[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until now, 53 species belonging to 22 genera of 6 subfamily of family Histeridae have been recorded in Korea. As a result of this study, we newly add two subfamily, three genera, and three species, Niponius osorioceps Lewis, 1885, Plegaderus (Plegaderus) marseuli Reitter, 1877, and Trypeticus fagi (Lewis, 1884), to Korea along with a brief description and illustration of the diagnostic characters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anastatus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is reported as the first chalcidoid wasp which parasitizes eggs of Lycorma delicatula, an invasive species spreading rapidly in South Korea. The wasp appears to be a solitary endoparasitoid. The present paper also describes its oviposition and host feeding behaviour.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platygaster robiniae Buhl and Duso (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is a gregarious, koinobiont endoparasitoid of the locust gall midge, Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). P. robiniae is an egg-larval parasitoid, parasitizing eggs of O. robiniae and emerging from the host larvae. The eggs of the wasp develop monembryonically with a prolonged embryonic stage. After hatching, the parasitoid undergoes only two larval instars, and total development time from egg to adult takes about 28days to complete. The life cycle of a parasitoid generation is synchronized with that of its host; the adult wasps’ emergence coincides with that of the host, so that they can parasitize the host eggs.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Biological Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The larvicidal activity of 11 Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. Of the 11, Melaleuca linariifolia Sm., Melaleuca dissitiflora F. Muell., Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake, and Eucalyptus globulus Labill oils at 0.1 mg/ml exhibited > or = 80% larval mortality. At this same concentration, the individual constituents tested, allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, gamma-terpinene, and (E)-nerolidol, resulted in > or = 95% mortality. We also tested the acute toxicity of these four active oils earlier mentioned and their constituents against Daphnia magna Straus. M. linariifolia and allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic to D. magna. Twodays after treatment, residues of M. dissitiflora, M. linariifolia, M. quinquenervia, and E. globulus oils in water were 55.4, 46.6, 32.4, and 14.8%, respectively. Less than 10% of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene was detected in the water at 2 d after treatment. Our results indicated that oils and their constituents could easily volatilize in water within a few days after application, thus minimizing their effect on the aqueous ecosystem. Therefore, Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents could be developed as control agents against mosquito larvae.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Medical Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a zygaenid moth, Artona martini Efetov 1997, for the first time from Korea. Photographs of adult and genitalia are provided with brief comments on the distribution and host plants.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fauna assemblages reflect their habitat relating to ecological function in an ecosystem. The functional groups are concerned
with how a resource is processed by different species to provide a specific ecosystem service or function. We elucidated seasonal
changes of coleopteran functional groups in forests, and evaluated their ecological roles related to available food resources.
Coleopteran communities were collected weekly or biweekly using Malaise traps at nine study sites in Japanese red pine forests
in Korea from late June to September 2005. Compositions of the functional groups were compared at the different sites and
at sampling times with respect to taxa richness and abundance. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were
used to characterize spatial and temporal changes of functional groups. Herbivores and dead/live wood feeders regulating primary
production in the pine forests were the dominant coleopteran groups in July, followed by detritivores and predators that dominated
from July to August, resulting from the accumulation of detritus. Then, fungivores became dominant due to increased fungal
biomass in the forest. Seasonal changes of coleopteran functional groups shifted from regulators of primary production to
regulators of decomposition, reflecting their available food resources. In addition, abundance of detritivores and predators
were dependent on total abundance of coleopterans, suggesting that these two groups reflect their habitat condition.
KeywordsColeoptera diversity-Functional groups-Coleoptera community-Community succession-Multivariate analyses-Response to resource changes
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Biodiversity and Conservation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diprion hani Smith and Cho was first reported as a new species from South Korea in 2007. Major outbreaks occurred in September 2007. Outbreaks were restricted geographically to only three inland areas of central Korea where had previously been reforested with Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis Seib. & Zucc. The outbreak areas were approximately 50 km in diameter. The sawfly populations decreased drastically in 2008. Environmental factors of the outbreak sites were investigated as a first step to characterize the sites and to understand the population dynamics of the sawfly. During the outbreak in 2007, the average temperature of the sites were higher than the 30 years average, and the annual precipitation was 384 mm higher than the average from 1971 to 2000. In addition, Monodontomerus dentipes (Dalman), a well-known torymid parasitoid of many sawflies, is reported as a gregarious cocoon parasitoid of D. hani.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Locust gall midge (LGM), Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a cecidomyiid insect forming roll-up galls on leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus (Fabaceae). LGM, known as native to North America, was reported from Korea and Japan in 2002. LGM was observed weekly or biweekly to clarify their voltinism and distribution within the crown of the host tree in two sites of Osan and Siheung in Korea from May to August, 2007. Density of LGM was investigated based on the number of larvae per leaf. Two generations of LGM were observed in Siheung site whereas three generations in Osan site during the present study. The result indicated that LGM had at maximum three generations per year. The density of LGM in Osan was higher in the upper crown of the host trees than middle or lower part. In Siheung, LGMs were distributed more on the exterior of the lower crown than the interior. The average number of larvae per gall was and individuals per leaf in Osan and Siheung, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the pine sawyer Monochamus saltuarius has been proved as a vector of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in South Korea. This pest causes serious concern that widely distributed in the middle of South Korea and most likely to spread fast. To understand their ecological behavior, the attraction behavior of the pine sawyer was tested in the volatile samples of Pinus koraiensis by emitting different host condition. The olfactory response of the immature (0∼3 days old after emergence) adults of M. saltuarius preferred the volatiles from the fresh host condition (fresh twigs, just cut twigs which wrapped with the parafilm), whereas the mature (20∼30 days old) adults preferred the volatiles from the 3-day old stressed host (twigs infested by male and female, 3-day old cut twigs that were artificially damaged). In the GC and GC/MS analyses, contrary to the samples from the fresh host condition having monoterpene volatiles only, the samples from the 3-day old stressed host were revealed to have more volatiles of oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The attraction assay of M. saltuarius adults to the volatile mixtures of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpene, and sesquiterpene appeared to be efficient when the oxygenated monoterpene mixture was necessarily treated with monoterpene mixtures.
Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological Characteristic of Obolodiplosis robiniae and insecticidal activity of some insecticides against larvae of O. robiniae were investigated. Egg was in oval shape, and its color was light orange and became red when close to hatch. Length of the major axis and the minor axis of egg was 0.4 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. Larval color was milky and size was 2.6 mm. Pupa was deep brown and its size was about 3.2 mm. Wing and abdomen of adult was black and reddish, respectively. Size of female adult was about 3.3 mm, and larger than male adult. Number of eggs in the ovary was . First emergence was from late April to late May, and second from late May to late June. Third emergence was from late June to late July. Newly emerged adult escaped from soil, and second and third emerged adult escaped directly from gall of Robinia pseudoacacia leaf. Egg parasitoid was identified as Platygaster robiniae and parasite rate was 51.6%. Among test insecticides, imidacloprid 10% WP and thiacoprid 10% FL showed very strong insecticidal activity against larvae of O. robiniae at 48h later after treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the emergence timing and daily emergence from the different tree species logs (Korean white pine, Pine, and Japanese larch) at Cheongwon, Chungcheongbuk-do from 2006 to 2008. Pine sawyer adults began to emerge on early May (210th day) and finished on mid-June (420th day) in the Korean white pine and pine logs. However, pine sawyer adults began to emerge on mid-May (13th day) and finished late May (27th day) in Japanese larch logs, Japanese larch logs shows shorter emergence timing of pine sawyer adult compare to those of other two tree species. Emergence timing shows no difference between males and females. Sex ratios of emerged adult in 2007 were 0.55 from Korean white pine, 0.46 from Pine, and 0.59 from Japanese larch; it shows no difference among tree species. Female and male adults emerged throughout 24 hrs; 22.8% of the total adults emerged from 1214:00 (22.8%) and adults emerged lowest from 0608:00. Of the adults emerged from the logs, 98.9% was univoltine and the rest was biennial which emerged next year.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The composition of endophytic fungal species from Pinus koraiensis was studied in two areas (Yeongwol and Jincheon), Korea. To identify 113 isolates, rDNA ITS regions were sequenced. On the basis of the ITS sequence, Pestalotiopsis sp. was the most frequently isolated species in both areas. Pestalotiopsis sp. (68.5%) and Lambertella sp. (12.4%) were isolated frequently in Yeongwol, whereas Pestalotiopsis sp. (41.7%), Hypoxylon sp. (20.8%) and Phomopsis sp. (12.4%) were dominant in Jincheon. Hypoxylon sp. and Phomopsis sp. were not found in Yeongwol.
Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Korean Journal of Medical Mycology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological Characteristics of Lycorma delicatula and insecticidal activity of some insecticides against nymphs of L. delicatula was investigated. Nymph of L. delicatula had 4 instars, and color of body was black. There were white spots on the body of 1st-3rd nymph. Upper body became red at 4th nymph. Adult forewings were brownish, and had black spots. Color of hind wing were red. The egg mass was covered with a yellowish brown secretion. The adult of L. delicatula emerged once a year. Among test insecticides, deltamethrin 1% EC and fenitrothion 50% EC showed very quick and strong insecticidal activity against the 2nd-3rd nymphs of L. delicatula. Imidacloprid 4% SL and clothianidin 8% SC showed 100% insecticidal activity at 24h after treatment. Thiacoprid 10% SC revealed the weakest insecticidal activity among the insecticides tested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 40 plant species were tested for their antifungal activity against Phytophthora cactorum, Cryphonectria parasitica, and Fusarium circinatum. Strong antifungal activity against Phytophthora cactorum was achieved with the essential oil derived from Oriental sweetgum, Liquidambar orientalis at 28×10−3mg/mL air concentration. In a test with C. parasitica, inhibition rate of patchouli was 51.0%, whereas the other essential oils showed weak activity. Essential oils of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and patchouli (Pagostemon patchouli) showed moderate activity against F. circinatum. Analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry led to identification of 11 compounds in the oil of L. orientalis. The antifungal activity of identified compounds was tested singularly by using standard or synthesized compounds. Inhibition rates of cinnamyl aldehyde and benzaldehyde were 100% against P. cactorum at 28×10−3mg/mL air concentration. There was a significant morphological alternation in three phytopathogenic fungi after oil or compound treatment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis , is a vector of Korean oak wilt disease, which causes massive mortality of oak trees (mainly Quercus mongolica ) in Korea. So that a semiochemical-based control method could be developed, its aggregation pheromone was investigated. Whole body extract and body part extracts of male and female P. koryoensis were analysized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All samples of male extracts contained nerol, neral, geraniol, and geranial. Those compounds were detected from female whole body extract as minor constituents and not detected from any female body part extracts. In addition to those compounds, citronellol was detected from the extract of boring dust produced by an unmated male. However, none of the five compounds were detected from the extract of boring dust produced by mated males and females or in artificial sawdust obtained from a beetle-infected Q. mongolica log. Male and female antennae of P. koryoensis responded to all five compounds in an electroantennography test. The blend of five components was tested in the field and attractive for male and female P. koryoensis. This result suggested that the blend of citronellol, nerol, neral, geraniol, and geranial served as an aggregation pheromone to P. koryoensis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Larvae of Monochamus saltuarius showed normal growth and development on conifers of Pinus koraiensis, P. densiflora, Abies holophylla, Larix leptolepsis, P. bungeana, and P. rigida, respectively, but the conifers influenced significantly the body weight and the survival rate of larvae. Though the larval body weights were in a wide spectrum among treatments, growth curves of them were very similar from each other, showing continuous increase from the early larval stage to about 3 months old. The body weight was decreased slightly after the feeding period of the early 3 months. The size of larvae and adults became the largest from P. bungeana fed larvae. The mid-sized ones were from P. koraiensis, P. densiflora and A. holophylla. Small ones came from L. leptolepsis and P. rigida. The larval growth was retarded without water supply. Overall survival rates from the early stage of a larva to a fertile adult were 53.6% from P. koraiensis; 51.8%, P. densiflora; 34.7%, A. holophylla; 17.8%, P. bungeana; 16.7%, L. leptolepsis; and 12.3%, P. rigida. Adults from larvae fed the 6 species of conifers, respectively, were grown into the reproductively potent adults, which laid viable eggs. A few of overwintered larvae did not pupate and remained still as a larva until the late October of the year. Data from the field survey, the head width emerged from P. koraiensis was larger than that of L. leptolepsis. The adult emergence hole in P. koraiensis was larger also. While, the size of the emergence hole was larger in the artificially innoculated log of P. koraiensis, which was kept for a larva to be with a minimized food competition and sufficient water supply, than that of the field.