[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RANTES (Regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), recruits circulating leukocytes and augments inflammatory responses in many clinical conditions. Inflammatory responses in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) significantly affect the unfavorable outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI), and that infiltrating immune cells are important mediators of AKI. However, the significance of RANTES in AKI and whether hypoxia-induced LncRNAs are involved in the regulatory process of AKI are not known. Here we show that, in the kidney IRI mice model, significant RANTES expression was observed in renal tubular cells of wild type mice. RANTES deficient (RANTES a '/a ') mice showed better renal function by reducing the acute tubular necrosis, serum creatinine levels, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cytokine expressions compared to wild type. In vitro, we found that RANTES expression was regulated by NF- B. Further, renal tubular cells showed deregulated LncRNA expression under hypoxia. Among HIF-1α dependent LncRNAs, PRINS (Psoriasis susceptibility-related RNA Gene Induced by Stress) was significantly up regulated in hypoxic conditions and had specific interaction with RANTES as confirmed through reporter assay. These observations show first evidence for RANTES produced by renal tubular cells act as a key chemokine in AKI and HIF-1α regulated LncRNA-PRINS might be involved in RANTES production.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uremic toxins are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders in kidney diseases, but it is not known whether, under inflammatory conditions, they affect adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells, which may play a critical role in acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, in cardiovascular surgery-related AKI patients, who are known to have high plasma levels of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS), plasma levels of IL-1β were found to be positively correlated with plasma levels of the adhesion molecule E-selectin. In addition, high E-selectin and IL-1β expression were seen in the kidney of ischemia/reperfusion mice in vivo. We also examined the effects of IS on E-selectin expression by IL-1β-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanism. IS pretreatment of HUVECs significantly increased IL-1β-induced E-selectin expression, monocyte adhesion, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK) and transcription factors (NF-κB and AP-1), and phosphorylation was decreased by pretreatment with inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB202190), and JNK (SP600125). Furthermore, IS increased IL-1β-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and this effect was inhibited by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (a ROS scavenger) or apocynin (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Gel shift assays and ChIP-PCR demonstrated that IS enhanced E-selectin expression in IL-1-treated HUVECs by increasing NF-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activities. Moreover, IS-enhanced E-selectin expression in IL-1β-treated HUVECs was inhibited by Bay11-7082, a NF-κB inhibitor. Thus, IS may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disorders in kidney diseases during inflammation by increasing endothelial expression of E-selectin.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Archive für Toxikologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (Δ2troglitazone, (Δ2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPARγ-dependent pathway whereas Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPARγ-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and Δ2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-α-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and Δ2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and Δ2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-α induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-α-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-κB activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-α-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-α-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-κB activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the kidney, a major cause of acute renal failure in humans, is associated with a high mortality, and the development of a new therapeutic strategy is therefore highly desirable. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of implantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from Wharton?s jelly of human umbilical cord in the treatment ofrenal I/R injury in mice. To visualize the localization of the transplanted EPCs, the cells were labeled with Q-tracker before injection into the renal capsule. Mice with renal I/R injury showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and these effects were decreased by EPC transplantation. The kidney injury score in the mice with I/R injury was also significantly decreased by EPC transplantation. EPC transplantation increased the microvascular density, and some of the EPCs surrounded, and were incorporated, into microvessels. In addition, EPC transplantation inhibited the I/R-induced cell apoptosis of endothelial, glomerular, and renal tubular cells, as demonstrated by TUNEL staining, and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production and the expression of the inflammatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte-derivedcytokine, as shown by immunostaining and ELISA. Moreover, EPC transplantation reduced I/R-induced fibrosis, as demonstrated by immunostaining for S100A4, a fibroblast marker, and Jones silver staining. To our knowledge, this is first report that transplantation of EPCs from Wharton?s jelly of humanumbilical cords mightprovide a novel therapy for ischemic acute kidney injury by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Cell Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides (EORPs), which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL-) 1 β expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced IL-1 β expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10 μ g/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1 β expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) κ B p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1 β expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1 β expression. The level of IL-1 β expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) move towards injured endothelium or inflamed tissues and incorporate into foci of neovascularisation, thereby improving blood flow and tissue repair. Patients with cardiovascular diseases have been shown to exhibit reduced EPC number and function. It has become increasingly apparent that these changes may be effected in response to enhanced oxidative stress, possibly as a result of systemic and localised inflammatory responses. The interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress affects the initiation, progression, and complications of cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies suggest that inflammation and oxidative stress modulate EPC bioactivity. Clinical medications with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, such as statins, thiazolidinediones, angiotensin II receptor 1 blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, are currently administered to patients with cardiovascular diseases. These medications appear to exert beneficial effects on EPC biology. This review focuses on EPC biology and explores the links between oxidative stress, inflammation, and development of cardiovascular diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keloids are characterized by the vigorously continuous production of extracellular matrix protein and aberrant cytokine activity in the dermis. There is a growing body of evidence that thalidomide, α-N-phthalimidoglutarimide, has anti-fibrotic properties. The aims were to examine possible therapeutic effects of thalidomide on fibronectin expression in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated normal fibroblasts (NFs) and keloid-derived fibroblasts (KFs) and the underlying mechanism of action, especially the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and Sma- and Mad-related family (Smads) pathways. In surgically removed human tissues, TGF-β1 and fibronectin immunoreactivity was high in keloid tissue, but barely detectable in normal tissue. TGF-β1 induced significant fibronectin expression in NFs and KFs and the effect was inhibited by pretreatment with thalidomide. TGF-β1 also induced phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and Smad2/3 and pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibronectin expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with thalidomide inhibited the TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of p38 and Smad3, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK, and Smad2. In addition, thalidomide pretreatment inhibited the TGF-β-induced DNA binding activity of AP-1 and Smad3/4, caused fibronectin degradation by increasing the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9, and decreased production of TGF-β1 and fibronectin and the number of fibroblasts in an in vivo keloid model. These results show that thalidomide has an antifibrotic effect on keloid fibroblasts that is caused by suppression of TGF-β1-induced p38 and Smad3 signaling. Our findings indicate that thalidomide may be a potential candidate drug for the treatment and prevention of keloids.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Biochemical pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal ischemia rapidly mobilizes endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which provides renoprotection in acute kidney injury (AKI). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-binding uremic toxin with a potential role in endothelial injury. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of action of IS on EPCs in AKI. Forty-one consecutive patients (26 male; age, 70.1 ± 14.1 years) diagnosed with AKI according to the AKIN criteria were enrolled. The AKI patients had higher serum IS levels than patients with normal kidney function (1.35 ± 0.94 × 10(-4)M vs. 0.02 ± 0.02 × 10(-4)M, P < 0.01). IS levels were negatively correlated to the number of double-labeled (CD34(+)KDR(+)) circulating EPCs (P < 0.001). After IS stimulation, the cells displayed decreased expression of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, increased reactive oxygen species, decreased proliferative capacity, increased senescence and autophagy, as well as decreased migration and angiogenesis. These effects of IS on EPCs were reversed by atorvastatin. Further, exogenous administration of IS significantly reduced EPC number in Tie2-GFP transgenic mice and attenuated NO signaling in aortic and kidney arteriolar endothelium after kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, and these effects were restored by atorvastatin. Our results are the first to demonstrate that circulating IS is elevated in AKI and has direct effects on EPCs via NO-dependent mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the IS-mediated pathways by NO-releasing statins such as atorvastatin may preempt disordered vascular wall pathology, and represent a novel EPC-rescued approach to impaired neovascularization after AKI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial diseases, the major complication of diabetes, can result in lower limb amputation. As endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in neovascularization, the study was to examine whether EPCs isolated from Wharton's jelly (WJ-EPCs) of the umbilical cord, a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, could reduce ischemia-induced hind limb injury in diabetic mice. We evaluated the effects of WJ-EPC transplantation on hind limb injury caused by femoral artery ligation in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We found that the ischemic hind limb in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed decreased blood flow and capillary density and increased cell apoptosis and that these effects were significantly inhibited by injection of WJ-EPCs. In addition, HIF-1α and IL-8 were highly expressed in transplanted WJ-EPCs in the ischemic skeletal tissues and were present at high levels in hypoxia-treated cultured WJ-EPCs. Moreover, incubation of the NOR skeletal muscle cell line under hypoxic conditions in conditioned medium from EPCs cultured for 16 h under hypoxic conditions resulted in decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. The inhibition of HIF-1α or IL-8 expression by EPCs using HIF-1α siRNA or IL-8 siRNA, respectively, prevented this change in expression of apoptotic-related proteins. Wharton's jelly in the umbilical cord is a valuable source of EPCs and transplantation of these EPCs represents an innovative therapeutic strategy for treating diabetic ischemic tissues. The HIF-1α/IL-8 signalling pathway plays a critical role in the protective effects of EPCs in the ischemic hind limb of diabetic mice.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Stem cells and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of Fe(3)O(4) have been widely applied in many medical fields, but few studies have clearly shown the outcome of particles following intravenous injection. We performed a magnetic examination using scanning SQUID biosusceptometry (SSB). Based on the results of SSB analysis and those of established in vitro nonmagnetic bioassays, this study proposes a model of MNP metabolism consisting of an acute metabolic phase with an 8 h duration that is followed by a chronic metabolic phase that continues for 28 d following MNP injection. The major features included the delivery of the MNPs to the heart and other organs, the biodegradation of the MNPs in organs rich with macrophages, the excretion of iron metabolites in the urine, and the recovery of the iron load from the liver and the spleen. Increases in serum iron levels following MNP injection were accompanied by increases in the level of transferrin in the serum and the number of circulating red blood cells. Correlations between the in vivo and in vitro test results indicate the feasibility of using SSB examination for the measurement of MNP concentrations, implying future clinical applications of SSB for monitoring the hematological effects of MNP injection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders. We previously demonstrated that a glucan-containing extract of Reishi polysaccharides (EORP) has the potent anti-inflammatory action of reducing ICAM-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and LPS-treated mice. In the present study, we examined whether EORP inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF)-stimulated HASMC proliferation and the mechanism involved. EORP dose-dependently reduced cell numbers and DNA synthesis of PDGF-treated HASMCs in vitro. EORP also arrested cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase, and this was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, and p21(Cip1) and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). The anti-proliferative effect of EORP was partly mediated by downregulation of PDGF-induced JNK phosphorylation. In in vivo studies, the femoral artery of C57BL/6 mice was endothelial-denuded and the mice were fed a diet containing 100 mg/kg/day of EORP. On day 14, both cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells) in the neointima and the neointima/media area ratio (0.67 ± 0.03 vs. 1.46 ± 0.30) were significantly reduced. Our data show that EORP interferes with the mitogenic activation of JNK, preventing entry of HASMCs into the cell cycle in vitro and reducing cell proliferation in the neointima and decreasing the neointimal area in vivo. Thus, EORP may represent a safe and effective novel approach to the prevention and treatment of vascular proliferative diseases.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cytokines induce the expression of inflammatory mediators in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) exerts an antiinflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) expression through ROS generation as modulated by HO-1 in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs).
IL-1β-induced ROS generation was determined by flow cytometry. The involvement of MAPKs and NADPH oxidase (NOX)/ROS in IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression was investigated using pharmacologic inhibitors and transfection with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and was analyzed by Western blotting and promoter assay. Overexpression of HO-1 was performed by transfection of RASFs with a recombinant adenovirus containing human HO-1 plasmid. SCID mice with inflammation caused by IL-1β were infected with adenovirus containing HO-1. Histologic characterization of joint inflammation and local expression of cPLA2 were evaluated after treatment.
IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression was mediated through NOX activation/ROS production, which was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC; a scavenger of ROS), the inhibitors of NOX (diphenyleneiodonium chloride and apocynin), MEK-1/2 (U0126), and JNK-1/2 (SP600125), transfection with the respective siRNAs, and the overexpression of HO-1 in RASFs. IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression was mediated through recruitment of activator protein 1 (AP-1) to the cPLA2 promoter region, which was attenuated by NAC and overexpression of HO-1. Furthermore, HO-1 overexpression inhibited IL-1β-mediated cPLA2 expression in SCID mice.
In RASFs, IL-1β induced cPLA2 expression via activation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNK-1/2, leading to p47phox phosphorylation, ROS production, and AP-1 activation. The induction of HO-1 exerted protective effects on the pathogenesis of RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet activation and its interaction with leukocytes play an important role in atherothrombosis. Cardiovascular diseases resulted from atherothrombosis remain the major causes of death worldwide. Gallic acid, a major constituent of red wine and tea, has been believed to have properties of cardiovascular protection, which is likely to be related to its antioxidant effects. Nonetheless, there were few and inconsistent data regarding the effects of gallic acid on platelet function. Therefore, we designed this in vitro study to determine whether gallic acid could inhibit platelet activation and the possible mechanisms. From our results, gallic acid could concentration-dependently inhibit platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression, and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Gallic acid prevented the elevation of intracellular calcium and attenuated phosphorylation of PKCα/p38 MAPK and Akt/GSK3β on platelets stimulated by the stimulants ADP or U46619. This is the first mechanistic explanation for the inhibitory effects on platelets from gallic acid.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active targeting by specific antibodies combined with nanoparticles is a promising technology for cancer imaging and detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the systemic delivery of antivascular endothelial growth factor antibodies conjugating to the surface of functionalized supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (anti-VEGF-NPs) led to target-specific accumulation in the tumor.
The VEGF expression in human colon cancer and in Balb/c mice bearing colon cancers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of these anti-VEGF-NPs particles or NPs particles were evaluated by MRI at days 1, 2, or 9 after the injection into the jugular vein of Balb/c mice bearing colon cancers. Tumor and normal tissues (liver, spleen, lung, and kidney) were collected and were examined by Prussian blue staining to determine the presence and distribution of NPs in the tissue sections.
VEGF is highly expressed in human and mouse colon cancer tissues. MRI showed significant changes in the T*(2) signal and T(2) relaxation in the anti-VEGF-NP- injected-mice, but not in mice injected with NP alone. Examination of paraffin sections of tumor tissues stained for the iron constituent of the NPs with Prussian blue revealed a strong blue reaction in the tumors of anti-VEGF-NP-treated mice, but only a weak reaction in mice injected with NPs. In both groups, at all time points, Prussian blue-stained liver and spleen sections showed only light staining, while stained cells were rarely detected in kidney and lung sections. Transmission electron microscopy showed that many more electron-dense particles were present in endothelial cells, tumor cells, and extracellular matrix in tumor tissues in mice injected with anti-VEGF-NPs than in NP-injected mice.
These results demonstrated in vivo tumor targeting and efficient accumulation of anti-VEGF-NPs in tumor tissues after systemic delivery in a colon cancer model, showing that anti-VEGF-NPs have potential for use as a molecular-targeted tumor imaging agent in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was first identified in retinal pigment epithelium cells. It is an endogenously produced protein that is widely expressed throughout the human body such as in the eyes, liver, heart, and adipose tissue; it exhibits multiple and varied biological activities. PEDF is a multifunctional protein with antiangiogenic, antitumorigenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective properties. More recently, PEDF has been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of stem/progenitor cell-associated neovascularization. Neovascularization is a complex process regulated by a large, interacting network of molecules from stem/progenitor cells. PEDF is also involved in the pathogenesis of angiogenic eye disease, tumor growth, and cardiovascular disease. Novel antiangiogenic agents with tolerable side effects are desired for the treatment of patients with various diseases. Here, we review the value of PEDF as an important endogenous antiangiogenic molecule; we focus on the recently identified role of PEDF as a possible new target molecule to influence stem/progenitor cell-related neovascularization.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic elevation of glucose level activates vascular inflammation and increases endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes, an early sign of atherogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of high-glucose-induced endothelial inflammation, and to investigate the potential effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), an antioxidant herbal medicine, on such inflammation.
Human aortic endothelial cells were cultured in high glucose or mannitol as osmotic control for 4 days. The expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules and the adhesiveness of endothelial cells to monocytes were examined. The effects of pretreatment of GBE or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, were also investigated.
Either high glucose or mannitol significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-6 secretion, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, as well as endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes. The high-glucose-induced endothelial adhesiveness was significantly reduced either by an anti-ICAM-1 antibody or by an interleukin-6 neutralizing antibody. Interleukin-6 (5 ng/ml) significantly increased endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Piceatannol, a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3 inhibitor, but not fludarabine, a STAT1 inhibitor, suppressed high-glucose-induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with GBE or N-acetylcysteine inhibited high-glucose-induced ROS, interleukin-6 production, STAT1/3 activation, ICAM-1 expression, and endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes.
Long-term presence of high glucose induced STAT3 mediated ICAM-1 dependent endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes via the osmotic-related redox-dependent interleukin-6 pathways. GBE reduced high-glucose-induced endothelial inflammation mainly by inhibiting interleukin-6 activation. Future study is indicated to validate the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory strategy targeting on interleukin-6 for endothelial protection in in vivo and clinical hyperglycemia.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pretreatment with GBE had no significant effects on high-glucose-induced AP-1 and NF-κB activation in HEACs. Figure S2. Pretreatment with GBE does-dependently suppressed high glucose-induced ICAM-1 accumulation in HAECs. Figure S3. Endothelial ICAM-1 expression was increased by high-glucose (25 mM) stimulation for 4 days, which was losing after the replacement of normal glucose medium (5 mM) for 1–4 days.