[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
-Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or myocardial injury.
Methods and results:
-In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) levels and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood onset and adult onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values <14 ng/L). cTnI levels were normal in all patients, while CK-MB levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all three subgroups (P<.001). None of the abnormal ECGs recorded in 21 patients were indicative of AMI, and there were no differences in cTnT levels between patients with and without (n=90) abnormalities on ECG (median 28 ng/L in both groups). The median left ventricular mass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all three subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in Pompe patients. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue.
-Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders, should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle stem cells termed satellite cells are essential for muscle regeneration. A central question in many neuromuscular disorders is why satellite cells are unable to prevent progressive muscle wasting. We have analyzed muscle fiber pathology and the satellite cell response in Pompe disease, a metabolic myopathy caused by acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency and lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Pathology included muscle fiber vacuolization, loss of cross striation, and immune cell infiltration.
The total number of Pax7-positive satellite cells in muscle biopsies from infantile, childhood onset and adult patients (with different ages and disease severities) were indistinguishable from controls, indicating that the satellite cell pool is not exhausted in Pompe disease. Pax7/Ki67 double stainings showed low levels of satellite cell proliferation similar to controls, while MyoD and Myogenin stainings showed undetectable satellite cell differentiation. Muscle regenerative activity monitored with expression of embryonic Myosin Heavy Chain was weak in the rapidly progressing classic infantile form and undetectable in the more slowly progressive childhood and adult onset disease including in severely affected patients.
These results imply that ongoing muscle wasting in Pompe disease may be explained by insufficient satellite cell activation and muscle regeneration. The preservation of the satellite cell pool may offer a venue for the development of novel treatment strategies directed towards the activation of endogenous satellite cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular abnormalities and glycogen accumulation in vascular smooth muscle fibres have been described in Pompe disease. Using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), the gold standard methodology for determining aortic stiffness, we studied whether aortic stiffness is increased in patients with Pompe disease. Eighty-four adult Pompe patients and 179 age- and gender-matched volunteers participated in this cross-sectional case-controlled study. Intima media thickness and the distensibility of the right common carotid artery were measured using a Duplex scanner. Aortic augmentation index, central pulse pressure, aortic reflexion time and cfPWV were assessed using the SphygmoCor® system. CfPWV was higher in patients than in volunteers (8.8 versus 7.4 m/s, p < 0.001). This difference was still present after adjustment for age, gender, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), and was shown by subgroup analysis to apply to the 40-59 years age group (p = 0.004) and 60+ years age group (p = 0.01), but not to younger age groups (p = 0.99). Except for a shorter aortic reflexion time (p = 0.02), indirect indicators of arterial stiffness did not differ between patients and volunteers. Relative to volunteers (20 %), more Pompe patients had a history of hypertension (36 %, p = 0.005), and the MAP was higher than in volunteers (100 versus 92 mmHg, p < 0.001). This study shows that patients with non-classic Pompe disease have increased aortic stiffness and blood pressure. Whether this is due to glycogen accumulation requires further investigation. To reduce the potential risk of cardiovascular diseases, we recommend that blood pressure and other common cardiovascular risk factors are monitored regularly.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pompe disease has a broad clinical spectrum, in which the phenotype is partially explained by the genotype. The aim of this study was to describe phenotypical variation among siblings with non-classic Pompe disease. We hypothesized that siblings and families with the same genotype share more similar phenotypes than the total population of non-classic Pompe patients, and that this might reveal genotype-phenotype correlations.
We identified all Dutch families in which two or three siblings were diagnosed with Pompe disease and described genotype, acid alpha-glucosidase activity, age at symptom onset, presenting symptoms, specific clinical features, mobility and ventilator dependency.
We identified 22 families comprising two or three siblings. All carried the most common mutation c.-32-13 T > G in combination with another pathogenic mutation. The median age at symptom onset was 33 years (range 1--62 years). Within sibships symptom onset was either in childhood or in adulthood. The median variation in symptom onset between siblings was nine years (range 0--31 years). Presenting symptoms were similar across siblings in 14 out of 22 families. Limb girdle weakness was most frequently reported. In some families ptosis or bulbar weakness were present in all siblings. A large variation in disease severity (based on wheelchair/ventilator dependency) was observed in 11 families. This variation did not always result from a difference in duration of the disease since a third of the less affected siblings had a longer course of the disease. Enzyme activity could not explain this variation either. In most families male patients were more severely affected. Finally, symptom onset varied substantially in twelve families despite the same GAA genotype.
In most families with non-classic Pompe disease siblings share a similar phenotype regarding symptom onset, presenting symptoms and specific clinical features. However, in some families the course and severity of disease varied substantially. This phenotypical variation was also observed in families with identical GAA genotypes. The commonalities and differences indicate that besides genotype, other factors such as epigenetic and environmental effects influence the clinical presentation and disease course.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased activity of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK) in serum is not infrequently encountered in routine diagnostic laboratory investigations. Patients are often referred to a neurologist specialized in neuromuscular disorders for evaluation. However, as in many cases hyperCKemia is physiological or results from physical activity or muscle trauma, further investigations are often unnecessary. We report four cases of hyperCKemia, two of which were physiological or due to non-neuromuscular factors (medication, physical activity). In the other two patients, the hyperCKemia was the first recognized sign of an underlying neuromuscular disorder. In these two cases, specific aspects of the history or physical examination prompted further investigations. We discuss various physiological and other non-neuromuscular factors that may cause hyperCKemia. It is important to recognize these causes before referral to a neurologist with neuromuscular expertise. We present guidelines for ancillary investigations by general practitioners or specialists.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxias are phenotypically, neuropathologically and genetically heterogeneous. The locus of autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCAR7) was previously linked to chromosome band 11p15. We have identified TPP1 as the causative gene for SCAR7 by exome sequencing. A missense and a splice site variant in TPP1, cosegregating with the disease, were found in a previously described SCAR7 family and also in another patient with a SCAR7 phenotype. TPP1, encoding the tripeptidyl peptidase 1 enzyme, is known as the causative gene for late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis disease 2 (CLN2 disease). CLN2 disease is characterized by epilepsy, loss of vision, ataxia and a rapidly progressive course, leading to early death. SCAR7 patients showed ataxia and low activity of tripeptidyl peptidase 1, but no ophthalmologic abnormalities or epilepsy. Also, the slowly progressive evolution of the disease until old age and absence of ultra structural curvilinear profiles is different from the known CLN2 phenotypes. Our findings now expand the phenotypes related to TPP1-variants to SCAR7. In spite of the limited sample size and measurements a putative genotype-phenotype correlation may be drawn: we hypothesize that loss of function variants abolishing TPP1 enzyme activity lead to CLN2 disease, while variants that diminish TPP1 enzyme activity lead to SCAR7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Pompe disease is a hereditary metabolic myopathy, for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. We investigated whether ERT reduces fatigue in adult patients with Pompe disease.
In this prospective international observational survey, we used the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure fatigue. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data over time. In a subgroup of patients, we also evaluated muscle strength using the Medical Research Council Scale, measured pulmonary function as Forced Vital Capacity, and assessed depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
We followed 163 patients for a median period of 4 years before ERT and for 3 years during ERT. Before ERT, the mean FSS score remained stable at around 5.3 score points; during ERT, scores improved significantly by 0.13 score points per year (p < 0.001). Fatigue decreased mainly in women, in older patients and in those with shorter disease duration. Patients' improvements in fatigue were moderately correlated with the effect of ERT on depression (r 0.55; CI 95% 0.07 to 0.70) but not with the effect of ERT on muscle strength or pulmonary function.
Fatigue is a common and disabling problem in patients with early and advanced stages of Pompe disease. Our finding that ERT helps to reduce fatigue is therefore important for this patient population, irrespective of the mechanisms underlying this effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To determine the variability of serum IgG in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).
All 25 CIDP patients had active but stable disease and were treated with individually optimised fixed dose IVIg regimens. IgG was measured by turbidimetry and variability was defined as coefficient of variation (CV).
The intra-patient variability of the pre-treatment IgG levels, post-treatment levels and increase in serum IgG shortly after IVIg (ΔIgG) was low (mean CV=3%, 4%, 10%). The inter-patient variability between patients treated with the same dose and interval was low in pre-treatment, post-treatment and ΔIgG level (mean CV=13%, 11%, 20%). The ΔIgG levels were associated with IVIg dosage (rs=0.78, p<0.001).
Clinically stable CIDP patients show a steady-state in serum IgG after serial IVIg infusions. The low intra- and inter-patient variability in IgG may indicate that constant levels are required to reach this stability.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achieving long-term remission after a limited more intense treatment period would prevent prolonged use of corticosteroids or IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). In this prospective cohort study we present long-term follow-up data on patients included in a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing 6 monthly pulses of dexamethasone with 8 months of daily prednisolone.
Treatment effect was assessed with the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment disability scale and the Rivermead Mobility Index and was categorized using the CIDP Disease Activity Status (CDAS) scale.
By March 2011, 39 out of 40 patients were included with a median follow-up of 4.5 years. Cure (>5 years off treatment) or remission according to the CDAS criteria after 1 or 2 courses of pulsed dexamethasone or daily prednisolone was achieved in 10 out of 39 patients (26%). Half of the patients who were in remission after initial treatment experienced a relapse (median treatment-free interval: 17.5 months for dexamethasone, 11 months for prednisolone). Alternative diagnosis was made in 7 out of 12 (58%) who did not respond to any therapy and in none of the treatment-responsive patients.
Cure or long-term remission can be achieved in about one-quarter of patients with CIDP after 1 or 2 courses of pulsed dexamethasone or 8-month daily prednisolone. In treatment-nonresponsive patients, the diagnosis CIDP should be reconsidered.
This study provides Class IV evidence that pulsed dexamethasone or 8-month daily prednisolone can lead to long-term remission in CIDP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Desmin-related myopathy (DRM) is an autosomally inherited skeletal and cardiac myopathy, mainly caused by dominant mutations in the desmin gene (DES). We describe new families carrying the p.S13F or p.N342D DES mutations, the cardiac phenotype of all carriers, and the founder effects.
We collected the clinical details of all carriers of p.S13F or p.N342D. The founder effects were studied using genealogy and haplotype analysis.
We identified three new index patients carrying the p.S13F mutation and two new families carrying the p.N342D mutation. In total, we summarised the clinical details of 39 p.S13F carriers (eight index patients) and of 21 p.N342D carriers (three index patients). The cardiac phenotype of p.S13F carriers is fully penetrant and severe, characterised by cardiac conduction disease and cardiomyopathy, often with right ventricular involvement. Although muscle weakness is a prominent and presenting symptom in p.N342D carriers, their cardiac phenotype is similar to that of p.S13F carriers. The founder effects of p.S13F and p.N342D were demonstrated by genealogy and haplotype analysis.
DRM may occur as an apparently isolated cardiological disorder. The cardiac phenotypes of the DES founder mutations p.S13F and p.N342D are characterised by cardiac conduction disease and cardiomyopathy, often with right ventricular involvement.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the prevalence and severity of fatigue and predicting factors for severe fatigue in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA).
We studied a cross-section of 123 patients with SCA. Six functional scales were used in a self-assessment: the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); the Rotterdam Handicap Scale (RHS); the Short Form-36 health survey, distinguishing a norm-based physical and mental component score (Nb-PCS and Nb-MCS); the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A subset of 58 patients was clinically evaluated, measuring severity of ataxia with the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and cognitive functioning with the Mini-Mental State Examination.
Severe fatigue (FSS ≥5) was present in 69% of patients and FSS value correlated with the scores on RHS, Nb-PCS, Nb-MCS, BDI, PSQI, and ESS. There was no relation with disease duration, gender, or medication use. Multivariate analysis revealed that Nb-PCS and BDI were the best independent predictors for severe fatigue. Interestingly, the presence of visual symptoms was related to FSS value in the clinically evaluated subgroup.
Fatigue is a severe and disabling symptom in adult patients with SCA, even early in the course of disease. Physical functioning and depression are the strongest predictors of fatigue. In treatment strategies, all treatable factors for fatigue should be addressed, especially depression, visual symptoms, and sleeping disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) are considered to have comparable clinical efficacy but this has never been formally investigated. Some patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) report that some IVIg brands are more effective than others. A liquid IVIg preparation is more user friendly and potentially can be infused at a faster rate.
The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of two different IVIg brands in CIDP. The secondary objective was to compare their safety.
This was an investigator-initiated multi-centre randomised controlled double-blind trial. Twenty-seven patients with active but stable CIDP treated with their individual stable IVIg (Gammagard S/D) maintenance dose and interval were randomised to receive four infusions of freeze-dried 5% IVIg (Gammagard S/D) or the new liquid 10% IVIg (Kiovig). The overall disability sum score (ODSS) was used as the primary outcome scale. The equivalence margin was defined as a difference of ≤1 point in mean ΔODSS between treatment groups. Main secondary outcome scales were the MRC sum score and the Vigorimeter.
Repeated measurements analysis of variance, adjusted for baseline ODSS, showed a clinically insignificant treatment difference of 0.004 (95% CI -0.4 to 0.4). We also found no significant differences in any of the other outcome measures. Besides a lower occurrence of cold shivers in patients randomised to Kiovig (p=0.03), no significant differences were found in the occurrence of adverse events.
This trial demonstrated equal clinical efficacy between a freeze-dried and a liquid IVIg preparation for maintenance treatment of CIDP.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry