[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in Taiwan is due to the heavy use of antimicrobial agents in both animal husbandry and clinical practice over the past decades. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of linezolid were established for 371 clinical isolates of staphylococci, pneumococci, enterococci and group A streptococci from Taiwan. All isolates tested including those resistant to beta-lactams, erythromycin, vancomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin were uniformly susceptible to linezolid, with MICs ranging from 0.125 to 2 mg/l. Our data support the observation that there is no cross-resistance between linezolid and other classes of antimicrobial substances.
Preview · Article · Oct 2001 · International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few reports on cryptococcal meningitis in non-HIV-infected patients in subtropical areas. We reviewed 94 non-HIV-infected patients microbiologically diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis and hospitalized at National Taiwan University Hospital, 1977-1996. Forty-two patients (44.7%) had underlying diseases. The main initial manifestations were headache (86.2%), vomiting (72.3%) and fever (69. 1%). The 30 patients with T-cell suppression had more acute illnesses (median duration of symptoms: 14 days vs. 29 days), less typical presentations of meningitis, and reduced inflammatory responses compared with the 64 without T cell suppression. There was no statistical difference between patients who received amphotericin B treatment for 10 weeks and those received amphotericin B with subsequent fluconazole treatment, in terms of mortality rate and recurrence rate. Seventy-five patients (79.8%) had satisfactory clinical responses, and two relapsed. Eighteen patients died (19.1%) and 10 of these died within 2 weeks of hospitalization. Patients in this series had outcomes comparable with those from temperate and even tropical countries with high percentages of immunocompetent hosts. Factors significantly associated with death were lymphoma, semicoma, leukocytosis, and initial high titres of cryptococcal antigen in cerebral spinal fluid (especially >/=1 : 512). On multivariate analysis, lymphoma and initial high cryptococcal antigen titres were independent predictors of mortality.
Preview · Article · May 2000 · QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of all clinical isolates of 14 common pathogenic bacteria recovered from patients in eight medical centers in Taiwan during 1995 and 1996. Susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 59.3% and 62% were oxacillin-resistant in 1995 and 1996, respectively, whereas 63.2% of the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates during the study period were oxacillin-resistant. The rate of penicillin-resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates was 39.7% in 1995 and 53.7% in 1996. Macrolide-resistance was found in 71.4%, 42.1%, and 46.7% of S. pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and viridans streptococci, respectively, in 1996. Less than 2% of the enterococcal isolates were vancomycin resistant, but 77% of them were gentamicin resistant. Resistance to gentamicin was also common in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Various degrees of resistance to ampicillin, piperacillin, cephalosporins, aztreonam, and ciprofloxacin were detected in Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. More than 55% of Haemophilus influenzae isolates were ampicillin resistant. In summary, resistance to many antimicrobial agents in various common pathogenic bacteria is very common in Taiwan. Our results implicate that antibiotic resistance in the developing countries need to be monitored closely.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred years after introduction of the Eucalyptus tree to Taiwan, a predominantly subtropical island, we analyzed clinical and microbiological data of 59 patients with Cryptococcus neoformans infection hospitalized at National Taiwan University Hospital during 1982 to 1997. There were 38 (64.4%) cases of cryptococcosis caused by the var. neoformans and 21 (35.6%) caused by the var. gattii. Thirty-three patients (55.9%) had impaired T cell function, which included 12 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Eleven of the 12 patients with AIDS were diagnosed after 1995, and 11 cases were caused by var. neoformans. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by the NCCLS broth microdilution method using antibiotic medium 3 improved the discrimination of in vitro susceptibility against amphotericin B and demonstrated that var. gattii isolates were less susceptible (geometric means 0.25 microg/ml versus 0.64 microg/ml, P < 0.001). In addition, a higher proportion of var. gattii were less susceptible to flucytosine as compared with var. neoformans (35.0% versus 64.9%, P = 0.030). There was no seasonal clustering for isolation of var. neoformans, though infections caused by var. gattii peaked in July and August. Compared with the first study of cryptococcosis (1957-1972) at NTUH, this study demonstrated the increase in immunocompromised and elderly patients, as well as a higher proportion of Cryptococcus isolated from blood or bone marrow. Facing the increasing adaptive plantation of Eucalyptus in Taiwan, the importance of field study regarding the role of Eucalyptus plantations in Taiwan and occurrence of cryptococcosis in human beings cannot be over-emphasized.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and management of imported malaria presents a continuing challenge in developed countries, including Taiwan. We retrospectively analyzed the records of all 31 patients with imported malaria treated at National Taiwan University Hospital from January 1984 through December 1998. Plasmodium falciparum was identified as the causative malarial parasite in 18 patients, P. vivax in 12, and P. ovale in one. All 31 patients had fever, but only 13 presented with the characteristic fever pattern. The most common initial laboratory abnormalities were thrombocytopenia (20/31), mild hyperbilirubinemia (20/31), and leukopenia (7/31). The median time from the onset of fever to the correct diagnosis was 4 days for P. falciparum and 5 days for P. vivax. In 28 cases, the clue that led to early diagnosis was the patient's travel history. Quinine, but not chloroquine, was effective in 17 out of 18 cases of falciparum malaria. Three patients treated with intravenous quinine required a change of regimen because of life-threatening quinine toxicity; artesunate served as a safe and effective alternative in this situation. While most patients with tertian malaria were cured with the standard chloroquine and primaquine regimen, a higher dosage was required for one case acquired in Papua New Guinea. All patients, including two with severe malaria, survived. We conclude that, the mortality of imported malaria in the chloroquine resistance era can be minimized with early recognition by obtaining a thorough travel history, and instituting appropriate antimalarial chemotherapy based on precise identification of species. Quinine toxicity should be closely monitoried, especially when this drug is given intravenously.
No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agranulocytosis is a rare complication of antithyroid drugs, and the aetiologies of community-acquired, life-threatening infections in patients taking these drugs have not previously been systematically described. Of 5653 hyperthyroid patients treated with antithyroid drugs at National Taiwan University Hospital between January 1987 and December 1997, 13 (0.23%) developed agranulocytosis with life-threatening infections. The most common presentations were fever (92%) and sore throat (85%). Initial clinical diagnoses were acute pharyngitis (46%), acute tonsillitis (38%), pneumonia (15%) and urinary tract infection (8%). Positive blood cultures from six patients yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Escherichia coli (1), Staphylococcus aureus (1), Capnocytophaga species (1). Two patients died of uncontrolled infection, thyroid storm and multiple organ failure. Cases of antithyroid-drug-induced agranulocytosis in the English language literature are reviewed; Gram-negative bacilli, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (4 patients) and P. aeruginosa (3), were the most common pathogens in clinical isolates. Our observation and review suggest that broad-spectrum antibiotics with anti-pseudomonal activity should be given to patients with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis who present with severe infection.
Preview · Article · Sep 1999 · QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MICs of quinupristin/dalfopristin against common Gram-positive bacteria isolated from various clinical specimens at a university hospital in Taiwan were determined by the agar dilution method. The tested bacteria included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis (MSSE), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. With the exception of E. faecalis all bacteria were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin. The MIC50 and MIC90 were, respectively, 0.25 microgram/mL and 0.5 microgram/mL for both MRSA and MSSA; 0.25 microgram/mL and 0.5 microgram/mL for MRSE; 0.25 microgram/mL and 0.25 microgram/mL for MSSE; 0.125 microgram/mL and 0.125 microgram/mL for S. pyogenes; and < or = 0.03 microgram/mL and 0.25 microgram/mL for S. pneumoniae. Eighty-two percent of the tested E. faecalis isolates were intermediately resistant or resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, with an MIC50 of 2 micrograms/mL and an MIC90 of 4 micrograms/mL. Quinupristin/dalfopristin seems to be a promising antimicrobial agent against common Gram-positive bacteria other than E. faecalis in Taiwan.
No preview · Article · Apr 1999 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro antimicrobial activity of meropenem, in comparison with nine other antimicrobial agents, against 12 different common pathogenic bacteria were evaluated to know the susceptibility of common bacteria to meropenem in Taiwan. Meropenem was active against most Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria, including methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacteroides fragilis. For many of them, meropenem was the most active one in comparison with other broad-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin. It is concluded that meropenem is a very active agent against most common pathogenic bacteria. It is uncommon for these common bacteria, except MRSA and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, to be resistant to meropenem in Taiwan, where a high prevalence of resistance to other antimicrobial agents was found in many of the common bacteria.
No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty five patients with tuberculous peritonitis were studied retrospectively. Tuberculous peritonitis was defined as the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from ascites or dialysate, and/or caseating granuloma/acid-fast bacilli from peritoneal biopsy specimens from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis or a response to treatment for tuberculosis. Among the patients studied, nine with cirrhosis of the liver; seven with diabetes mellitus and six with end-stage renal disease, of whom four had undergone continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The most frequent signs of tuberculous peritonitis included ascites, fever and anemia. Ascites was found in 31 patients (89%). Abnormal findings on chest radiographs were found in 26 patients (74%), of whom 22 patients (63%) had pleural effusion and five had miliary lung lesions. Seven out of 35 patients were found to have positive culture of sputum or pleural effusion for M. tuberculosis. Two patients were found to have concomitant tuberculous peritonitis and enteritis. Multiple organ involvement was found in eight patients. Eleven patients (31%) died: eight were older than 60 years; six had cirrhosis of the liver and nine were diagnosed post-mortemly. In Taiwan, tuberculous peritonitis should be considered in patients with abnormality of chest radiography and nonresolving peritonitis.
No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia, a widespread gram-negative environmental bacillus associated with nosocomial infections, is considered to be of relatively low virulence and rarely to cause invasive disease. We retrospectively analyzed the risk factors, clinical manifestations, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and prognostic factors of B. cepacia bacteremia cases. From 1982 through 1995, 70 episodes of bacteremia due to B. cepacia occurred in 52 patients at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The overall case fatality rate was 11%. Sixty-four episodes were nosocomial infections. The common predisposing conditions were stay in an intensive care unit (61%) and invasive procedures, including urinary catheter (54%), intravenous catheter (70%), and intubation (57%). Three episodes involved polymicrobial bacteremia. In 41 episodes in which the infectious focus was identified, the respiratory tract was the most common portal of entry (17/41) followed by intravascular catheters (11/41). Most strains tested were susceptible to ceftazidime (95%), piperacillin (93%), minocycline (85%), and cefotaxime (82%); but most were resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. For empirical therapy of B. cepacia bacteremia, ceftazidime or piperacillin should be the drug of choice.
No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus aphrophilus is rarely implicated as an aetiology of spinal epidural abscess. A 73-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis who developed H. aphrophilus bacteraemia complicated with vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural abscess is presented. Without surgical decompression, she was successfully treated with cefotaxime for 3 weeks, followed by maintenance with ciprofloxacin for another 10 weeks. The clinical features of eight previously reported cases of vertebral osteomyelitis without epidural abscess due to H. aphrophilus are reviewed.
Preview · Article · Dec 1997 · Journal of Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia is a widespread, environmental gram-negative bacillus that is associated with nosocomial infections. This bacterium is considered to be an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients and is inherently resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. To compare the activity of different antimicrobial agents and the potential of combinations against invasive strains of B. cepacia, we collected 36 isolates of B. cepacia from blood cultures and checked their susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. Most strains tested were susceptible to minocycline (94.4%), ceftazidime (86.1%), ciprofloxacin (83.3%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.3%). All strains were resistant to aminoglycosides, and only some strains were susceptible to imipenem (16.7%), aztreonam (19.4%), moxalactam (25.0%), piperacillin (25.0%), and carbenicillin (47.2%). The effects of combinations of ceftazidime with amikacin, ceftazidime with ciprofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin with amikacin were assayed by checkerboard titration method. Synergistic effect was found in 28 out of 36 tested strains (77.8%), when ceftazidime was combined with amikacin, in 25 out of 36 strains (69.4%) when ceftazidime was combined with ciprofloxacin, and in only 8 out of 36 strains (22.2%) when ciprofloxacin was combined with amikacin.
No preview · Article · Sep 1997 · Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the clinical features, antimicrobial therapy, and epidemiology of Chryseobacterium indologenes infections, the medical records of 36 patients with nosocomial Chryseobacterium indologenes infections seen over a three-year period at National Taiwan University Hospital were reviewed. The 36 isolates recovered from these patients were studied by molecular typing and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Nine patients had underlying neoplastic diseases, seven had diabetes mellitus, five had burn wounds, and four had uremia. The clinical syndrome included ten patients with intraabdominal infections, nine with wound sepsis, six with intravascular catheter-related bacteremia, and four with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Thirteen patients had monomicrobial bacteremia, and four had polymicrobial bacteremia. Nineteen patients (53%) developed infections associated with various indwelling devices. The deaths of five patients (14%) were directly attributable to infection with Chryseobacterium indologenes. All isolates recovered showed a wide range of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of the isolates differed from each other, indicating the absence of epidemiological relatedness among these isolates. Nosocomial infection caused by multiresistant Chryseobacterium indologenes appears to be an emerging problem in Taiwan and should be studied further.
No preview · Article · Sep 1997 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-three patients with Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia were seen between July 1980 and June 1996 at National Taiwan University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). We retrospectively
analyzed the clinical features of these patients and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 43 isolates recovered from
them. Twenty-seven patients (63%) had community-acquired bacteremia, and 16 patients (37%) had polymicrobial bacteremia. The
clinical syndromes included hepatobiliary infections (58% of patients), primary bacteremia (23%), intravascular device—associated
infections (7%), urinary tract infections (5%), skin and soft-tissue infections (5%), and peritonitis (2%). Most of these
patients (93%) had underlying diseases including hepatobiliary diseases (53%), neoplastic diseases (42%), and diabetes mellitus
(16%). Eight patients (19%) had septic shock, and two (5%) had disseminated intravascular coagulation. Four patients (9%)
died of K. oxytoca bacteremia. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefmetazole, imipenem, aminoglycosides, and quinolones,
and 86% of the isolates were susceptible to cefazolin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 106 clinical isolates of flavobacteria, including 41 isolates of Flavobacterium meningosepticum, 59 of Flavobacterium indologenes, and 6 of Flavobacterium odoratum were collected from January 1992 to December 1995 from patients in Taiwan. The in vitro activities of antimicrobial agents were determined concomitantly by the standard agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. More than 90% of the flavobacterial isolates were resistant to cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, aztreonam, imipenem, aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and glycopeptides. The majority of F. meningosepticum isolates were susceptible to piperacillin and to minocycline but resistant to ceftazidime, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited being 8, 4, and > 128 microg/ml, respectively. Approximately half of the F. indologenes isolates were susceptible to piperacillin, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, and minocycline, with MICs at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited being 4, 16, 8, and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The majority of F. odoratum isolates were resistant to all the antimicrobial agents tested except minocycline, to which five of six isolates were susceptible. With least-squares regression analysis and error rate-bounded analysis methods, the following resistant and susceptible zone diameter breakpoints were established: < or = 12 and > or = 17 mm, respectively, for piperacillin against F. meningosepticum and F. indologenes; < or = 13 and > or = 18 mm, respectively, for ceftazidime against F. meningosepticum and F. indologenes, < or = 17 and > or = 21 mm, respectively, for ofloxacin against F. indologenes; < or = 16 and > or = 20 mm, respectively, for ciprofloxacin against F. meningosepticum. Valid breakpoints for the disk diffusion method could not be established for cefoperazone and ofloxacin against F. meningosepticum and for minocycline against F. meningosepticum and F. indologenes due to a poor correlation coefficient for the regression line or for cefoperazone and ciprofloxacin against F. indologenes due to the presence of remarkable error rates.
Preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavimonas oryzihabitans is rarely reported as a pathogen in humans. Twelve cases of F. oryzihabitans bacteremia were diagnosed at National Taiwan University Hospital over a 3-year period. The clinical features of these patients
were analyzed, and antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of the 12 isolates
were studied. Among these 12 patients, eight (67%) had underlying neoplastic diseases and all acquired F. oryzihabitans bacteremia while hospitalized. The clinical syndromes included primary bacteremia in 5 patients (42%), biliary tract infection
in 3 (25%), and peritonitis, subdural empyema, infusion-related bacteremia, and pneumonia in 1 each. Polymicrobial bacteremia
or concomitant fungemia was seen in three patients (25%). All the patients survived after antibiotic treatment. All isolates
were susceptible to piperacillin, third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and quinolones but resistant to cephalothin,
cefuroxime, and trimethoprim. Susceptibility to aztreonam was variable (25%). The RAPD patterns differed among the isolates,
indicating the epidemiological unrelatedness of these infections. F. oryzihabitans should be included as an etiology of severe nosocomial infection in patients with underlying debilitating diseases.
Preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the incidence and patterns of nosocomial fungal infection in a large teaching hospital in Taiwan.
Prospective, hospitalwide nosocomial surveillance data from 1981 through 1993 were analyzed to show the secular trend in nosocomial fungal infection rates and to identify the most common pathogens and sites of infection (other than skin) in this hospital.
The National Taiwan University Hospital is a medical school-affiliated hospital in the city of Taipei, Taiwan, with a 1200-bed capacity before 1991 and 1500 beds since 1992. It provides both primary and tertiary medical care.
The overall nosocomial fungal infection rate rose from 0.9 infections per 1000 discharges in 1981 to 6.6 per 1000 discharges in 1993, with the highest rate at the medical intensive-care unit (26.5/1000 discharges in 1993). This increase in infection rate was found at four major anatomic sites of infection, particularly including the bloodstream (0.08-2.19/1000 discharges) and the urinary tract (0.36-2.95/1000 discharges). Of 256 pathogens causing nosocomial fungemia from 1981 through 1993, Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated (50.8%), followed by Candida tropicalis (17.6%). Candida parapsilosis (11.7%), and Candida glabrata (8.2%). As compared to isolates from 1981 through 1988, the proportion of C parapsilosis and C glabrata isolated between 1989 and 1993 increased more than sixfold and fourfold, respectively. The increasing importance of fungal infections was confirmed further by the increased use of amphotericin B and azoles in this hospital.
Candida species and other yeasts have become a prominent cause of nosocomial infections in this hospital. These fungal pathogens accounted for a higher proportion of nosocomial bloodstream and urinary infections than any single bacterial species. Therefore, it is important to conduct a prospective epidemiological study and to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing to enhance efforts to control nosocomial fungal infections and to minimize the risk of emergence of antifungal resistance.
No preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology