[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
High grade serous ovarian cancer is characterised by high initial response to chemotherapy but poor outcome in the long term due to acquired resistance. One of the main genetic features of this disease is TP53 mutation. The majority of TP53 mutated tumors harbor missense mutations in this gene, correlated with p53 accumulation. TP53 null tumors constitute a specific subgroup characterised by nonsense, frameshift or splice-site mutations associated to complete absence of p53 expression. Different studies show that this kind of tumors may have a worse prognosis than other TP53 mutated HGSC.
In this study, we sought to characterise the intra-tumor heterogeneity of a TP53 null HGSC consisting of six primary tumor samples, two intra-pelvic and four extra-pelvic recurrences using exome sequencing and comparative genome hybridisation.
Significant heterogeneity was found among the different tumor samples, both at the mutational and copy number levels. Exome sequencing identified 102 variants, of which only 42 were common to all three samples; whereas 7 of the 18 copy number changes found by CGH analysis were presented in all samples. Sanger validation of 20 variants found by exome sequencing in additional regions of the primary tumor and the recurrence allowed us to establish a sequence of the tumor clonal evolution, identifying those populations that most likely gave rise to recurrences and genes potentially involved in this process, like GPNMB and TFDP1. Using functional annotation and network analysis, we identified those biological functions most significantly altered in this tumor. Remarkably, unexpected functions such as microtubule-based movement and lipid metabolism emerged as important for tumor development and progression, suggesting its potential interest as therapeutic targets.
Altogether, our results shed light on the clonal evolution of the distinct tumor regions identifying the most aggressive subpopulations and at least some of the genes that may be implicated in its progression and recurrence, and highlights the importance of considering intra-tumor heterogeneity when carrying out genetic and genomic studies, especially when these are aimed to diagnostic procedures or to uncover possible therapeutic strategies.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1952-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An inefficient immune response against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is related to the pathogenesis of a subgroup of classical Hodgkin lymphomas (cHL). Some EBV immune-evasion mechanisms target HLA presentation, including the non-classical HLA-E molecule. HLA-E can be recognized by T cells via the TCR, and it also regulates natural killer (NK) cell signaling through the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor. Some evidences indicate that EBV-infected B-cells promote the proliferation of NK subsets bearing CD94/NKG2A, suggesting a relevant function of these cells in EBV control. Variations in CD94/NKG2A-HLA-E interactions could affect NK cell-mediated immunity and, consequently, play a role in EBV-driven transformation and lymphomagenesis. The two most common HLA-E alleles, E*01:01 and E*01:03, differ by a single amino acid change that modifies the molecule function. We hypothesized that the functional differences in these variants might participate in the pathogenicity of EBV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of germline mutations affecting the MYC-associated protein X (MAX) gene has recently been identified as one of the now 11 major genetic predisposition factors for the development of hereditary pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma. Little is known regarding how missense variants of unknown significance (VUS) in MAX affect its pivotal role in the regulation of the MYC/MAX/MXD axis. In the present study, we propose a consensus computational prediction based on five "state-of-the-art" algorithms. We also describe a PC12-based functional assay to assess the effects that 12 MAX VUS may have on MYC's E-box transcriptional activation. For all but two of these 12 VUS, the functional assay and the consensus computational prediction gave consistent results; we classified seven variants as pathogenic and three as nonpathogenic. The introduction of wild-type MAX cDNA into PC12 cells significantly decreased MYC's ability to bind to canonical E-boxes, while pathogenic MAX proteins were not able to fully repress MYC activity. Further clinical and molecular evaluation of variant carriers corroborated the results obtained with our functional assessment. In the absence of clear heritability, clinical information, and molecular data, consensus computational predictions and functional models are able to correctly classify VUS affecting MAX.
A functional assay assesses the effects of MAX VUS over MYC transcriptional activity. A consensus computational prediction and the functional assay show high concordance. Variant carriers' clinical and molecular data support the functional assessment.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been associated with survival in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and other lymphoma types. The maturation and differentiation of tissue macrophages depends upon interactions between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) and its ligands. There remains, however, a lack of consistent information on CSF1R expression in TAMs. A new monoclonal antibody, FER216, was generated to investigate CSF1R protein distribution in formalin fixed tissue samples from 24 reactive lymphoid tissues and 187 different lymphoma types. We also analysed the distribution of CSF1R+, CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages by double immunostaining, and studied the relationship between CSF1R expression and survival in an independent series of 249 cHL patients. CSF1R+ TAMs were less frequent in B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and cHL. HRS cells in cHL and, with the exception of three cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the neoplastic cells in NHLs, lacked detectable CSF1R protein. A CSF1R+ enriched microenvironment in cHL was associated with shorter survival in an independent series of 249 cHL patients. CSF1R pathway activation was evident in the cHL and inactivation of this pathway could be a potential therapeutic target in cHL cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was treated with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, which produced a complete remission. Eight months after the last dose of rituximab he had visual disturbance, diminished muscular strength in the right arm and vesicular-papular lesions in the left ophthalmic branch region of the V cranial nerve. These were initially interpreted as herpes virus encephalopathy (HVE), but brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed evidence of demyelination consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was negative for varicella zoster virus (VZV) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA. The clinical suggestion of PML prompted us to perform a brain biopsy and to start treatment with mefloquine. In the brain biopsy, histopathological features of demyelination were described and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified JCV, confirming the diagnosis of PML. Treatment with mefloquine (250 mg/week) and dexamethasone (4 mg/day) was started and maintained for 6 months. A year later there was an almost complete resolution of the MRI lesions and the patient achieved a stable clinical state with persisting motor impairment and severe epilepsy. The patient is alive 38 months after diagnosis of PML, which is the longest known survival to date.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to World Health Organization criteria, diffuse gliomas are divided into several histological subtypes, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas, and 4 malignancy grades (I-IV). Molecular alterations, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH) mutation or 1p/19q loss, are found in these tumors but are not included in the current classification system. Recently, mutation of α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene and its loss of expression have been reported in infiltrating gliomas. We evaluated ATRX protein expression in 272 gliomas and its association with molecular and clinical features. Loss of ATRX expression was more common in tumors with an astrocytic component (astrocytomas II/III, 46.4%; oligoastrocytomas, 47.5%) but was uncommon in oligodendrogliomas (7.3%) and glioblastomas (0.9%). In astrocytic tumors, loss of ATRX expression was significantly associated with longer overall survival. Remarkably, on the basis of IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and ATRX expression, our study defined 4 molecularly and prognostically different groups of gliomas, showing the relevance of ATRX expression as a new marker for refining the molecular classification of gliomas and for distinguishing clinically distinct prognostic subgroups of patients.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, there is no efficient therapy for patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases are important mediators of cell survival. We aimed to determine the therapeutic value of PIM kinases because they are overexpressed in PTCL patients, T cell lines and primary tumoral T cells. PIM kinases were inhibited genetically (using small interfering and short hairpin RNAs) and pharmacologically (mainly with the pan-PIM inhibitor (PIMi) ETP-39010) in a panel of 8 PTCL cell lines. Effects on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, key proteins and gene expression were evaluated. Individual inhibition of each of the PIM genes did not affect PTCL cell survival, partially because of a compensatory mechanism among the three PIM genes. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of all PIM kinases strongly induced apoptosis in all PTCL cell lines, without cell cycle arrest, in part through the induction of DNA damage. Therefore, pan-PIMi synergized with Cisplatin. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PIM reduced primary tumoral T cell viability without affecting normal T cells ex vivo. Since anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) cell lines were the most sensitive to the pan-PIMi, we tested the simultaneous inhibition of ALK and PIM kinases and found a strong synergistic effect in ALK+ ALCL cell lines. Our findings suggest that PIM kinase inhibition could be of therapeutic value in a subset of PTCL, especially when combined with ALK inhibitors, and might be clinically beneficial in ALK+ ALCL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A consensus based on Delphi methodology was developed to produce a guide for the evaluation and reporting of bone marrow biopsies in patients with a clinical suspicion of myeloproliferative neoplasm with fibrosis. Ten expert haematopathologists formulated a questionnaire including: clinical and laboratory data required before regarding a biopsy suspicious for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), descriptive aspects to be reported and the main histopathological differential diagnoses to be considered. It was circulated among 37 hematopathologists and consensus was defined when more than 70% of the experts “strongly agreed” or “agreed” after two rounds. The recommendations gave rise to a proposal for a standardized diagnostic report form to aid in the diagnostic workup and homogeneous reporting of cases with a clinical suspicion of PMF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have achieved remarkable clinical results in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients. However, the considerable variability in patient response to treatment with TKIs remains largely unexplained. There is evidence that it could be due, at least in part, to alterations in genes associated with the disease via their effect on the expression of TKI targets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of RAS mutations on the expression levels in MTC tumors of eight key TKI target proteins.
We assessed by immunohistochemistry the expression of EGFR, KIT, MET, PDGFRB, VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFR3 in a series of 84 primary MTC tumors that had previously been molecularly characterized, including 14 RAS-positive, 18 RET(M918T)-positive, and 24 RET(C634)-positive tumors, as well as 15 wild-type tumors with no mutations in the RET or RAS genes.
In contrast to RET-positive tumors, RAS-positive tumors expressed neither PDGFRB nor MET (p=0.0060 and 0.047, respectively). Similarly, fewer RAS-positive than RET-related tumors expressed VEGFR3 (p=0.00062). Finally, wild-type tumors expressed VEGF more often than both RAS- and RET-positive tumors (p=0.0082 and 0.011, respectively).
This is the first study identifying that the expression of TKI targets differs according to the presence of RAS mutations in MTC. This information could potentially be used to select the most beneficial TKI treatment for these patients.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) strongly relies on the bone marrow biopsy findings, but a report model has not been standardised. Our aim was to establish general recommendations for bone marrow evaluation and standardised reporting in a case suspicious of PMF.
The Delphi method was employed to obtain expert consensus. An advisory panel of 10 leading members identifies a total of 37 haematopathology experts to participate. The first Delphi round included a questionnaire with three main groups of items: minimal clinical and laboratory data considered necessary before reporting, minimal descriptive aspects to record and main histological differential diagnosis. The final report content was based on consensus obtained after the second Delphi round.
The minimal data considered necessary were age, splenomegaly, haemoglobin, leucocyte and platelet counts, differential blood cell count, leucoerythroblastic blood picture, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, BCR-ABL and JAK2 mutational status, reticulin stain and the internal control for the reticulin staining. The minimal descriptive aspects to report were cellularity, osteosclerosis, megakaryocytic morphology and localisation, dense megakaryocytic clusters, quantity of granulocytic precursors, grade of myelofibrosis in a scale of 4, and a proposed final diagnostic approach. The entities to be considered for differential diagnosis were mainly the other classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.
The Delphi method is a robust tool to determine essential information to be included in a pathology report. A standardised good-quality histopathological report form may help to homogenise PMF diagnosis. A close collaboration between the pathologist and the haematologist is desirable according to our survey.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) have been proposed, their relationship with clinical outcome remains unclear. Despite treatment advances, a substantial subset of patients with advanced cHL are refractory to standard therapies based on adriamycin and its variants. Global miRNA expression data of 29 advanced cHL patients and five cHL-derived cell lines were used to identify profiles from Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells and their non-tumoural microenvironment. A cHL-miRNA signature was identified with 234 miRNAs differentially expressed. A subset of these miRNAs was associated with outcome and selected for study in an independent set of 168 cHL samples using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate Cox regression analyses including cross-validation with failure-free survival (FFS) as clinical endpoint revealed a miRNA signature with MIR21, MIR30E, MIR30D and MIR92B* that identified two risk-groups with significant differences in 5-year FFS (81% vs. 35·7%; P < 0·001). Additionally, functional silencing of MIR21 and MIR30D in L428 cells showed increased sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, pointing towards abnormalities of mitochondrial intrinsic and TP53-CDKN1A pathways as related to miRNA deregulation in cHL. These results suggest that clinical outcome in cHL is associated with a specific miRNA signature. Moreover, functional analyses suggest a role for MIR21 and MIR30D in cHL pathogenesis and therapeutic resistance.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is the second most common peripheral T-cell lymphoma with unusual clinical and pathologic features and a poor prognosis despite intensive chemotherapy. Recent studies have suggested AITL derives from follicular helper T (T(FH)) cells, but the causative molecular pathways remain largely unknown. Here we show that approximately 50% of mice heterozygous for the "san" allele of Roquin develop tumors accompanied by hypergammaglobulinemia by 6 months of age. Affected lymph nodes displayed the histologic features diagnostic of AITL, except for the presence of expanded FDC networks. Accumulation of T(FH) cells preceded tumor development, and clonal rearrangements in the TCR-β genes were present in most tumors. Furthermore, T(FH) cells exhibited increased clonality compared with non-T(FH) cells from the same lymph nodes, even in the absence of tumors. Genetic manipulations that prevent T(FH) development, such as deletion of ICOS, CD28, and SAP, partially or completely abrogated tumor development, confirming a T(FH)-derived origin. Roquin(san/+) mice emerge as a useful model to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of AITL and for preclinical testing of therapies aimed at targeting dysregulated T(FH) cells or their consequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report a retrospective series of 47 EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with advanced age. Histopathology allowed to the identification of different histological patterns: cases with polymorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (29 cases), Hodgkin-like (8 cases) and polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorder-like (9 cases) patterns. One case was purely monomorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We show that this lymphoma type is a neoplasm with prominent classical and alternative nuclear factor-kB pathway activation in neoplastic cells (79% of the cases showed nuclear staining for p105/p50, 74% for p100/p52 and 63% for both proteins), with higher frequency than that observed in a control series of EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (χ(2) <0.001). Most cases showed an activated phenotype (95% non-germinal center (Hans algorithm); 78% activated B cell (Choi algorithm)). Clonality testing demonstrated IgH and/or K/Kde/L monoclonal rearrangements in 64% of cases and clonal T-cell populations in 24% of cases. C-MYC (1 case), BCL6 (2 cases) or IgH (3 cases) translocations were detected by FISH in 18% cases. These tumors had a poor overall survival and progression-free survival (the estimated 2-year overall survival was 40 ± 10% and the estimated 2-year progression-free survival was 36 ± 9%). Thus, alternative therapies, based on the tumor biology, need to be tested in patients with EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subset of patients with advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is refractory to standard therapies. Therefore, it is relevant to identify new biologically-based prognostic markers. Recently, tumor associated macrophages have been proposed as a factor that predicts survival, although contradictory results have also been reported. Here we analyzed four macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, LYZ, and STAT1) using immunohistochemistry and automated quantification, in two independent series of advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=266 and 103 patients, respectively). Our results did not confirm that specific macrophage immunohistochemical markers could be used as surrogates for gene expression profiling studies. Survival analyses did not show correlation between CD163, LYZ or STAT1 and either failure-free or disease-specific survival. There was an association between CD68 and disease-specific survival, but it was not consistent in both series. In conclusion, individual tumor associated macrophage markers cannot be used to predict outcome before technical standardization and prospective validation in independent series of patients with comparable stages and treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Leukemia & lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the protective effect of melatonin on H2O2-induced caspase activation and DNA fragmentation depends on the interaction between melatonin and its surface receptors.
Center for assisted human reproduction at a Spanish hospital.
Twenty-one healthy donors.
Human spermatozoa were treated with increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM) and preincubated with 1 mM melatonin.
Activation of caspase-3 and -9 as well as DNA fragmentation were examined by fluorescence methods.
Our findings showed that H2O2 induced a significant increase in caspase-9 and caspase-3, which was dose independent. Conversely, pretreatment with melatonin reduced H2O2-mediated caspase activation in a dose-dependent way. Moreover, the antiapoptotic effects of melatonin in ejaculated human spermatozoa may involve membrane melatonin receptor MT1. In addition, we found that the survival-promoting pathway extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is likely to have a role in the protective actions of melatonin in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Finally, we confirmed these results further by demonstrating that melatonin prevention of H2O2-induced DNA fragmentation is dependent on both MT1 receptor and ERK signaling.
These results indicate that the stimulation with melatonin triggers a set of events culminating in cell death prevention in ejaculated human spermatozoa.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hedgehog signaling pathway has been shown to play a pathogenic role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but has not been assessed in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Glioma-associated oncogene homologues 1, 2, and 3 are transcriptional effectors of the hedgehog pathway. In this study, we first used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expressions of GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 in 3 classical Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. GLI1 and GLI2 were variably expressed, but GLI3 was highly expressed in all cell lines. We then used immunohistochemistry to assess glioma-associated oncogene homologues 1, 2, and 3 in 39 classical Hodgkin lymphoma patient samples. Glioma-associated oncogene homologues 1 and 2 were weakly to variably expressed in a subset of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patient samples. In contrast, glioma-associated oncogene homologue 3 showed strong, uniform nuclear expression in virtually all Hodgkin/Reed-Stenberg cells. We then performed an immunohistochemical survey of glioma-associated oncogene homologue 3 expression in 13 cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and 218 non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Most other lymphoma types showed variable or no expression of glioma-associated oncogene homologue 3, with a minor subset of cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, ALK-positive and ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma showing a glioma-associated oncogene homologue 3 staining pattern indistinguishable from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Our data provide a rationale to further investigate the biologic significance of glioma-associated oncogene homologue 3 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma biology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates a wide range of neuroendocrine functions. However, excessive circulating serotonin levels may induce harmful effects in the male reproductive system. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIIA), a major serotonin metabolite, correlate with different classical seminal parameters.
Human ejaculates were obtained from 40 men attending infertility counselling and rotating shift workers by masturbation after 4-5 days of abstinence. Urinary 5- HIIA concentration was quantified by using a commercial ELISA kit. Forward motility was assessed by a computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) system. Sperm concentration was determined using the haemocytometer method. Sperm morphology was evaluated after Diff-Quik staining, while sperm vitality was estimated after Eosin-Nigrosin vital staining.
Our results show that urinary 5-HIIA levels obtained from a set of 20 volunteers negatively correlated with sperm concentration, forward motility, morphology normal range and sperm vitality. On the other hand, we checked the relationship between male infertility and urinary 5-HIIA levels in 20 night shift workers. Thus, urinary 5-HIIA levels obtained from 10 recently-proven fathers were significantly lower than those found in 10 infertile males. Additionally, samples from recent fathers exhibited higher sperm concentration, as well as better forward motility and normal morphology rate.
In the light of our findings, we concluded that high serotonin levels, indirectly measured as urinary 5-HIIA levels, appear to play a role as an infertility determinant in male subjects.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology