Karen Seibert

University of Missouri - St. Louis, Saint Louis, Michigan, United States

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Publications (94)442.35 Total impact

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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: In this manuscript, we report the discovery of the substituted 2-trifluoromethyl-2H-benzopyran-3-carboxylic acids as a novel series of potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. 5c-(S) (SD-8381) was advanced into clinical studies due to its superior in vivo potency. The high plasma protein binding (>99% bound) of 5c-(S) has resulted in a surprisingly long human half life t(1/2)=360 h.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · ChemInform
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · ChemInform
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · ChemInform
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: A new class of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors has been identified by high throughput screening. Structurally distinct from previously described selective COX-2 inhibitors, these benzopyrans contain a carboxylic acid function and CF3 functionality. The compound SC-75,416 is a representative of this class. A range if in vitro and in vivo tests were employed to characterize its potency and selectivity. Using human recombinant enzymes, this compound displays a concentration that provides 50% inhibition (IC50) of 0.25 microM for COX-2 and 49.6 microM for COX-1. A mutation of the side pocket residues in COX-2 to COX-1 had little effect on potency suggesting that these inhibitors bind in a unique manner in COX-2 distinct from COX-2 inhibiting diaryl heterocycles. Using rheumatoid arthritic synovial cells stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and washed platelets the compound displayed IC50 of 3 nM and 400 nM respectively. Potency and selectivity was maintained but predictably right shifted in whole blood with IC50 of 1.4 microM for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated induction of COX-2 and >200 microM for inhibition of platelet thromboxane production. SC-75,416 is 89% bioavailable and its in vivo half life is sufficient for once a day dosing. In the rat air pouch model of inflammation, the compound inhibited PGE2 production with an effective dose that provides 50% inhibition (ED50) of 0.4 mg/kg, while sparing gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production with an ED50 of 26.5 mg/kg. In a model of acute inflammation and pain caused by carrageenan injection into the rat paw, the compound reduced edema and hyperalgesia with ED50s of 2.7 and 4 mg/kg respectively. In a chronic model of arthritis the compound demonstrated an ED50 of 0.081 mg/kg and an ED(80) of 0.38 mg/kg. In a model of neuropathic pain, SC-75,416 had good efficacy. This compound's unique chemical structure and effect on COX enzyme binding and activity as well as its potency and selectivity may prove useful in treating pain and inflammation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · European Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of a second isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX) led to the search for compounds that could selectively inhibit COX-2 in humans while sparing prostaglandin formation from COX-1. Celecoxib and rofecoxib were among the molecules developed from these efforts. We report here the pharmacological properties of a third selective COX-2 inhibitor, valdecoxib, which is the most potent and in vitro selective of the marketed COX-2 inhibitors that we have studied. Recombinant human COX-1 and COX-2 were used to screen for new highly potent and in vitro selective COX-2 inhibitors and compare kinetic mechanisms of binding and enzyme inhibition with other COX inhibitors. Valdecoxib potently inhibits recombinant COX-2, with an IC(50) of 0.005 microM; this compares with IC values of 0.05 microM for celecoxib, 0.5 microM for rofecoxib, and 5 microM for etoricoxib. Unique binding interactions of valdecoxib with COX-2 translate into a fast rate of inactivation of COX-2 (110,000 M/s compared with 7000 M/s for rofecoxib and 80 M/s for etoricoxib). The overall saturation binding affinity for COX-2 of valdecoxib is 2.6 nM (compared with 1.6 nM for celecoxib, 51 nM for rofecoxib, and 260 nM for etoricoxib), with a slow off-rate (t(1/2) approximately 98 min). Valdecoxib inhibits COX-1 in a competitive fashion only at very high concentrations (IC(50) = 150 microM). Collectively, these data provide a mechanistic basis for the potency and in vitro selectivity of valdecoxib for COX-2. Valdecoxib showed similar activity in the human whole-blood COX assay (COX-2 IC(50) = 0.24 microM; COX-1 IC(50) = 21.9 microM). We also determined whether this in vitro potency and selectivity translated to significant potency in vivo. In rats, valdecoxib demonstrated marked potency in acute and chronic models of inflammation (air pouch ED(50) = 0.06 mg/kg; paw edema ED(50) = 5.9 mg/kg; adjuvant arthritis ED(50) = 0.03 mg/kg). In these same animals, COX-1 was spared at doses greater than 200 mg/kg. These data provide a basis for the observed potent anti-inflammatory activity of valdecoxib in humans.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Two compounds (celecoxib and valdecoxib) from the diarylheterocycle class of cyclooxygenase inhibitors were radiolabeled and used to characterize their binding to cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), several single-point variants of COX-2 (Val523Ile, Tyr355Ala, Arg120Ala, Arg120Gln, Arg120Asn) and one triple-point variant of COX-2 [Val523Ile, Arg513His, Val434Ile (IHI)]. We demonstrate highly specific and saturable binding of these inhibitors to COX-2. Under the same assay conditions, little or no specific binding to COX-1 could be detected. The affinity of [(3)H]celecoxib for COX-2 (K(D) = 2.3 nM) was similar to the affinity of [(3)H]valdecoxib (K(D) = 3.2 nM). The binding to COX-2 seems to be both rapid and slowly reversible with association rates of 5.8 x 10(6)/M/min and 4.5 x 10(6)/M/min and dissociation rates of 14 x 10(-3)/min (t(1/2) = 50 min) and 7.0 x 10(-3)/min (t(1/2) = 98 min) for [(3)H]celecoxib and [(3)H]valdecoxib, respectively. These association rates increased (4- to 11-fold) when the charged arginine residue located at the entrance to the main hydrophobic channel was mutated to smaller uncharged amino acids (Arg120Ala, Arg120Gln, and Arg120Asn). Mutation of residues located within the active site of COX-2 that define a 'side pocket' (Tyr355Ala, Val523Ile, IHI) of the main channel had a greater effect on the dissociation rate than the association rate. These mutations, which modified the shape of and access to the 'side pocket', affected the binding affinity of [(3)H]valdecoxib more than that of [(3)H]celecoxib. These binding studies provide direct insight into the properties and binding constants of celecoxib and valdecoxib to COX-2.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Molecular Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is the major prostaglandin produced both centrally and in the periphery in models of acute and chronic inflammation, and its formation in both locations is blocked by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors such as celecoxib. In animal models of inflammation, PGE(2) inhibition in the brain may occur secondarily to a peripheral action by inhibiting local PG formation that elicits increased firing of pain fibers and consequent activation of PG synthesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Celecoxib was studied in the kainate-induced seizure model in the rat, a model of direct central prostaglandin induction, to determine whether it can act directly in the CNS. In the kainate-treated rat brain there was increased PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), and PGD(2) production, with COX activity and PGE(2) formation increased about 7-fold over normal. We quantitated mRNA levels for enzymes involved in the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathways and found that both COX-2 and PGE synthase (PGEs) mRNA levels were increased in the brain; no changes were found for expression of COX-1 or PGD synthase mRNA. By Western blot analysis, COX-2 and PGEs were induced in total brain, hippocampus, and cortex, but not in the spinal cord. Immunohistological studies showed that COX-2 protein expression was enhanced in neurons. Dexamethasone treatment reduced the expression of both COX-2 and PGEs in kainate-treated animals. Celecoxib reduced the elevated PGE(2) levels in brain of kainate-treated rats and inhibited induced COX activity, demonstrating the ability of this compound to act on COX-2 in CNS. Doses of celecoxib that inhibited brain COX-2 were lower than those needed for anti-inflammatory activity in adjuvant arthritis, demonstrating a potent direct central action of the compound.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: To examine cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme expression, its regulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and the role of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in proteoglycan degradation in human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. Samples of human OA articular cartilage, meniscus, synovial membrane, and osteophytic fibrocartilage were obtained at knee arthroplasty and cultured ex vivo with or without IL-1 beta and COX inhibitors. COX expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The enzymatic activity of COX was measured by conversion of arachidonic acid to PGE(2). Cartilage degradation was evaluated by measuring the accumulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the medium. IL-1 beta induced robust expression of COX-2 and PGE(2) in OA meniscus, synovial membrane, and osteophytic fibrocartilage explants, whereas low levels were produced in OA articular cartilage. IL-1 beta also induced cartilage proteoglycan degradation in OA synovial membrane-cartilage cocultures. Increased proteoglycan degradation corresponded to the induction of COX-2 protein expression in, and PGE(2) production from, the synovial membrane. Dexamethasone, neutralizing IL-1 beta antibody, or the selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-236, attenuated both the IL-1 beta-induced PGE(2) production and cartilage proteoglycan degradation in these cocultures. The addition of PGE(2) reversed the inhibition of proteoglycan degradation caused by SC-236. IL-1 beta-induced production of COX-2 protein and PGE(2) was low in OA articular cartilage compared with that in the other OA tissues examined. IL-1 beta-mediated degradation of cartilage proteoglycans in OA synovial membrane-cartilage cocultures was blocked by the selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-236, and the effect of SC-236 was reversed by the addition of exogenous PGE(2). Our data suggest that induction of synovial COX-2-produced PGE(2) is one mechanism by which IL-1 beta modulates cartilage proteoglycan degradation in OA.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the potential role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in normal and inflammatory human diseases, we characterized the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in biopsies of osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Tissues were prepared for immunohistochemistry by standard methods, and representative cases assayed via Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. COX-2 was not detected in normal human tissues with few exceptions. Moderate to marked COX-2 was observed in the macula densa (MD) and thick ascending limb (TAL) in human fetal kidneys, but was not detected in neonatal and adult MD and TALs. Low level, constitutive COX-2 was detected in colonic epithelium, peribronchial glands, and pancreatic ductal epithelium. Low to moderate COX-2 was detected basally in the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and spinal cord, and in reproductive tissues during ovulation, implantation and labor. No COX-2 was detected in the existing vasculature in normal tissues, and was also not expressed throughout the ductus arteriosus. COX-2 was markedly induced in human tissues of osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis and cancer. COX-2 was prominently expressed in the synovium, fibrocartilage of osteophytes, and in the blood vessels in the osteoarthritic (OA) knee joint. COX-2 was also prominently detected in the macrophages/foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques, and in the endothelium overlying and immediately adjacent to the fibrofatty lesion. Moderate- to intense COX-2 expression was consistently observed in the inflammatory cells, neoplastic lesions, and blood vessels in all epithelial-derived human cancers studied. In contrast, COX-1 was relatively ubiquitously observed in both normal and pathophysiological conditions. These data collectively imply COX-2 plays an important role in mediating a variety of inflammatory diseases, and imply COX-2 inhibitors may be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of OA, heart disease, and epithelial cancers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX) performs the critical initial reaction in the arachidonic metabolic cascade, leading to formation of proinflammatory prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. The discovery of a second COX isoform (COX-2) associated with inflammation led to agents that selectively inhibit COX-2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are also being developed for canine applications. To assess the compound potency on canine enzymes, canine COX-1 and COX-2 were cloned, expressed, and purified. Cyclooxygenase-1 was cloned from a canine kidney complementary DNA (cDNA) library, with 96 % sequence homology to human COX-1. Cyclooxygenase-2 was cloned from canine kidney and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cDNA libraries, with a 93 % sequence homology to human COX-2. The arachidonic acid Michaelis constants for canine COX-1 and COX-2 were 4.8 and 6.6 micrometer, respectively, compared with 9.6 and 10.2 micrometer for ovine. Inhibition results indicated that, for all compounds tested, there was no significant difference between potencies determined for canine enzymes and those for human enzymes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Veterinary therapeutics: research in applied veterinary medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Increased prostaglandins (PGs) are associated with many inflammatory pathophysiological conditions; and are synthesized from arachidonic acid by either of 2 enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) or -2 (COX-2). Recent epidemiologic, expression, and pharmacologic studies suggest COX-2 derived metabolites also play a functional role in the maintenance of tumor viability, growth and metastasis. Archival and/or prospectively collected human tissues were prepared for immunohistochemistry, and representative cases assayed via Western blot, RT-PCR, or TAQman analysis. Consistent overexpression of COX-2 was observed in a broad range of premalignant, malignant, and metastatic human epithelial cancers. COX-2 was detected in ca. 85% of the hyperproliferating, dysplastic, and neoplastic epithelial cells, and in the existing and angiogenic vasculature within and adjacent to hyperplastic/neoplastic lesions. These data collectively imply COX-2 may play an important role during premalignant hyperproliferation, as well as the later stages of invasive carcinoma and metastasis in various human epithelial cancers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX) performs the critical initial reaction in the arachidonic metabolic cascade, leading to formation of proinflammatory prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. The discovery of a second COX isoform (COX-2) associated with inflammation led to agents that selectively inhibit COX-2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are also being developed for canine applications. To assess the compound potency on canine enzymes, canine COX-1 and COX-2 were cloned, expressed, and purified. Cyclooxygenase-1 was cloned from a canine kidney complementary DNA (cDNA) library, with 96% sequence homology to human COX-1. Cyclooxygenase-2 was cloned from canine kidney and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cDNA libraries, with a 93% sequence homology to human COX-2. The arachidonic acid Michaelis constants (Km) for canine COX-1 and COX-2 were 4.8 and 6.6 μm, respectively, compared with 9.6 and 10.2 μm for ovine. Inhibition results indicated that, for all compounds tested, there was no significant difference between potencies determined for canine enzymes and those for human enzymes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes are the targets for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs demonstrate a variety of inhibitory mechanisms, which include simple competitive, as well as slow binding and irreversible inhibition. In general, most NSAIDs inhibit COX-1 and -2 by similar mechanisms. A unique class of diarylheterocyclic inhibitors has been developed that is highly selective for COX-2 by virtue of distinct inhibitory mechanisms for each isoenzyme. Several of these inhibitors, with varying selectivity, have been utilized to probe the mechanisms of COX inhibition. Results from analysis of both steady-state and time-dependent inhibition were compared. A generalized mechanism for inhibition, consisting of three sequential reversible steps, can account for the various types of kinetic behaviour observed with these inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2001 · Biochemical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Recent chemopreventive studies in our laboratories showed that the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, inhibited the induction of mammary cancer by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). In this study, we examined the relative chemopreventive effect of varying doses of celecoxib on the development and growth of DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors. At 10 days prior to receiving a single intragastric dose of 15 mg DMBA/rat, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control chow diet or diets containing 250, 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm celecoxib until termination of the experiment. Administration of increasing doses of celecoxib inhibited mammary tumor incidence and multiplicity as well as tumor volume in a dose-dependent manner. At 122 days post DMBA-intubation, mammary tumor incidence was 100% in the control rats compared to 80%, 50%, 45% and 25% in rats receiving 250, 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm celecoxib, respectively (p<0.001). Similarly, tumor multiplicity and tumor volume were significantly reduced by increasing the dose of celecoxib from 250 to 1500 ppm in the diet. The control rats had an average of 3.46 tumors/rat compared to 1.80, 1.00, 0.75 and 0.50 tumors/rat in animals receiving 250, 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm celecoxib, respectively (p<0.001). Average tumor volumes in rats fed 250, 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm celecoxib were 0.42, 0.34, 0.31 and 0.16 cm3 compared to 1.29 cm3 in the control rats (p<0.001). There was a concomitant increase in the steady-state serum concentration of celecoxib with the dose. These results indicate that, in this rat model, the chemopreventive effect of celecoxib against breast cancer is dose-dependent and that celecoxib is effective even at lower dose levels.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Anticancer research

Publication Stats

17k Citations
442.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2002
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 2001
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Surgery
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2000
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Prevention
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1995-2000
    • Monsanto Company
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 1990-1992
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States