[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported an information density theory and an analysis of three-parameter plus shorter scan than conventional method (3P+) for the amyloid-binding ligand [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) as an example of a non-highly reversible positron emission tomography (PET) ligand. This article describes an extension of 3P + analysis to noninvasive '3P++' analysis (3P + plus use of a reference tissue for input function).
In 3P++ analysis for [11C]PIB, the cerebellum was used as a reference tissue (negligible specific binding). Fifteen healthy subjects (NC) and fifteen Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients participated. The k3 (index of receptor density) values were estimated with 40-min PET data and three-parameter reference tissue model and were compared with that in 40-min 3P + analysis as well as standard 90-min four-parameter (4P) analysis with arterial input function. Simulation studies were performed to explain k3 biases observed in 3P++ analysis.
Good model fits of 40-min PET data were observed in both reference and target regions-of-interest (ROIs). High linear intra-subject (inter-15 ROI) correlations of k3 between 3P++ (Y-axis) and 3P + (X-axis) analyses were shown in one NC (r2 = 0.972 and slope = 0.845) and in one AD (r2 = 0.982, slope = 0.655), whereas inter-subject k3 correlations in a target region (left lateral temporal cortex) from 30 subjects (15 NC + 15 AD) were somewhat lower (r2 = 0.739 and slope = 0.461). Similar results were shown between 3P++ and 4P analyses: r2 = 0.953 for intra-subject k3 in NC, r2 = 0.907 for that in AD and r2 = 0.711 for inter-30 subject k3. Simulation studies showed that such lower inter-subject k3 correlations and significant negative k3 biases were not due to unstableness of 3P++ analysis but rather to inter-subject variation of both k2 (index of brain-to-blood transport) and k3 (not completely negligible) in the reference region.
In [11C]PIB, the applicability of 3P++ analysis may be restricted to intra-subject comparison such as follow-up studies. The 3P++ method itself is thought to be robust and may be more applicable to other non-highly reversible PET ligands with ideal reference tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict a tracer's α-value in the human brain on the basis of animal data. The α-value is the ratio of the conversion rate and the back-diffusion rate (k3/k2) and is one of the critical kinetic features of the detection sensitivity of target molecule activity, such as enzyme activity, in the measurement of PET and single-photon emission computed tomography using an irreversible-type radiotracer.
The α-value in the rat brain was estimated by a simultaneous assay of the tracer uptake and the target biochemical activity using N-[C]-methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([C]MP4A) and N-[C]-methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate ([C]MP4P) as test tracers, both of which are metabolic trapping tracers for measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase. The α-value in humans was then extrapolated from the α-value in rats by considering the differences between the species. The predicted human α-values were compared with those obtained from the kinetic analyses of human PET studies using [C]MP4A and [C]MP4P.
The α-values in the human brain cortex were predicted to be 0.51±0.1 for MP4A and 0.25±0.05 for MP4P. These results were close to values reported in other PET studies: 0.48±0.1 to 0.73±0.2 for MP4A and 0.15±0.04 to 0.18±0.04 for MP4P.
The α-value predicted by this method would be used for practical selection or development of irreversible-type radiotracers for human use.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues by protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) and phosphotyrosine/Src homology 2 (SH2) domain interactions are crucial not only for signal transduction but also for regulation of PTK activity. Tyrosine residues also receive nitration and halogenation under oxidative conditions. It has been reported that nitration of tyrosine residue caused peptides to be a poor substrate for PTK and that nitrotyrosine residues could bind to SH2 domains as a phosphotyrosine mimic to activate Src family kinase. However, the effect of halogenation on tyrosine phosphorylation or SH2 domain binding is not well understood. We examined the phosphorylation of model peptides containing 3-halotyrosine or 3-nitrotyrosine using typical receptor tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck). The EGFR- and Lck-mediated phosphorylation was markedly inhibited by tyrosine halogenation. Iodination showed the strongest inhibition of the phosphorylation among four types of halogenation, and its inhibitory effect was stronger than that of nitration. We also examined the effect of iodination and nitration of tyrosine residues on binding to the SH2 domain of Lck, using a model peptide containing the phosphoTyr-Glu-Glu-Ile motif, which has a high affinity for the SH2 domain. The relative affinities of the modified peptides whose phosphotyrosine was substituted with unphosphorylated tyrosine, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 3-iodotyrosine, and of the model peptide were 0.024, 0.26, 1, and 16, respectively. These results suggest that tyrosine iodination may have an effect on the phosphorylation or binding to the SH2 domain similar to nitration. Tyrosine iodination possibly modulates signal transduction, with the potential impairment of cell function.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long dynamic scans (60-120 min) are often required for estimating the k(3) value, an index of receptor density, by positron emission tomography (PET). However, the precision of k(3) is usually low in kinetic analyses for reversible PET ligands compared with irreversible ligands. That is largely due to unstable estimation of the dissociation rate constant, k(4). We propose a novel '3P+' method for estimating k(3) of moderately reversible ligands, where a 3-parameter model without k(4) is applied to early-phase PET data to obtain a good model-fit of k(3) estimation. By using [(11)C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) (k(4) = 0.018/min) as an example of a moderately reversible ligand, the 3P+ method simulation with a 28 min PET scan yielded less than 3% k(3) relative bias with a +100% k(3) change. In [(11)C]PIB PET scans of 15 normal controls (NC) and nine patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the 3P+ method provided a precise k(3) estimate (mean SE of 13.6% in parietal cortex; covariance matrix method). The results revealed linear correlations (r = 0.964) of parietal k(3) values in 24 subjects between 28minute 3P+ method and conventional 90 minute 4-parameter method. A good separation of k(3) between NC and AD groups (P < 0.001; t-test) was replicated in 28 minute 3P+ method. The short-scan 3P+ method may be a practical alternative method for analyzing reversible ligands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral enzyme activity can be quantified using positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with a radiolabeled enzyme substrate. We investigated the relationship between the elimination rate (k(el)) of tracer metabolites from the brain and the precision of target enzyme activity estimation (k(3)). An initial simulation study indicated that the precision of k(3) estimates was highly dependent on k(el), and was characterized by several kinetic parameters including the ratio of k(el) and the efflux rate (k(2)) of authentic tracer (β≡k(el)/k(2)). The optimal tracer condition for high sensitivity was found to be β<0.1. To verify the simulation results, we performed a PET study with a single monkey using two PET tracers, N-[(18)F]fluoroethylpiperidin-4-ylmethyl acetate ([(18)F]FEP-4MA) and N-[(11)C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([(11)C]MP4A). Both of these substrate type tracers were developed for measuring cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity. There was good retention of the radioactive metabolite of [(11)C]MP4A in the brain (k(el)=0.0036±0.0013 min(-1), β=0.028), whereas that of [(18)F]FEP-4MA was eliminated from the brain (k(el)=0.012±0.0010 min(-1), β=0.085). A non-linear least square analysis for simultaneous estimation of all parameters showed that the precision of the k(3) estimate for [(18)F]FEP-4MA was as high (7.4%) as that for [(11)C]MP4A (10%). These results indicate that tracers with metabolites that are eliminated from the brain at a slow rate (β<0.1) may be useful for the quantitative measurement of target enzyme activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy and frontotemporal dementia are all part of a disease spectrum that includes common cognitive impairment and movement disorders. The aim of this study was to characterize brain cholinergic deficits in these disorders. We measured brain acetylcholinesterase activity by [11C] N-methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate and positron emission tomography in seven patients with corticobasal syndrome (67.6+/-5.9 years), 12 with progressive supranuclear palsy (68.5+/-4.1 years), eight with frontotemporal dementia (59.8+/-6.9 years) and 16 healthy controls (61.2+/-8.5 years). Two-tissue compartment three-parameter model and non-linear least squares analysis with arterial input function were performed. k3 value, an index of acetylcholinesterase activity, was calculated voxel-by-voxel in the brain of each subject. The k3 images in each disease group were compared with the control group by using Statistical Parametric Mapping 2. Volume of interest analysis was performed on spatially normalized k3 images. The corticobasal syndrome group showed decreased acetylcholinesterase activity (k3 values) in the paracentral region, frontal, parietal and occipital cortices (P<0.05, cluster corrected). The group with progressive supranuclear palsy had reduced acetylcholinesterase activity in the paracentral region and thalamus (P<0.05, cluster corrected). The frontotemporal dementia group showed no significant differences in acetylcholinesterase activity. Volume of interest analysis showed mean cortical acetylcholinesterase activity to be reduced by 17.5% in corticobasal syndrome (P<0.001), 9.4% in progressive supranuclear palsy (P<0.05) and 4.4% in frontotemporal dementia (non-significant), when compared with the control group. Thalamic acetylcholinesterase activity was reduced by 6.4% in corticobasal syndrome (non-significant), 24.0% in progressive supranuclear palsy (P<0.03) and increased by 3.3% in frontotemporal dementia (non-significant). Both corticobasal syndrome and progressive supranuclear palsy showed brain cholinergic deficits, but their distribution differed somewhat. Significant brain cholinergic deficits were not seen in frontotemporal dementia, which may explain the unresponsiveness of this condition to cholinergic modulation therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglial activation and disrupted neurotransmissions may herald symptomatic manifestations in neurodegenerative tauopathies.
We investigated microglial activation with [(11)C]DAA1106 positron emission tomography (PET), striatal dopaminergic function with l-[beta-(11)C]dopa PET, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with [(11)C]N-methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate PET, and morphologic brain changes with MRI in three persons (aged 38-41 years) with frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), who were presymptomatic gene carriers (PGCs) from an American kindred with pallidopontonigral degeneration. The results from these 3 PGCs were compared with [(11)C]DAA1106 PET results from age-matched 9 healthy volunteers (HV), and with l-[beta-(11)C]dopa and [(11)C]MP4A PET results from 10 HV. Values considered significant were more than 2 SDs greater or less than the normal control mean, as the number of subjects was small for group comparisons.
Glial activities were increased in the frontal cortex of one PGC, the occipital cortex of two PGCs, and the posterior cingulate cortex of one PGC, although none of the PGCs showed overt glial activation in the brain. Only one of the PGCs showed reduced AChE activity in the temporo-parietal cortex. Three PGCs showed low dopamine synthesis rates in the putamen. Hippocampal atrophy was observed in two PGCs.
Hippocampal atrophy and striatal dopaminergic dysfunction may be early disease processes in the pathogenesis of FTDP-17. Neuroinflammation may also be an in vivo signature of tau pathology at a prodromal stage, although current PET techniques may not constantly reveal it as the earliest neuroimaging abnormality.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is measured to obtain pathological information about the cholinergic system in various disease states and to assess the effect of AChE inhibitors. Using Ellman's method that is commonly used in such examinations, butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors must be added to measure AChE-specific activity because of low selectivity of AChE toward traditional substrates; however, such inhibitors also inhibit AChE. Therefore, it is desirable to obtain an AChE selective substrate that can be used with the Ellman's method. Here, we synthesized novel AChE substrates, 1-methyl-4-acetylthiomethylpiperidine and 1,1-dimethyl-4-acetylthiomethylpiperidine, and evaluated the hydrolysis rate and AChE selectivity by comparison with the results obtained when traditional substrates were used. The hydrolysis rate of the novel compounds by human AChE was one order of magnitude lower than that of the traditional substrates, acetylthiocholine and acetyl-beta-methylthiocholine, whereas the hydrolysis rate using human butyrylcholinesterase was two orders of magnitude lower than that of the traditional substrates. This indicated that AChE showed selectivity towards the novel substrates which was one order of magnitude higher than that of the traditional substrates. The hydrolysis of the novel compounds in a rat cerebral cortical homogenate and a monkey whole blood was completely inhibited by 1 muM of the specific AChE inhibitor, 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one, indicating the high specificity of AChE towards the novel substrates in a crude tissue sample. From these results, we conclude that the novel compounds developed would be suitable AChE-selective substrates for Ellman's method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholinesterase inhibitors have been widely used for the treatment of patients with dementia. Monitoring of the cholinesterase activity in the blood is used as an indicator of the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitors in the brain. The selective measurement of cholinesterase with low tissue dilution is preferred for accurate monitoring; however, the methods have not been established. Here, we investigated the effect of tissue dilution on the action of cholinesterase inhibitors using a novel radiometric method with selective substrates, N-[(14)C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([(14)C]MP4A) and (R)-N- [(14)C]methylpiperidin-3-yl butyrate ([(14)C]MP3B_R), for AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) respectively.
We investigated the kinetics of hydrolysis of [(14)C]-MP4A and [(14)C]-MP3B_R by cholinesterases, and evaluated the selectivity of [(14)C]MP4A and [(14)C]MP3B_R for human AChE and BChE, respectively, compared with traditional substrates. Then, IC(50) values of cholinesterase inhibitors in minimally diluted and highly diluted tissues were measured with [(14)C]MP4A and [(14)C]MP3B_R.
AChE and BChE activities were selectively measured as the first-order hydrolysis rates of [(14)C]-MP4A and [(14)C]MP3B_R respectively. The AChE selectivity of [(14)C]MP4A was an order of magnitude higher than traditional substrates used for the AChE assay. The IC(50) values of specific AChE and BChE inhibitors, donepezil and ethopropazine, in 1.2-fold diluted human whole blood were much higher than those in 120-fold diluted blood. In addition, the IC(50) values of donepezil in monkey brain were dramatically decreased as the tissue was diluted.
This method would effectively monitor the activity of cholinesterase inhibitors used for therapeutics, pesticides and chemical warfare agents.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [(11)C]MP4A is an established radioprobe for quantification of cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by positron emission tomography (PET) based on the kinetics of AChE-mediated metabolism and metabolite trapping. It has been used to assess the deficiency in cholinergic innervation in the brain of patients with dementia. Because (18)F has a longer half-life than (11)C, (18)F-labeled derivatives of [(11)C]MP4A allow delivery of the probe to other PET centers, making AChE measurement more widely applicable. Previously, N-[(18)F]fluoroethylpiperidin-4ylmethyl acetate ([(18)F]FEP-4MA) showed that the (18)F-labeled analog of MP4A possessed desirable properties for the quantification of cerebral AChE activity by PET. Here, we evaluated the in vivo kinetics of [(18)F]FEP-4MA and validated the responsiveness of brain uptake to AChE activity based on a mathematical model derived from the AChE-mediated trapping rationale and compared it with MP4A in rats. Almost all radioactivity in the brain was composed of [(18)F]FEP-4MA and the hydrolyzed metabolite at 0-60-min postinjection. When the authentic radioprobe was not observed in the brain, the regional (18)F uptake in the brain correlated well with regional MP4A uptake, and the elimination rate of (18)F from the brain was higher than that of the metabolite of MP4A. The responsiveness of regional (18)F uptake in the brain was examined by simultaneous assay of (18)F concentration, relative blood flow, and AChE activity. Regional (18)F uptake correlated with regional AChE activity as well as that of MP4A. Therefore, we concluded that [(18)F]FEP-4MA would be applicable to clinical PET study for quantifying cerebral AChE activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 6-Bromo-7-[(11)C]methylpurine is reported to react with glutathione via glutathione S-transferases in the brain and to be converted into a substrate for multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), an efflux pump. The compound with a rapid conversion rate allows quantitative assessment of MRP1 function, but this rate is probably susceptible to interspecies differences. Hence, for application to different species, including humans, it is necessary to adjust the conversion rate by modifying the chemical structure. We therefore designed 6-halo-9-(or 7)-[(14)C]methylpurine (halogen: F, Cl, Br, or I), and evaluated them in vitro with respect to enzymatic reactivity with glutathione using brain homogenates from the mouse, rat, or monkey. There was a marked difference in reactivity between these species. Changes in the position of the methyl group and halogen on N-methyl-6-halopurine provided various compounds possessing wide-ranging reactivity with glutathione. In conclusion, the adjustment of reactivity of 6-bromo-7-[(11)C]methylpurine may allow assessment of MRP1 function in the brain in various species.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estimate the value of in vivo plasma IC50 of donepezil, the concentration of donepezil in plasma that inhibits brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% at the steady-state conditions of donepezil between the plasma and the brain.
N-[C] methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate ([C]MP4A) positron emission tomography was performed in 16 patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) before and during the treatment of donepezil (5 mg/day) with a mean interval of 5.3 months. The plasma IC50 value of donepezil was estimated from plasma donepezil concentrations and cerebral cortical mean AChE inhibition rates measured by positron emission tomography, using one-parameter model.
Donepezil reduced AChE activity uniformly in the cerebral cortex compared with the baseline in each AD patient, and the mean reduction rate in the cerebral cortex was 34.6%. The donepezil concentrations in the plasma ranged from 18.5 to 43.9 ng/mL with a mean of 28.9 +/- 7.3 ng/mL. The plasma IC50 value was estimated to be 53.6 +/- 4.0 ng/mL.
Once the plasma IC50 of donepezil is determined, the brain AChE inhibition rate could be estimated from the plasma concentration of donepezil in each subject based on the plasma IC50. Now that the mean donepezil concentrations in the plasma, when the patients took 5 mg/day, remained 28.9 ng/mL, approximately half of the plasma IC50, higher dose of donepezil might provide further benefits for patients with AD. This technique can be also applied to measure the in vivo plasma IC50 of other cholinesterase inhibitors such as rivastigmine and galantamine.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Clinical neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize brain cholinergic deficits in Parkinson disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Participants included 18 patients with PD, 21 patients with PDD/DLB, and 26 healthy controls. The PD group consisted of nine patients with early PD, each with a disease duration of less than 3 years, five of whom were de novo PD patients, and nine patients with advanced PD, each with a disease duration greater than or equal to 3 years. The PDD/DLB group consisted of 10 patients with PDD and 11 patients with DLB. All subjects underwent PET scans with N-[11C]-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate to measure brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Brain AChE activity levels were estimated voxel-by-voxel in a three-compartment analysis using the arterial input function, and compared among our subject groups through both voxel-based analysis using the statistical parametric mapping software SPM5 and volume-of-interest analysis.
Among patients with PD, AChE activity was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex and especially in the medial occipital cortex (% reduction compared with the normal mean = -12%) (false discovery rate-corrected p value <0.01). Patients with PDD/DLB, however, had even lower AChE activity in the cerebral cortex (% reduction = -27%) (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between early PD and advanced PD groups or between DLB and PDD groups in the amount by which regional AChE activity in the brain was reduced.
Brain cholinergic dysfunction occurs in the cerebral cortex, especially in the medial occipital cortex. It begins in early Parkinson disease, and is more widespread and profound in both Parkinson disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormones (TH) play an important role in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to develop a radiotracer method for studying the in vivo efflux transport of iodide liberated by the TH metabolism in the brain. The rationale of our method is as follows: a radioiodinated compound can enter the brain and rapidly release iodide in situ; the iodide efflux rate can be estimated from the clearance of brain radioactivity after disappearance of the iodinated compound.
6-[(125)I]Iodo-9-pentylpurine ([(125)I]9Pe6IP) was designed to enter the brain and release (125)I(-) by the reaction with glutathione and synthesized from the corresponding bromo derivative in a Br/(125)I exchange reaction. The brain kinetics of radioactivity and radioactive metabolites were investigated after intravenous injection of [(125)I]9Pe6IP into mice. The iodide efflux rate was estimated in mice pretreated with perchlorate, an inhibitor of iodide transport from the brain.
High brain uptake (5.3% injected dose/g) was observed at 1 min, and almost complete conversion of [(125)I]9Pe6IP to (125)I(-) occurred 10 min after injection. The (125)I(-) uptake from the blood was negligible. (125)I(-) was eliminated from the brain along a single-exponential curve with a half-life of 6.0 min. Furthermore, dose-dependent inhibition of (125)I(-) efflux was observed in mice pretreated with perchlorate.
We conclude that 9Pe6IP labeled with (124)I (positron emitter) or (123)I (single-photon emitter) may be useful for studying the in vivo efflux transport of iodide in the brain using nuclear medicine imaging devices.