality studies were performed. We identified suggestive or significant associations between rs17373080 and the risk of (i) T2DM in HUNT2 (OR = 0.82, p = 0.03), (ii) obesity in MONICA (OR = 1.26, p = 0.05) and (iii) overweight/obesity in HELENA (OR = 1.59, p = 0.002). An intron 4 SNP (rs28514894, a perfect proxy for rs17373080) could potentially create binding sites for hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and nuclear factor 1 (NF1). The C allele of rs28514894 was associated with ~1.25-fold higher human LXRβ basal promoter activity in vitro. However, no differences between alleles in terms of DNA binding and reporter gene transactivation by HNF4α or NF1 were observed. Our results suggest that rs17373080 in LXRβ is associated with T2DM and obesity, maybe via altered LXRβ expression.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · BMC Medical Genetics
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    Javier Romeo · Julia Wärnberg · Ascensión Marcos
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    ABSTRACT: Social acceptance of drinking involves social and cultural roles and has important implications for public health. Since extensive evidence indicates that alcohol possesses immunomodulatory properties, scientists have recently debated the influence of alcohol consumption on the immune response, particularly in countries where drinking in a social setting is a part of cultural identity. Experimental and clinical data support the conclusion that alcohol is a potent immunomodulator. While high alcohol consumption suppresses a wide range of immune responses, leading to an increased incidence of a number of infectious diseases, moderate alcohol consumption may have a beneficial impact on the immune system, compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence, most likely due to the multiple components of polyphenol-rich alcoholic contributing to the protective effect seen for moderate alcohol consumption on CVD and the immune system. Despite this, the scientific literature appears to be concerned about the diseases associated with excessive drinking in some societies and cultures. Thus, the present review recognizes the importance to consider social and cultural aspects of drinking when examining the whole dimension of alcohol consumption (amount, beverage type, frequency and variability), in order to estimate global risk of consequences on host defence to better understand alcohol-related harm or benefit.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective studies have shown that chronic low-grade inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the most common chronic diseases and in particular CVD. Obesity has repeatedly been associated with moderately raised levels of inflammation, and this observation has led to the view that obesity is characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. There is now great interest in elucidating how physical activity and exercise modulate inflammation. This review summarises the current research addressing the influence of physical activity and exercise in mitigating the risks of obesity and diseases such as type-II diabetes and CVD, through its action on the low-grade inflammatory state. Most research on this topic hypothesised that the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers is independent of fatness, but very few studies have proven this. Given that physical activity and obesity are often inversely related, it is not clear as to whether the anti-inflammatory health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are due to exercise per se or result from favourable changes in the body composition.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
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    J Romeo · J Wärnberg · T Pozo · A Marcos
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    ABSTRACT: During the last few decades, scientific evidence has confirmed a wide range of health benefits related to regular physical activity. How physical activity affects the immune function and infection risk is, however, still under debate. Commonly, intensive exercise suppresses the activity and levels of several immune cells, while other immune functions may be stimulated by moderate physical activity. With this knowledge, the understanding of the relationship between different levels of physical activity on the immune function has been raised as a potential tool to protect health not only in athletes but also in the general population; the mechanisms that translate a physically active lifestyle into good health continue to be investigated. Reviewing the literature, although several outcomes (i.e. the mechanisms by which different levels and duration of physical activity programmes affect numerous cell types and responses) remain unclear, given that the additional benefits encompass healthy habits including exercise, the use of physical activity programmes may result in improved health of elderly populations. Moderate physical activity or moderate-regulated training may enhance the immune function mainly in less fit subjects or sedentary population and the pre-event fitness status also seems to be an important individual factor regarding this relationship. Although adequate nutrition and regular physical activity habits may synergistically improve health, clinical trials in athletes using nutritional supplements to counteract the immune suppression have been inconclusive so far.Further research is necessary to find out to what extent physical activity training can exert an effect on the immune function.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases associated to modern lifestyle habits are usually related to immune system malfunction. In this context, since diet is very well-known to modulate host resistance to infectious and inflammatory processes, the consumption of fibre and probiotics seems to be a promising nutritional tool for immune system modulation in different populations. Health effects of dietary fibres and probiotics have been extensively documented in numerous epidemiological and intervention studies, especially their beneficial effect on intestinal microbiota with important clinical implications in the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms may include modulation of the functional properties of the microbiota, epithelial cells, dendritic cells and immune cell types. Prebiotics have been extensively reported to affect the composition of the gut microbiota, stimulating directly or indirectly putative beneficial gut commensals other than lactic acid bacteria, opening promising areas of research for the discovery of new probiotic strains and synbiotic combinations. Age-related changes in gut physiology, microbiota and mucosal immune response are well established. Moreover, exposure to different challenges during life such as early encounter of environmental insults in the newborn, infant formula feeding, antibiotic treatment, gastrointestinal diseases and stress, also interferes with the normal development and balance of the healthy gut microbiota. Therefore, the current short review gives an overview of today's main aspects of the effect of fibres, probiotics and synbiotics on the immune system in different life-stages.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases associated to modern lifestyle habits are usually related to immune system malfunction. In this context, since diet is very well-known to modulate host resistance to infectious and inflammatory processes, the consumption of fibre and probiotics seems to be a promising nutritional tool for immune system modulation in different populations. Health effects of dietary fibres and probiotics have been extensively documented in numerous epidemiological and intervention studies, especially their beneficial effect on intestinal microbiota with important clinical implications in the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms may include modulation of the functional properties of the microbiota, epithelial cells, dendritic cells and immune cell types. Prebiotics have been extensively reported to affect the composition of the gut microbiota, stimulating directly or indirectly putative beneficial gut commensals other than lactic acid bacteria, opening promising areas of research for the discovery of new probiotic strains and synbiotic combinations. Age-related changes in gut physiology, microbiota and mucosal immune response are well established. Moreover, exposure to different challenges during life such as early encounter of environmental insults in the newborn, infant formula feeding, antibiotic treatment, gastrointestinal diseases and stress, also interferes with the normal development and balance of the healthy gut microbiota. Therefore, the current short review gives an overview of today's main aspects of the effect of fibres, probiotics and synbiotics on the immune system in different life-stages.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society
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    Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Proceedings of The Nutrition Society