Kayo Yoshimatsu

National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Edo, Tokyo, Japan

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Publications (61)87.01 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: "Licorice oil extract" (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) a kind of multivariate analysis using the data of LC/MS or 1H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using 1H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)
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    ABSTRACT: The effective clonal propagation by node culture of perilla (Perilla frutescens L. Britton) was investigated. Nodes were plated on solidified 1/2MS medium with BA. The optimum shoot elongation and propagation was obtained at BA 0.05 and 0.1 mg l-1. Cryopreservation using an aluminum cryo-plate was successfully applied to in vitro grown perilla shoot tips. Excised shoot tips from nodes were precultured at 25 °C for 1 day on 1/2MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose and embedded on an aluminum cryo-plate with alginate gel. Then the cryo-plate with shoot tips was treated with a mixture of 2 M glycerol and 0.6 M sucrose solution for 20 min at 25 °C for osmo-protection. Then the shoot tips on cryo-plate were dehydrated in PVS2 for 20 min at 25 °C and cooled directly by immersion into liquid nitrogen. The recovery growth after cryopreservation was about 80%. This new method (V-Cryo-plate method) has many advantages and will facilitate the cryo-storage of other medicinal plants.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Advances in Horticultural Science
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    ABSTRACT: The root of Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is used worldwide as a medicinal herb. The goal of this study was to understand changes in the concentrations and compositions of four medicinal compounds—glycyrrhizic acid (GL), liquiritin (LQ), liquiritigenin (LG), and isoliquiritigenin (ISLG)—in the root of Chinese licorice during post-harvest treatment. The effects of post-harvest storage temperatures (−80, −30, −13, 4, and 25°C) and drying temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60°C) on concentrations of the four medicinal compounds were investigated. GL and LQ concentrations in roots stored at −30 and −13°C for 1–2 weeks tended to be 4% to 13% higher than GL and LQ concentrations in roots dried directly in a vacuum freeze dryer (controls). LG concentrations in roots stored at 4°C for 2 weeks were nearly 60-fold higher and ISLG concentrations at 25°C for 1 week were 10-fold higher than LG and ISLG concentrations in the controls. In addition, low temperature (30 and 40°C) drying compared to vacuum freeze drying (controls) increased LG and ISLG concentrations without decreasing GL and LQ concentrations. This study provided an approach to increase the target compound concentrations in Chinese licorice for different market demands (drugs, cosmetics, and food).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Environmental Control in Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) lines, such as insecticidal Kefeng and Kemingdao, have been developed and found unauthorised in processed rice products in many countries. Therefore, qualitative detection methods for the GM rice are required for the GM food regulation. A transgenic construct for expressing cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was detected in some imported processed rice products contaminated with Kemingdao. The 3' terminal sequence of the identified transgenic construct for expression of CpTI included an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal coding sequence (KDEL) and nopaline synthase terminator (T-nos). The sequence was identical to that in a report on Kefeng. A novel construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for detecting the junction region sequence between the CpTI-KDEL and T-nos was developed. The imported processed rice products were evaluated for the contamination of the GM rice using the developed construct-specific real-time PCR methods, and detection frequency was compared with five event-specific detection methods. The construct-specific detection methods detected the GM rice at higher frequency than the event-specific detection methods. Therefore, we propose that the construct-specific detection method is a beneficial tool for screening the contamination of GM rice lines, such as Kefeng, in processed rice products for the GM food regulation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Food Chemistry
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    Noriaki Kawano · Fumiyuki Kiuchi · Nobuo Kawahara · Kayo Yoshimatsu
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of T-DNA insertion loci among its selfed progenies. In the transplanted T0 primary mutant, the opium (latex) was found to be rich in thebaine (16.3% of dried opium) by HPLC analysis. The analyses on T-DNA insertion loci by inverse PCR, adaptor-ligation PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that as many as 18 copies of T-DNAs were integrated into a poppy genome in a highly complicated manner. The number of copies of T-DNAs was decreased to seven in the selected T3 progenies, in which the average thebaine content was 2.4-fold that of the wild type plant. This may indicate that the high thebaine phenotype was increasingly stabilized as the number of T-DNA copies was decreased. In addition, by reverse transcription PCR analysis on selected morphine biosynthetic genes, the expression of codeine 6-O-demethylase was clearly shown to be diminished in the T0 in vitro shoot culture, which can be considered as one of the key factors of altered alkaloid composition.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Pharmaceuticals
  • R. Sun · S. Hikosaka · E. Goto · H. Sawada · T. Saito · T. Kudo · T. Ohno · T. Shibata · K. Yoshimatsu
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    ABSTRACT: The main root of Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is used worldwide as a medicinal material and flavoring agent. This study aimed to determine UV light stress conditions effective for increasing the concentrations of four medicinal ingredients - glycyrrhizic acid (GL), liquiritin (LQ), liquiritigenin (LG), and isoliquiritigenin (ISLG) - and the main root dry weight of Chinese licorice. All UV treatments were compared to exposure to a white fluorescent lamp as a control. For UV treatments, the white fluorescent lamp was supplemented with either UV-A or UV-B fluorescent lamp or a combination of both. Low intensities of UV-A and UV-B were applied for longer treatment periods, while high intensities of UV-A and UV-B were applied for shorter periods. The control was set in each UV treatment for a same period. The dry weights of the main roots as the medicinal part in each UV treatment were not significantly different from the weights of the controls. The concentrations of the four medicinal ingredients in the high intensity UV-B irradiation treatments (BH and AHBH) over 5 or 6 days were 50-70% higher than those in their respective controls. LG and ISLG concentrations in the medium intensity combined UV irradiation treatments (AHBL and ALBH) over 10 days were 140 and 350%, respectively, greater than the levels in their respective controls. These results suggest that UV-B or combined UV-A and UV-B irradiation with white light over 5 to 10 days is more effective than irradiation of white light alone in increasing the contents of GL, LQ, LG, and ISLG in dried main roots without inhibiting the growth of the main root.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Acta horticulturae
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    ABSTRACT: Developments in the use of genetically modified plants for human and livestock health and phytoremediation were surveyed using information retrieved from Entrez PubMed, Chemical Abstracts Service, Google, congress abstracts and proceedings of related scientific societies, scientific journals, etc. Information obtained was classified into 8 categories according to the research objective and the usage of the transgenic plants as 1: nutraceuticals (functional foods), 2: oral vaccines, 3: edible curatives, 4: vaccine antigens, 5: therapeutic antibodies, 6: curatives, 7: diagnostic agents and reagents, and 8: phytoremediation. In total, 405 cases were collected from 2006 to 2010. The numbers of cases were 120 for nutraceuticals, 65 for oral vaccines, 25 for edible curatives, 36 for vaccine antigens, 36 for therapeutic antibodies, 76 for curatives, 15 for diagnostic agents and reagents, and 40 for phytoremediation (sum of each cases was 413 because some reports were related to several categories). Nutraceuticals, oral vaccines and curatives were predominant. The most frequently used edible crop was rice (51 cases), and tomato (28 cases), lettuce (22 cases), potato (18 cases), corn (15 cases) followed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · YAKUGAKU ZASSHI
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    ABSTRACT: Coptis japonica (Cj) rhizomes are used as a crude drug for gastroenteritis, since they accumulate antimicrobial berberine. Berberine also shows various useful bioactivities, including cholesterol-lowering activity. Unfortunately, Cj is a slow-growing plant and more than 5 years are required to obtain a crude drug suitable for the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. To improve alkaloid productivity, we overexpressed the 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase (4'OMT) gene in Cj. We established the transgenic plant (named CjHE4') by introducing one copy of Cj4'OMT by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The successful overexpression of 4'OMT was confirmed in all tissues of CjHE4' by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. HPLC analysis revealed that the berberine content of CjHE4' leaves and roots cultivated for 4 months was increased to 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively, compared with non-transgenic wild-type (CjWT), and these inductions of alkaloids were stable for at least 20 months. Furthermore, in CjHE4' cultivated for 20 months, the berberine content in medicinal parts, stems and rhizomes was significantly increased (1.6-fold). As a consequence, increased amounts of alkaloids in CjHE4' resulted in the improvement of berberine yields (1.5-fold), whereas CjHE4' showed slower growth than CjWT. These results indicated that 4'OMT is one of the key-step enzymes in berberine biosynthesis and is useful for metabolic engineering in Cj.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    Bo Eng Cheong · Tomoya Takemura · Kayo Yoshimatsu · Fumihiko Sato
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    ABSTRACT: Carapichea ipecacuanha produces various emetine-type alkaloids, known as ipecac alkaloids, which have long been used as expectorants, emetics, and amebicides. In this study, we isolated an O-methyltransferase cDNA from this medicinal plant. The encoded protein (CiOMT1) showed 98% sequence identity to IpeOMT2, which catalyzes the 7'-O-methylation of 7'-O-demethylcephaeline to form cephaeline at the penultimate step of emetine biosynthesis (Nomura and Kutchan, J. Biol. Chem., 285, 7722-7738 (2010)). Recombinant CiOMT1 showed both 7'-O-methylation and 6'-O-methylation activities at the last two steps of emetine biosynthesis. This indicates that small differences in amino acid residues are responsible for distinct regional methylation specificities between IpeOMT2 and CiOMT1, and that CiOMT1 might contribute to two sequential O-methylation steps from 7'-O-demethylcephaeline to emetine.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • Kayo Yoshimatsu
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    ABSTRACT: Plant tissue culture studies were carried out for the preservation of medicinal plant resources and efficient production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Micropropagation methods for Cephaelis ipecacuanha were established and these methods enabled much more efficient propagation of plants than the conventional methods using seedling or layering. The C. ipecacuanha plants propagated through tissue culture grew uniformly in the field and they constituted relatively high alkaloid contents compared to the plants grown from seedling. Adventitious root cultures of Cephaelis ipecacuanha and Duboisia myoporoides-D. leichhardtii hybrid were grown. These root cultures produced sufficient amount of pharmaceutically important alkaloids (emetine and cephaeline in C. ipecacuanha; scopolamine and hyoscyamine in Duboisia hybrid) in MS liquid medium supplemented with IAA chloro-derivatives. The alkaloid yields from cultured roots of C. ipecacuanha, grown for seven weeks in 50 ml MS liquid medium containing 0.01 mg/l 5,6-Cl2-IAA are comparable to those from roots of a one-year-old plant cultivated in a greenhouse. Transformed cultures of Duboisia myoporoides-D. leichhardtii hybrid, Atropa belladonna, Cephaelis ipecacuanha, Digitalis lanata and Papaver somniferum have been established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and the production of important pharmaceuticals of plant origin by these cultures was successfully demonstrated. In the case of Digitalis lanata hairy roots, it was elucidated that the greening of the roots under the light stimulated cardenolides formation. Transgenic plants were successfully obtained from the transformed cultures of Atropa belladonna, Cephaelis ipecacuanha and Papaver somniferum, in line with the molecular breeding of these plants using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Furthermore, the production of low morphine Papaver somniferum plants, which mainly contain codeine, was first achieved by transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Studies in Natural Products Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis plants show a high Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore the cultivation of hemp and its possession are prohibited by law in Japan. Meanwhile, Cannabis seeds have been used as a component of shichimi-togarashi (a Japanese spice), bird feed, or a crude drug (mashinin). To exclude the possibility of germination, it is officially noticed that hemp seeds must be killed. However, the number of violators has increased in recent years. To judge the ability of seed germination, a germination test is performed. However, the test requires several days and thus has not been used for on-site inspection. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method to determine the ability of Cannabis seeds to germinate using 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The principle of the assay is as follows. The endogenous respiratory enzymes in hemp seeds convert added colorless TTC into red 1,3,5-triphenylformazan. Consequently, a living embryo is stained red, while red does not appear in the dead seeds. The reaction was active over a pH range of 8.0-9.0, and the optimum activity was found from 40 to 50 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, we were able to determine the ability of seeds to germinate based on the presence of color within 20 min. Since this method is rapid and simple, it is applicable to on-site inspections. In addition, it could be used as an alternative technique to the germination test, because erroneous decisions is cannot occur under the assay principle.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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    Kaori Touno · Kayo Yoshimatsu · Koichiro Shimomura
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    ABSTRACT: Atropa belladonna hairy roots (clone M8) were successfully cryopreserved by using the vitrification method. A. belladonna hairy root tips were precultured on a half strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium with 0.1 mg per L 2,4-D or without phytohormone for 1 day, and then dehydrated with PVS2 solution for 15 minutes prior to immersion into liquid nitrogen for 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Hairy root tips kept in liquid nitrogen were rapidly thawed at 36 degree C in a water bath. The root tips were recultured on half strength MS medium. The hairy root tips, precultured with 2,4-D before cryopreservation, showed a higher survival rate than those precultured without phytohormone. The hairy root tips, precultured with 2,4-D, showed an average survival rate of 83 percent. There was no significant difference in the viability of the hairy roots cryopreserved for different periods. The regrowth of cryopreserved hairy roots was similar to that of untreated hairy roots and tropane alkaloid productivity became stable after 4th subculture. PCR analysis of hairy roots demonstrated the conservation of the T-DNA in cryopreserved hairy roots. These results indicate that cryopreservation by vitrification method is useful to preserve A.belladonna hairy root clone M8.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Cryo letters
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and reliable solid-phase extraction method for HPLC analysis of opium alkaloids from Papaver plants was established. Fifty mg of dried and powdered plant sample was extracted with 5 ml of 5% acetic acid for 30 min under sonication. After centrifugation, 3 ml of the supernatant was loaded on a reversed-phase cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge. After seriate washings with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and methanol, alkaloids were eluted with a mixture of 28% ammonia and methanol (1:19). The eluate was concentrated under nitrogen stream at 40 degrees C and the residue was dissolved in 50% aqueous methanol for high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. With this solid-phase extraction method, the recovery of morphine, codeine, oripavine, thebaine, papaverine, noscapine and sanguinarine was from 99.94 to 112.18% when the standard alkaloids were added to the plant samples. Opium alkaloids of a variety of genus Papaver plants cultivated in a field and phytotron were analyzed by this method.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN
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    ABSTRACT: Coptis japonica is a perennial medicinal plant grown in Asia, and its rhizome is used as crude drug, in which berberine is highly accumulated as the main alkaloid. In this study, a transformation method for C. japonica using Rhizobium has been established. Young petioles were infected with Rhizobium radiobactor Gv3101 (pMP90) harboring a plasmid with β-glucuronidase (gus) driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene as the selection marker. GUS assay showed that 46% of the calli grown on hygromycin plates clearly expressed the gus gene. As an application of the transformation method, an endogenous cDNA encoding an ABC protein, CjMDR1, which is involved in berberine transport, was introduced in sense orientation. Cjmdr1 transgenic plant (Sense-2) regenerated from hygromycin resistant callus line had a single copy of integrated hpt gene in its genomic DNA. Northern analyses of the Sense-2 plant showed that Cjmdr1 mRNA levels were lower in all organs examined than those of wild-type plant, which suggested that co-suppression of Cjmdr1 expression occurred. Indeed, the berberine content in Sense-2 was also suppressed. This is the first report of stable transformation of Coptis spp. and also of the alteration of a secondary metabolite by transport engineering. Copyright © 2005 The Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Plant Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and reliable solid-phase extraction method for HPLC analysis of opium alkaloids from Papaver plants was established. Fifty mg of dried and powdered plant sample was extracted with 5 ml of 5% acetic acid for 30 min under sonication. After centrifugation, 3 ml of the supernatant was loaded on a reversed-phase cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge. After seriate washings with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and methanol, alkaloids were eluted with a mixture of 28% ammonia and methanol (1 : 19). The eluate was concentrated under nitrogen stream at 40 °C and the residue was dissolved in 50% aqueous methanol for high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. With this solid-phase extraction method, the recovery of morphine, codeine, oripavine, thebaine, papaverine, noscapine and sanguinarine was from 99.94 to 112.18% when the standard alkaloids were added to the plant samples. Opium alkaloids of a variety of genus Papaver plants cultivated in a field and phytotron were analyzed by this method.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN
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    ABSTRACT: Co-culture conditions for Duboisia myoporoides-D. leichhardtii hybrid hairy root induction were investigated using leaf explants and Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834. The bacteria density and duration of co-culture greatly affected the induction rate; the highest rate of 50% was obtained when the leaf explants were co-cultured for 2 d with 10(6) bacteria. One hairy root clone that showed the fastest root growth was selected and used for comparison study with adventitious roots cultured with 0.5 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The hairy roots cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium grew well and yielded much more tropane alkaloids (35 mg/l scopolamine and 17 mg/l hyoscyamine) than adventitious roots cultured in 0.5 mg/l IAA after 6 weeks of culture at 25 degrees C in the dark. The hairy and adventitious roots (2.5 cm) grown in liquid media were divided into 5 parts (each 0.5 cm) along the root axis. Distribution of scopolamine and IAA was then determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Inverse relationship between contents of scopolamine and IAA was observed in the hairy roots; increase of scopolamine and decrease of IAA were proportional to the distance from the root meristem. In contrast, the contents of scopolamine and IAA were relatively constant in the adventitious roots. In shoot regeneration experiments, the hairy and adventitious root segments (1 cm) were placed onto 1/2 MS solid medium containing various concentrations of IAA and BA cultured at 25 degrees C under 16 h light. In adventitious roots, the shoots regenerated on media containing 6-benzyladenine (BA) (0.5 to 5 mg/l), and 100% regeneration was observed in medium with 0.1 mg/l IAA and 2 mg/l BA. On the other hand, shoot regeneration was only observed in 33% of hairy roots cultured on medium containing 5 mg/l BA.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyūjo hōkoku = Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Transformed root cultures of ipecac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Richard), one of the recalcitrant woody plant species for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, were established by co-culturing of in vitro petiole segments with Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15 834. Southern blot analysis of the established roots revealed that only the TL-DNA was integrated into the plant genome without incorporation of the TR-DNA. The transformed roots grew slowly on phytohormone-free solid medium and adventitious shoots were regenerated after over 6 months of culture on HF, half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) medium in the dark. The individually separated transformed shoots developed into plantlets on phytohormone-free solid medium at 25 degrees C under 16 h/day light, and the plants demonstrated wider leaves, shorter internodes and vigorous root growth compared to non-transformed plants. Effects of basal media and auxins on the growth and the ipecac alkaloid production of the transformed roots were investigated either under light or in the dark. The roots cultured in the dark grew well in Gamborg B5 (B5) liquid medium containing 0.5 mg/L IBA and yielded 112 mg/L of cephaeline and 14 mg/L emetine after 8 weeks of culture.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Planta Medica

Publication Stats

713 Citations
87.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • National Institute of Health and Nutrition
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 2005-2014
    • National Institute of Biomedical Innovation
      • • Reserach Center for Medicinal Plant Resources
      • • Tsukuba Division
      Ibaragi, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1994-2001
    • National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan