[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We aimed to investigate a possible role of MAGE A3 and its associations with infiltrated immune cells in thyroid malignancy, analyzing their utility as a diagnostic and prognostic marker.
Materials and methods:
We studied 195 malignant tissues: 154 PTCs and 41 FTCs; 102 benign tissues: 51 follicular adenomas and 51 goiter and 17 normal thyroid tissues. MAGE A3 and immune cell markers (CD4 and CD8) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and compared with clinical pathological features.
The semiquantitative analysis and ACIS III analysis showed similar results. MAGE A3 was expressed in more malignant than in benign lesions (P < 0.0001), also helping to discriminate follicular-patterned lesions. It was also higher in tumors in which there was extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.0206) and in patients with stage II disease (P = 0.0107). MAGE A3+ tumors were more likely to present CD8+ TIL (P = 0.0346), and these tumors were associated with less aggressive features, that is, extrathyroidal invasion and small size. There was a trend of MAGE A3+ CD8+ tumors to evolve free of disease.
We demonstrated that MAGE A3 and CD8+ TIL infiltration may play an important role in malignant thyroid nodules, presenting an interesting perspective for new researches on DTC immunotherapy.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Immunology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectiveThere is an increasing rate of papillary thyroid carcinomas that may never progress to cause symptoms or death. Predicting outcome and determining tumor aggressiveness could help diminish the number of patients submitted to aggressive treatments. We aimed to evaluate whether markers of the immune system response and of tumor-associated inflammation could predict outcome of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients.DesignRetrospective cohort study.PatientsWe studied 399 consecutive patients, including 325 papillary and 74 follicular thyroid carcinomas.MeasurementsImmune cell markers were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, including tumor-associated macrophages (CD68) and subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD20, CD45RO, GRANZYME B, CD69 and CD25. We also investigated the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in tumor cells and the presence of concurrent lymphocytic infiltration characterizing chronic thyroiditis.ResultsConcurrent lymphocytic infiltration characterizing chronic thyroiditis was observed in 29% of the cases. Among all the immunological parameters evaluated, only the enrichment of CD8+ lymphocytes (p=0.001) and expression of COX2 (p=0.01) were associated with recurrence. A multivariate model analysis identified CD8+ TIL/COX2 as independent risk factor for recurrence. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional-hazards model adjusted for the presence of concurrent chronic thyroiditis demonstrated that the presence of concurrent chronic thyroiditis had no effect on prognostic prediction mediated by CD8+ TIL and COX2.Conclusion
In conclusion, we suggest the use of a relatively simple pathology tool to help select cases that may benefit of a more aggressive approach sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary procedures.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study aimed to identify novel biomarkers for thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and prognosis.
We have constructed a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library that was selected against tumour thyroid cells using the BRASIL method (biopanning and rapid analysis of selective interactive ligands) and phage display technology.
One highly reactive clone, scFv-C1, with specific binding to papillary thyroid tumour proteins was confirmed by ELISA, which was further tested against a tissue microarray that comprised of 229 thyroid tissues, including: 110 carcinomas (38 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 42 follicular carcinomas, 30 follicular variants of PTC), 18 normal thyroid tissues, 49 nodular goitres (NG) and 52 follicular adenomas. The scFv-C1 was able to distinguish carcinomas from benign lesions (P=0.0001) and reacted preferentially against T1 and T2 tumour stages (P=0.0108). We have further identified an OTU domain-containing protein 1, DUBA-7 deubiquitinating enzyme as the scFv-binding antigen using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.
The strategy of screening and identifying a cell-surface-binding antibody against thyroid tissues was highly effective and resulted in a useful biomarker that recognises malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help identify lower-risk cases that can benefit from less-aggressive management.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Besides its major role in cell proliferation, DNA repair, and apoptosis, functional p53 protein is involved in the induction of antitumor cytotoxic-T-cell activity against carcinoma cells. We aimed to investigate p53 and immune cell markers utility as diagnostic and prognostic markers of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
ACIS-III system was used to evaluate p53 and immune cell markers including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM); CD68 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) subsets such as CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20 in 206 thyroid carcinomas, 105 benign nodules, and 18 normal tissues. Also, TP53 was sequenced in 78 out of 164 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
P53 expression was observed more frequently in malignant than in benign lesions (P < 0.0001) and helped discriminate follicular patterned lesions. In addition, p53 was more frequent in smaller (P = 0.0015), unique tumors (P = 0.0286), with thyroiditis (P = 0.0486) and without metastasis at diagnosis (P = 0.0201). TAM was more frequent in P53 negative tumors (P = 0.002). Infiltration of CD8+ TIL was found in 61.7% of P53 positive and 25.6% of P53 negative DTC (P < 0.001).
We suggest that p53 and CD8+ TIL immune profile analysis might be useful in DTC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there are evidences of the involvement of KAP-1 in other tumors, data on differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) are still lacking. We aimed to evaluate KAP-1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of DTC. We used both visual immunohistochemistry and a semiquantitative analysis to evaluate KAP-1 expression in 230 thyroid carcinomas and 131 noncancerous thyroid nodules. There were 43 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 187 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), including 130 classic (CPTC), 4 tall cells (TCPTC), and 53 follicular variants (FVPTC). Patients were followed up for 53.8 ± 41 months. They were classified as free-of-disease (142 cases) or poor outcome (25 cases-10 deaths), according to their serum Tg levels and image evidences. KAP-1 was identified in 78 % PTC, 75 % TCPTC, 74 % FC, 72 % FVPTC, 55 % FA, 44 % hyperplasia, and 11 % normal thyroid tissues. A ROC analysis identified malignant nodules with 69 % sensitivity and 75 % specificity, using a cutoff of 73.19. In addition to distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid tissues (p < 0.0001), KAP-1 expression differentiated CPTC from nodular hyperplasia (p < 0.0001), CPTC from FA (p = 0.0028), FVPTC from hyperplasia (p = 0.0039), and FC from hyperplasia (p = 0.0025). Furthermore, KAP-1 was more expressed in larger tumors (>4 cm; p = 0.0038) and in individuals who presented recurrences/metastases (p = 0.0130). We suggest that KAP-1 may help diagnose thyroid nodules, characterize follicular-patterned thyroid lesions, and identify individuals with poor prognosis.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Endocrine Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for biomarkers to identify malignant thyroid nodules from indeterminate follicular lesions. We have used a subtractive proteomic strategy to identify novel biomarkers by selecting ligands to goiter tissue from a 12-mer random peptide phage-displayed library using the BRASIL method (Biopanning and Rapid Analysis of Selective Interactive Ligands). After three rounds of selection, two highly reactive clones to the papillary thyroid tumor cell line NPA were further evaluated, and their specific binding to tumor proteins was confirmed using phage-ELISA. The antibody-like peptide CaT12 was tumor-specific, which was further tested by immunohistochemistry against TMAs (tissue microarrays) comprised of 775 human benign and malignant tissues, including 232 thyroid nodular lesions: 15 normal thyroid tissues, 53 nodular goiters (NG), 54 follicular adenomas (FA); 69 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); and 41 follicular carcinomas (FC). CaT12 was able to identify PTC among thyroid nodular lesions with 91.2% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity, despite its non-specificity for thyroid tissues. Additionally, the CaT12 peptide helped characterize follicular lesions distinguishing the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) from FA with 91.9% accuracy; FVPTC from NG with 83.1% accuracy; FVPTC from the classic PTC with 57.7% accuracy; and FVPTC from FC with 88.7% accuracy. In conclusion, our strategy to select differentially expressed ligands to thyroid tissue was highly effective and resulted in a useful antibody-like biomarker that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help distinguish follicular patterned lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B7H1 is consistently associated with inhibition of the immune system in many solid tumors. However, there is no report about its impact on differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) presentation, aggressiveness or evolution. Aiming to investigate the role of B7H1 in DTC and correlate this protein with other tumor-infiltrating immune cells, we studied 407 thyroid nodule tissue samples including 293 from DTC patients, all managed according to a same standard protocol. In addition, we obtained 5 normal and 114 benign thyroid lesions. Eighteen out of the 253 papillary thyroid carcinomas were paired with respective metastatic lymph node tissues. B7H1 protein expression was assessed by immunhistochemistry and the gene expression quantified by real-time PCR. Malignant tissues displayed a more intense B7H1 staining and higher mRNA levels than benign tissues (both p<0.0001). We observed a positive linear correlation between higher age at diagnosis and B7H1 mRNA levels (p=0.02896). Elevated levels of B7H1 protein were associated with the presence of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and FoxP3+ lymphocytes (all p<0.05), tumor-associated macrophages (p<0.0001) and the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (p=0.03256). Stage II-IV patients presented higher B7H1 mRNA levels than stage I cases (p=0.03522). On the contrary, a decreased expression of B7H1 protein was observed in lymph node metastasis (p=0.0152). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that B7H1 expression is associated with features of aggressiveness, suggesting that this is an immune evasion mechanism of differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Literature has consistently shown associations of BRAFV600E mutation with papillary thyroid cancer clinical features. However, the clinical utility of BRAF expression has not been clinically explored so far. We studied 67 thyroid nodules (32 benign nodules and 35 PTC cases). BRAF mRNA expression levels measured by a quantitative real-time PCR and a PCR-RFLP were used to identify BRAFV600E mutation. BRAF mRNA expression was significantly higher in malignant (198.2±373.9 AU) than in benign (4.1±6.9 AU) nodules (p<0.0001). BRAF expression identified malignancy with a sensitivity of 80.6%, specificity of 77.1%, positive predictive value of 75.8%, and negative predictive value of 81.8%. A cut-point of 4.712, identified by the ROC curve, was able to sort out malignant nodules with an accuracy of 78.8%. Although we did not find any correlation between the presence of BRAF V600E mutation and clinical or tumor features such as age (p=0.309), gender (p=0.5453), ethnicity (p=0.9820), tumor size (p=1.000), multifocality (p=0.2530) or mRNA levels (p=0.7510), the study power for BRAF expression and diagnosis (99%; FPRP=0.85) indicated that data is noteworthy despite the relative small number of patients investigated. We concluded that BRAF mRNA expression may help to identify PTC among thyroid nodules independently of the presence of BRAFV600E mutation.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Pathology - Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune responses against differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) have long been recognized. We aimed to investigate the role of immune cell infiltration in the progression of DTC.
We studied 398 patients – 253 with papillary and 13 with follicular thyroid cancers, as well as 132 with nonmalignant tissues.
Immune cell infiltration was identified using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68 and FoxP3 immunohistochemical markers. In addition, we assessed colocalization of CD4 and IL-17 to identify Th17 lymphocytic infiltration and colocalization of CD33 and CD11b to identify infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC).
Immune cells infiltrated malignant tissues more often than benign lesions. The presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) concurrent to DTC, CD68+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, FoxP3+ and Th17 lymphocytes but not MDSCs was associated with clinical and pathological features of lower tumour aggressiveness and a more favourable patient outcome. A log-rank test confirmed an association between concurrent CLT, tumour-associated macrophage infiltration, and CD8+ lymphocytes and an increased in disease-free survival, suggesting that evidence of these immune reactions is associated with a favourable prognosis.
Our data suggest that the tumour or peri-tumoural microenvironment may act to modify the observed pattern of immune response. Immune cell infiltration and the presence of concurrent CLT helped characterize specific tumour histotypes associated with favourable prognostic features.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression has been observed in human cancer cells but has not yet been reported in thyroid cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of both FoxP3 expression and intratumoral FoxP3(+) lymphocyte infiltration in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells.
We constructed a tissue microarray with 385 thyroid tissues, including 266 malignant tissues (from 253 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 13 follicular carcinomas), 114 benign lesions, and 5 normal thyroid tissues.
We determined the expression of FoxP3 in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using immunohistochemical techniques. Cellular expression of FoxP3 was evident in 71% of benign and 91.9% of malignant tissues. The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression patterns were quantified separately. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that cytoplasmic FoxP3 expression is an independent risk factor for thyroid malignancy. Cytoplasmic FoxP3 staining was inversely correlated with patient age. Nuclear FoxP3 staining was more intense in younger patients and in tumors presenting with metastasis at diagnosis. FoxP3(+) lymphocytes were more frequent in tumors smaller than 2 cm, those without extrathyroidal invasion, and in patients with concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.
We demonstrated FoxP3 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells and found evidence that this expression may exert an important influence on several features of tumor aggressiveness.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Immune responses against differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) have long been recognized. Methods: In order to investigate the role of immune cell infiltration in the progression of DTC, we studied 398 patients - 253 with papillary and 13 with follicular thyroid cancers, as well as 132 with nonmalignant tissues. MUC1, NIS, ATM, PTEN, and CD56 protein expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry; immune cell infiltration was identified using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, and FoxP3 immunohistochemical markers. In addition, we investigated infiltration of Th17 lymphocytes and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Findings: Furthermore, expression of MUC1, NIS, ATM, PTEN, CD56 and B7H1 was accompanied by infiltration of a mixture of different immune cells, suggesting this profile may be related to antitumor immune response. Tumors with high B7H1 expression were frequently enriched with MDSCs (p=0.03256), suggesting that a complex immune evasion mechanism is engaged in DTC microenvironment. Interpretation: Our data suggest that the immune response may be influenced by the status of tumor antigenicity in DTC. Immune cell infiltration helped characterize specific tumor histotypes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATM is critical in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage.
Variations in ATM are hypothesized to affect individual susceptibility to thyroid cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the association between ATM polymorphisms and thyroid cancer risk. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS: Six ATM single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in two independent case-control series including 592 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and 885 healthy individuals. An unconditional logistic regression model was applied to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP with respect to risk of DTC and the combination effect of SNP on cancer risk.
The risk-allele frequencies of all the SNP were similar in the two case-control populations. Under a dominant model of inheritance, the G allele of ATM rs189037 exhibited a protective effect against DTC (adjusted OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P = 0.04), and the G allele of rs1800057 was associated with increased risk of DTC (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1; P = 0.02). A protective haplotype (A-G-C-T-C-A) was associated with decreased risk of DTC in non-Hispanic whites (adjusted OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.0-0.8; P = 0.03). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between the total number of risk alleles of ATM and DTC risk (P = 0.01). Carriers of a combination of six to seven and eight to 10 risk alleles were at 30% (adjusted OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) and 50% (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1) increased risk of DTC, respectively.
Individual susceptibility to DTC may be attributable to polymorphisms of ATM, and the associations warrant confirmation in independent studies.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the use of NIS mRNA and protein expression as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
This is a case-control study.
We studied 397 thyroid nodules tissue samples, including 224 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 41 follicular carcinomas, 58 nodular goiters, 56 follicular adenomas and 18 normal tissues assembled in a tissue microarray.
NIS protein was identified using a monoclonal antibody that labelled only the follicular cell basolateral membrane of all 397 tissue samples. In addition, NIS mRNA was quantified in 145 DTC patients and 85 PTC cases were screened for BRAF(V600E) mutation.
We found low NIS mRNA expression and low or negative NIS protein expression in most DTC. NIS expression was lower in DTC patients over 45 years old and in tumours larger than 2 cm. There was a tendency for lower NIS expression in advanced stages and patients presenting recurrences. All 13 DTC patients who succumbed to the disease were NIS negative at immunohistochemistry and had very low mRNA expression. NIS expression was lower in PTC presenting BRAF(V600E) mutation. However, neither NIS immunohistochemical analysis nor NIS mRNA quantified expression could identify individuals with poor prognosis.
Our data suggest that NIS expression may help characterize patients' risk and individuals with a poor response to therapy, but is not useful as a diagnostic or prognostic marker, reinforcing the current concept that an appropriate management of DTC patient is the most important and modifiable prognostic factor.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to evaluate MUC1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients. We studied the protein expression of MUC1 in 289 thyroid carcinomas and 121 noncancerous thyroid nodules. There were 41 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 248 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) including 149 classic (CPTC), 20 tall cell (TCPTC) and 79 follicular variants (FVPTC). In addition, we used a quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) method to measure MUC1 mRNA expression levels in 108 carcinomas, 23 hyperplasias, and 19 FA. According to their serum Tg levels and other evidences of recurrence/metastasis, the patients were classified as free-of-disease (185 cases) or bad outcome (56 cases, 10 deaths). MUC1 protein was identified in 80.2% PTC; 48.8% FC; 68.3% FVPTC; 70% TCPTC; 21.8% FA; 30% hyperplasias and 6% normal thyroid tissues. MUC1 distinguished benign from malignant thyroid tissues (sensitivity = 89%; specificity = 53%). MUC1 also differentiated FC from FA (p = 0.0083). q-PCR mRNA expression of MUC1 also distinguished malignant from benign nodules (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.0001). However, neither IHC nor mRNA MUC1 expression was associated with any clinical or pathological feature of aggressiveness or outcome. We suggest that MUC1 expression may help differentiate follicular patterned thyroid lesions.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Endocrine Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 76-year-old man presented with small reddish, painless nodular lesions of the chest and on neck surgical scars. The patient had, 5 years before, a T3N1M0 classic papillary thyroid carcinoma that evolved with recurrent cervical lymph node metastasis despite 3 surgeries and a cumulative dose of 500 mCi of 131Iodine. Investigations included the lesion biopsy and Tg immunohistochemistry, which led to the diagnosis of rare skin metastasis from a well differentiated thyroid tumor. The cutaneous lesions also tested positive for sodium iodide symporter protein, with clear membrane immunohistochemical staining. However, the patient did not respond to an additional dose of 400 mCi of radioiodine, suggesting a nonfunctional sodium iodide symporter protein. The lesions rapidly spread to the chest wall and erythematous red-purple inflamed nodules became confluent over a 3-month period. The tumor invaded the trachea causing the patient's death.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · The Endocrinologist
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding for enzymes involved in the biotransformation of carcinogens have been shown to be relevant as risk for cancer and may be of considerable importance from a public health point of view. Considering that N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms modulate the response to ionizing radiation, the strongest risk factor recognized to cause differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) thus far, we sought to determine the influence of NAT2 detoxification system on thyroid cancer susceptibility.
We conducted a prospective case-control study, comparing 195 patients presenting with DTC that were previously genotyped for GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and CYP1A1, comprising 164 papillary carcinomas and 31 follicular carcinomas, with 196 control individuals paired for gender, age, ethnicity, diet routine, lifetime occupational history, smoking history, general health conditions, and previous diseases. We used PCR-RFLP assays and the combination of 6 variant alleles to define 18 NAT2 haplotypes that characterized slow, intermediate, or rapid phenotypes.
A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the presence of *12A and the absence of *12B, *13, *14B, *14D, *6A, and *7A NAT2 haplotypes as risk factors for DTC. The inheritance of a rapid acetylation phenotype doubled the risk for a papillary carcinoma (odds ratio, 2.024; 95% confidence interval, 1.252-3.272). We found no relationship between genotypes and clinical, pathologic, or laboratory features of patients or between genotypes and outcome.
We showed that NAT2 genotypes and the NAT2 rapid acetylation phenotype are important susceptibility factors for DTC, suggesting that NAT2 detoxification system is involved in this tumor pathogenesis.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) gene family has an important role in the biotransformation and detoxification of different xenobiotics and endogenous carcinogens. GST profile has been associated to an increased risk for several types of tumors in different populations, but ethnic stratification makes data interpretation difficult. The Brazilian population represents a unique model in which the types and frequencies of GST gene polymorphisms are less influenced by ethnicity.
To evaluate the influence of GST profile in different age and gender groups regarding the risk of developing cancer and its relationship to smoking habit, the GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 genotypes of 785 Brazilian patients with cancer and 873 cancer-free controls paired on the basis of sex, age, ethnicity, diet and exercise routine, lifetime occupational history, smoking history, general health conditions, and previous diseases were compared.
A univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age over 45 years (p=0.0417) and smoking (p=0.0015) were related to cancer. Multivariate analysis confirmed the importance of advanced age in susceptibility to cancer (p=0.0001). It was also observed that smoking significantly increased the risk of cancer among individuals over 45 years old (OR: 1.825, 95%CI: 1.241-2.682). However, no correlation between risk of cancer, smoking habit, age, or gender and any of the studied GST polymorphisms was found.
It is suggested that GST profile does not exert an important impact on the influence of tobacco smoking on cancer risk.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research