Zhongsen Zhang

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (8)51.36 Total impact

  • Dirk Schwarzer · Zhongsen Zhang · Weiping Zheng · Philip A Cole
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    ABSTRACT: The low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme with several proposed roles in cell signaling. Previously, two tyrosine phosphorylation modifications of LMW-PTP at sites Tyr-131 and Tyr-132 in response to growth factor stimulation have been mapped and suggested to stimulate LMW-PTP phosphatase activity. Biochemical analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine phosphatase is challenging because of the intrinsic instability of these modifications. Here we used expressed protein ligation to site-specifically incorporate a phosphotyrosine mimic (phosphonomethylenephenylalanine, Pmp) at the Tyr-131 and Tyr-132 positions and measured the catalytic activity of these semisynthetic LMW-PTPs. The phosphonate-modified LMW-PTPs were 10- to 23-fold less active in dephosphorylating phosphotyrosine peptides derived from the PDGF receptor and p190RhoGap, two putative cellular substrates. These findings suggest the first example of a tyrosine phosphatase that is inhibited by tyrosine phosphorylation and provide a new model for the regulation of LMW-PTP and its role in cell adhesion.
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) controls daily changes in the production and circulating levels of melatonin. Here, the significance of the phosphorylation of AANAT was studied using a semisynthetic enzyme in which a nonhydrolyzable phosphoserine/threonine mimetic, phosphonomethylenealanine (Pma), was incorporated at position 31 (AANAT-Pma31). The results of studies in which AANAT-Pma31 and related analogs were injected into cells provide the first direct evidence that Thr31 phosphorylation controls AANAT stability in the context of the intact cells by binding to 14-3-3 protein. These findings establish Thr31 phosphorylation as an essential element in the intracellular regulation of melatonin production. The application of Pma in protein semisynthesis is likely to be broadly useful in the analysis of protein serine/threonine phosphorylation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Nature Structural Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases plays a critical role in cellular signaling. Here we review several chemical approaches to understanding protein kinases and the consequences of protein phosphorylation. We discuss the design of bisubstrate analogue inhibitors based on a dissociative transition state, the development of reagents for cross-linking protein kinases with their substrates, the chemical rescue of mutant protein tyrosine kinases, and the application of expressed protein ligation to understanding protein phosphorylation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Accounts of Chemical Research
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    Kara A Scheibner · Zhongsen Zhang · Philip A Cole
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    ABSTRACT: Determination of protein oligomerization state can be technically challenging. We have combined the methods of expressed protein ligation (EPL) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the analysis of protein homo-oligomerization states. We have attached fluorescein (donor) and rhodamine (acceptor) chromophores via dipeptide linkages to the C-termini of three recombinant proteins and examined the potential for FRET between mixtures of these semisynthetic proteins. The known protein dimer (glutathione S-transferase) showed evidence of FRET and the known protein monomer (SH2 domain phosphatase-1) did not display FRET. Using this method, the previously uncharacterized circadian rhythm enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase, displayed significant FRET, indicating its likely propensity for dimerization or more complex oligomerization. These results establish the potential of the union of EPL and FRET in the analysis of protein-protein interactions and provide insight into the unusual enzymatic behavior of a key circadian rhythm enzyme.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Analytical Biochemistry
  • Zhongsen Zhang · Kui Shen · Wei Lu · Philip A Cole
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    ABSTRACT: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 plays a variety of roles in the "negative" regulation of cell signaling. The molecular basis for the regulation of SHP-1 is incompletely understood. Whereas SHP-1 has previously been shown to be phosphorylated on two tail tyrosine residues (Tyr(536) and Tyr(564)) by several protein-tyrosine kinases, the effects of these phosphorylation events have been difficult to address because of the intrinsic instability of the linkages within a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. Using expressed protein ligation, we have generated semisynthetic SHP-1 proteins containing phosphotyrosine mimetics at the Tyr(536) and Tyr(564) sites. Two phosphonate analogues were installed, phosphonomethylenephenylalanine (Pmp) and difluorophosphonomethylenephenylalanine (F(2)Pmp). Incorporation of Pmp at the 536 site led to 4-fold stimulation of the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity whereas incorporation at the 564 site led to no effect. Incorporation of F(2)Pmp at the 536 site led to 8-fold stimulation of the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity and 1.6-fold at the 564 site. A combination of size exclusion chromatography, phosphotyrosine peptide stimulation studies, and site-directed mutagenesis led to the structural model in which tyrosine phosphorylation at the 536 site engages the N-Src homology 2 domain in an intramolecular fashion relieving basal inhibition. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation at the 564 site has the potential to engage the C-Src homology 2 domain intramolecularly, which can modestly and indirectly influence catalytic activity. The finding that phosphonate modification at each of the 536 and 564 sites can promote interaction with the Grb2 adaptor protein indicates that the intramolecular interactions fostered by post-translational modifications of tyrosine are not energetically strong and susceptible to intermolecular competition.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Giuseppe Inesi · Zhongsen Zhang · David Lewis
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    ABSTRACT: High-affinity and cooperative binding of two Ca(2+) per ATPase (SERCA) occurs within the membrane-bound region of the enzyme. Direct measurements of binding at various Ca(2+) concentrations demonstrate that site-directed mutations within this region interfere selectively with Ca(2+) occupancy of either one or both binding sites and with the cooperative character of the binding isotherms. A transition associated with high affinity and cooperative binding of the second Ca(2+) and the engagement of N796 and E309 are both required to form a phosphoenzyme intermediate with ATP in the forward direction of the cycle and also to form ATP from phosphoenzyme intermediate and ADP in the reverse direction of the cycle. This transition, defined by equilibrium and kinetic characterization of the partial reactions of the enzyme cycle, extends from transmembrane helices to the catalytic site through a long-range linkage and is the mechanistic device for interconversion of binding and phosphorylation potentials.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · Biophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of heterologous SERCA1a ATPase in Cos-1 cells was optimized to yield levels that account for 10-15% of the microsomal protein, as revealed by protein staining on electrophoretic gels. This high level of expression significantly improved our characterization of mutants, including direct measurements of Ca(2+) binding by the ATPase in the absence of ATP, and measurements of various enzyme functions in the presence of ATP or P(i). Mutational analysis distinguished two groups of amino acids within the transmembrane domain: The first group includes Glu771 (M5), Thr799 (M6), Asp800 (M6), and Glu908 (M8), whose individual mutations totally inhibit binding of the two Ca(2+) required for activation of one ATPase molecule. The second group includes Glu309 (M4) and Asn796 (M6), whose individual or combined mutations inhibit binding of only one and the same Ca(2+). The effects of mutations of these amino acids were interpreted in the light of recent information on the ATPase high-resolution structure, explaining the mechanism of Ca(2+) binding and catalytic activation in terms of two cooperative sites. The Glu771, Thr799, and Asp800 side chains contribute prominently to site 1, together with less prominent contributions by Asn768 and Glu908. The Glu309, Asn796, and Asp800 side chains, as well as the Ala305 (and possibly Val304 and Ile307) carbonyl oxygen, contribute to site 2. Sequential binding begins with Ca(2+) occupancy of site 1, followed by transition to a conformation (E') sensitive to Ca(2+) inhibition of enzyme phosphorylation by P(i), but still unable to utilize ATP. The E' conformation accepts the second Ca(2+) on site 2, producing then a conformation (E' ') which is able to utilize ATP. Mutations of residues (Asp813 and Asp818) in the M6/M7 loop reduce Ca(2+) affinity and catalytic turnover, suggesting a strong influence of this loop on the correct positioning of the M6 helix. Mutation of Asp351 (at the catalytic site within the cytosolic domain) produces total inhibition of ATP utilization and enzyme phosphorylation by P(i), without a significant effect on Ca(2+) binding.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2000 · Biochemistry
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 1999 · Journal of Biomolecular NMR

Publication Stats

328 Citations
51.36 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1999-2002
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States