[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of brain function that affect emotion, learning, and memory. Copy number variations of contactin genes (CNTNs), including CNTN3, CNTN4, CNTN5, and CNTN6, have been suggested to be associated with these disorders. However, phenotypes have been reported in only a handful of patients with copy number variations involving CNTNs.
From January 2009 to January 2013, 3724 patients ascertained through the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were referred to our laboratory for clinical array comparative genomic hybridization testing. We screened this cohort of patients to identify individuals with the 3p26.3 copy number variations involving the CNTN6 gene, and then retrospectively reviewed the clinical information and family history of these patients to determine the association between the 3p26.3 copy number variations and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Fourteen of the 3724 patients had 3p26.3 copy number variations involving the CNTN6 gene. Thirteen of the 14 patients with these CNTN6 copy number variations presented with various neurodevelopmental disorders including developmental delay, autistic spectrum disorders, seizures and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Family history was available for 13 of the 14 patients. Twelve of the thirteen families have multiple members with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, seizures, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, learning disability, and bipolar disorder.
Our findings suggest that deletion or duplication of the CNTN6 gene is associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To explore how much additional information single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide and whether they could partially replace classical cytogenetics.
Twenty-six lymphoid proliferations with available cytogenetic studies were analyzed with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA).
Eleven of 26 cases demonstrated complete concordance between cytogenetics and SNP analysis, and 10 of 26 cases demonstrated partial concordance. Five discordant cases had copy number abnormalities (CNAs) with cytogenetics not identified with SNP arrays. While SNP analysis showed CNAs not apparent by cytogenetics in eight cases and helped clarify the karyotype in six cases, cytogenetics demonstrated CNAs not seen by SNP analysis in 15 cases as well as balanced translocations in 12 cases.
The combination of cytogenetics and SNP analysis results in a higher overall yield in identifying numerical chromosomal abnormalities than either technique alone.
Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Double-hit (DH) lymphomas with MYC and either BCL2 (DH-BCL2/MYC) or BCL6 (DH-BCL6/MYC) rearrangements are considered very aggressive, many of which are now included in the category B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) (DLBCL/BL). However, data describing the DH cases are largely based on DH-BCL2/MYC cases. To better characterize DH-BCL6/MYC cases, the clinical, morphologic, phenotypic, and cytogenetic features of 6 cases from University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and 17 cases from the Mitelman database were reviewed. In the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center cases, the median age was 83 years (range, 51 to 89 y) with 5/6 DLBCL/BL cases and 1 large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Five of 6 had a germinal center phenotype, 1/6 was BCL2, and the median Ki-67 score was 98% (35% to 100%). The Mitelman DH-BCL6/MYC cases included 13 aggressive B-cell lymphomas (diagnosed as DLBCL-5, BL-5, BL-like lymphomas-2, and primary effusion lymphoma-1) and 4 other lymphoid/plasmacytic neoplasms. The median cytogenetic complexity score was 2.5 (range, 0 to 14) in 14 evaluable mature aggressive lymphomas with an immunoglobulin gene partner for MYC in 9/14 and for BCL6 in 7/14 cases. Ten of 13 cases involved extranodal extramedullary sites at presentation, and the median survival for the 10 patients with large cell neoplasms or BL and with available follow-up data was 9 months. Thus, DH-BCL6/MYC lymphomas are aggressive, frequently involve extranodal sites, and are often DLBCL/BL with a germinal center phenotype. Unlike DH-BCL2/MYC lymphomas, however, they are more likely to be CD10 but IRF4/MUM-1 (P=0.03) and, more like BL, only infrequently express BCL2 (P<0.001), and are cytogenetically less complex (P<0.04).
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To summarize the pregnancy outcomes of cases with mosaicism for chromosome 10q11.2 deletion detected by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and determine whether extensive cytogenetic work-up and follow-up amniocentesis are necessary in such cases.
CVS was performed at 10-12 weeks of gestation. Chromosome analysis of chorionic villi was performed by standard G-banding techniques.
Mosaicism of chromosome 10q11.2 deletion was observed in 24 out of 6063 CVS cases (0.39%). A common fragile site, FRA10G is located at the breakpoint region. The level of mosaicism ranged from 4% to 25%. No evidence of mosaic 10q11.2 deletion was found in follow-up amniocentesis, maternal peripheral blood cells, or from cytogenetic studies of other pregnancies from the same group of patients. All these cases resulted in the live birth of normal healthy infants.
The presence of del(10)(q11.2) mosaicism in chorionic villus specimens most likely represents an in vitro culture artifact due to FRA10G fragile site in this region without any clinical consequences. If ultrasound results are normal, it is not necessary to perform follow-up amniocenteses and additional laboratory work-up for such cases.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Prenatal Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular testing for mutations activating the mitogen-associated protein kinase signaling pathway is being used to help diagnose thyroid carcinomas. However, the prevalence of these mutations in thyroid lymphomas has not been reported. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations in 33 thyroid lymphomas and correlated the mutational status with the clinical, pathological, cytogenetic, and immunophenotypic findings. Eleven cases were also tested for PAX8/PPARγ translocations. The lymphomas included 25 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 6 extranodal marginal-zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, and 2 follicular lymphomas. Seventeen diffuse large B-cell lymphomas were germinal center type, six non-germinal center type, and two unclassifiable (Hans algorithm). None of the cases had an associated thyroid carcinoma. Mutations of the BRAF gene were identified in six (24%) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (D594G in three germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, K601N in two germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and V600E in one non-germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) and of the NRAS gene in two (8%) non-germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (Q61K and Q61H). BRAF and NRAS mutations were not found in any extranodal marginal-zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type or follicular lymphomas. HRAS and KRAS mutations were not identified in any of the cases, nor were PAX8/PPARγ translocations found. Thus, interpretation of finding a BRAF or NRAS mutation in the thyroid, particularly in preoperative thyroid aspirates, must take into account the differential diagnosis of a lymphoma. In addition to the diagnostic importance, our data also demonstrate that alteration in the mitogen-associated protein kinase pathway may have a role in the pathogenesis of some large B-cell lymphomas of the thyroid with potential therapeutic implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first case of 2q32 microdeletion syndrome diagnosed prenatally and followed throughout the pregnancy. The pregnancy was complicated by fetal club feet, ventriculomegaly, intrauterine growth retardation and polyhydramnios. This is a unique and highly complicated prenatal diagnosis case of a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement involving chromosomes 2, 5 and 7 with 15 breaks and multiple interstitial 2q deletions, resulting in the 2q32 microdeletion syndrome. The delineation of the karyotype in this case and origin of the pathology required the use of multiple genetic technologies including conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, single-nucleotide polymorphism array and array comparative genomic hybridization.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized three supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) simultaneously present in a 2-year- and 10-month-old male patient with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. Peripheral blood chromosome analysis revealed two to three SMCs in 25/26 cells analyzed. The remaining one cell had one SMC. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) showed mosaicism for gains of 5q35.3, 15q11.2q13.3, and 18p11.21q11.1 regions. All three gains contain multiple OMIM genes. FISH studies indicated that one of the SMCs is a dicentric ring 15 with two copies of the 15q11.2q13.3 region including SNRPN/UBE3A and two copies of the 5q35.3 region. One of the der(18)s contains the 18 centromere and 18p11.2 regions, while the other der(18) has a signal for the 18 centromere only. The phenotype of the patient is compared with that of patients with tetrasomy 15q11.2q13.3, trisomy 5q35.3, and trisomy 18p11.2. Our study demonstrates that aCGH and FISH analyses are powerful tools, which complement the conventional cytogenetic analysis for the identification of SMCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent constitutional non-Robertsonian translocations are very rare. We present the third instance of cryptic, unbalanced translocation between 4q and 18q. This individual had an apparently normal karyotype; however, after subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), he was found to have a cryptic unbalanced translocation between 4q and 18q [ish der(18)t(4;18)(q35;q23)(4qtel+,18qtel-)]. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) refined the breakpoints in this child and in the previously reported child and indicated that the breakpoints were within 20 kb of each other, suggesting that this translocation is, indeed, recurrent. A comparison of the clinical presentation of these individuals identified features that are characteristic of both 18q- and 4q+ as well as features that are not associated with either condition, such as a prominent metopic ridge, bitemporal narrowing, prominent, and thick eyebrows. Individuals with features suggestive of this 4q;18q translocation but a normal karyotype warrant aCGH or subtelomere studies.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panels are a major prognostic tool in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), but few data exist on using paraffin-embedded extramedullary tissue biopsy specimens for these purposes. Isolated whole nuclei were extracted from 20 paraffin-embedded tissue biopsy specimens with CLL/SLL and analyzed using a standard CLL FISH panel. FISH studies were successful in 18 (90%) of 20 cases, and chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 18 (100%) of the technically successful cases. Deletion 13q14.3 was most frequent (10 [56%]; isolated in 8 and with other abnormalities in 2), followed by trisomy 12 (5 [28%]), deletion 11q22.3 (4/16 [25%]), 14q32 (IGH@) translocation (3 [17%]), and deletion 17p13.1 (1/16 [6%]). One case with IGH@ translocation showed a BCL2 translocation partner. No cases showed 6q23 deletion. Results of this FISH panel performed on 42 additional peripheral blood (PB)/bone marrow (BM) CLL specimens were similar except for a significantly greater frequency of deletion 13q14.3 in combination with other aberrations. Cytogenetic FISH studies using paraffin-embedded tissue biopsy specimens in CLL/SLL had a high yield and, with 1 exception, demonstrated a profile similar to cases diagnosed in PB/BM.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous occurrence of two unrelated cytogenetic events is rare. We present a case of Angelman Syndrome (AS) deletion and 12q duplication in a child with a history of developmental delay, microcephaly, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Traditional cytogenetic studies showed a normal 46,XY karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probe D15S10 (AS region/15q11.2) revealed a deletion. In addition, we serendipitously detected 12q24.3 duplication by FISH with 12q subtelomere probe. He inherited this duplication from the mother who presented with a balanced translocation karyotype 46,XX,add(12)(q24.3).ish t(12;13)(q24.3;p11.2)(12qtel-;12qtel+,D13Z1/D21Z1+,RB1+). Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a duplication of three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones (RP11-46H11, RP11-386I8, and RP11-309H3) covering about 423 Kb of DNA sequence. The published 12q terminal duplication cases had a detectable segment by classical banded cytogenetics techniques. To our knowledge, this is the smallest 12q cryptic rearrangement characterized by array-CGH and confirmed by BAC-clone FISH analysis. Based on these findings, we attempted to separate the clinical features associated with AS deletion and those features that are probably due to partial 12q duplication. We then reviewed the genes mapped in the duplicated region using the human genome database to understand the clinical significance. A subsequent pregnancy in the mother revealed an apparently balanced t(12;13) karyotype. We compare our case with the published cases, and discuss the implications of our findings and its relevance in addressing genetic counseling issues.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 62-year-old man who presented with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen revealed involvement by mantle cell lymphoma, with some blastoid features and an atypical phenotype. Spleen and bone marrow classical chromosome analysis followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a novel and unusual unbalanced variant of the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation, resulting in a complex derivative chromosome harboring the IGH/CCND1 fusion gene. This chromosome was designated as der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32)t(11;14)(p11.1;p11.2).
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multicolor chromosome banding (mBAND) is a recently developed technique that allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few megabase pairs. The resolution of mBAND is slightly below that of conventional chromosome banding; however, the color bands have a great value in identifying chromosomal abnormalities, particularly complex chromosome rearrangements, and intrachromosome exchanges (ie, inversions, deletions, duplications, and insertions). These abnormalities cannot be defined easily by conventional cytogenetic analysis or chromosome paint. In this report, we present the application of the mBAND analysis for identification of complex intrachromosome rearrangements of chromosome 18 in a child with dysmorphic features.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of Molecular Diagnostics