Kenji F Tanaka

Keio University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (59)411.78 Total impact

  • Ryota Nakayama · Takuya Sasaki · Kenji F. Tanaka · Yuji Ikegaya
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes generate calcium signals throughout their fine processes, which are assumed to locally regulate neighboring neurotransmission and blood flow. The intercellular morphological relationships mature during juvenile periods when astrocytes elongate highly ramified processes. In this study, we examined developmental changes in calcium activity patterns of single hippocampal astrocytes using a transgenic mouse line in which astrocytes selectively express a genetically encoded calcium indicator, Yellow Cameleon-Nano50. Compared with postnatal day 7, astrocytes at postnatal day 30 showed larger subcellular calcium events and a greater proportion of somatic events. At both ages, the calcium activity was abolished by removal of extracellular calcium ion. Calcium events in late juvenile astrocytes were not affected by spontaneously occurring sharp waves that trigger synchronized neuronal spikes, implying the independence of astrocyte calcium signals from neuronal synchronization. These results demonstrate that astrocytes undergo dynamic changes in their activity patterns during juvenile development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · European Journal of Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Spatiotemporal regulation of axonal branching and elongation is essential in the development of refined neural circuits. cAMP is a key regulator of axonal growth; however, whether and how intracellular cAMP regulates axonal branching and elongation remain unclear, mainly because tools to spatiotemporally manipulate intracellular cAMP levels have been lacking. To overcome this issue, we utilized photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), which produces cAMP in response to blue-light exposure. In primary cultures of dentate granule cells transfected with PAC, short-term elevation of intracellular cAMP levels induced axonal branching but not elongation, whereas long-term cAMP elevation induced both axonal branching and elongation. The temporal dynamics of intracellular cAMP levels regulated axonal branching and elongation through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), respectively. Thus, using PAC, our study for the first time reveals that temporal cAMP dynamics could regulate axonal branching and elongation via different signaling pathways.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data has indicated that Zn can modulate serotonergic function through the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR); however, the exact mechanisms are unknown. In the present studies, radioligand binding assays and behavioural approaches were used to characterize the pharmacological profile of Zn at 5-HT1ARs in more detail. The influence of Zn on agonist binding to 5-HT1ARs stably expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated by in vitro radioligand binding methods using the agonist [(3)H]-8-OH-DPAT. The in vivo effects of Zn were compared with those of 8-OH-DPAT in hypothermia, lower lip retraction (LLR), 5-HT behavioural syndrome and the forced swim (FST) tests. In the in vitro studies, biphasic effects, which involved allosteric potentiation of agonist binding at sub-micromolar Zn concentrations and inhibition at sub-millimolar Zn concentrations, were found. The in vivo studies showed that Zn did not induce LLR or elements of 5-HT behavioural syndrome but blocked such effects induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Zn decreased body temperature in rats and mice; however, Zn failed to induce hypothermia in the 5-HT1A autoreceptor knockout mice. In the FST, Zn potentiated the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. However, in the FST performed with the 5-HT1A autoreceptor knockout mice, the anti-immobility effect of Zn was partially blocked. Both the binding and behavioural studies suggest a concentration-dependent dual mechanism of Zn action at 5-HT1ARs, with potentiation at low dose and inhibition at high dose. Moreover, the in vivo studies indicate that Zn can modulate both presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs; however, Zn's effects at presynaptic receptors seem to be more potent.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Molecular Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is characterized by activation of CD4+ Th2 cells orchestrating an allergic airway response. Whereas the role of Wnt family members in regulating T cell maintenance and maturation is established, their contribution to T cell activation in allergic asthma is not known. Objectives: We hypothesized that Wnt10b plays a role in the modulation of the allergic airway response and effects T cell activation and polarization. Methods: Using an in vivo house dust mite asthma model, Wnt10b-deficient mice were allergen-sensitized and inflammation as well as T cell activation was studied in vivo and in vitro. Measurements and main results: Wnt10b-/- mice exhibited an augmented inflammatory phenotype with an increase in eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage and IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs when compared to wild type mice. In vitro studies confirmed an increased Th2 polarization and increased T cell activation of Wnt10b-deficient cells. Accordingly, the percentage of naïve T cells was elevated by the addition of recombinant Wnt10b protein. Finally, Wnt10b-/- mice exhibited an increase in the percentage of effector T cells in the lungs after house dust mite sensitization, which indicated a heightened activation state, measured by an increased percentage of CD69hiCD11ahi cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Wnt10b plays an important role in regulating asthmatic airway inflammation through modification of the T cell response and is a prospective target in the disease process.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants, but the mechanisms by which they influence behavior are only partially resolved. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is necessary for some of the responses to SSRIs, but it is not known whether mature dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) also contribute. We deleted the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1AR, a receptor required for the SSRI response) specifically from DG GCs and found that the effects of the SSRI fluoxetine on behavior and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were abolished. By contrast, mice lacking 5HT1ARs only in young adult-born GCs (abGCs) showed normal fluoxetine responses. Notably, 5HT1AR-deficient mice engineered to express functional 5HT1ARs only in DG GCs responded to fluoxetine, indicating that 5HT1ARs in DG GCs are sufficient to mediate an antidepressant response. Taken together, these data indicate that both mature DG GCs and young abGCs must be engaged for an antidepressant response.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopiasmayalso show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is believed to support hippocampus-dependent learning and emotional regulation. These putative functions of adult neurogenesis have typically been studied in isolation, and little is known about how they interact to produce adaptive behavior. We used trace fear conditioning as a model system to elucidate mechanisms through which adult hippocampal neurogenesis modulates processing of aversive experience. To achieve a specific ablation of neurogenesis, we generated transgenic mice that express herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase specifically in neural progenitors and immature neurons. Intracerebroventricular injection of the prodrug ganciclovir caused a robust suppression of neurogenesis without suppressing gliogenesis. Neurogenesis ablation via this method or targeted x-irradiation caused an increase in context conditioning in trace but not delay fear conditioning. Data suggest that this phenotype represents opposing effects of neurogenesis ablation on associative and nonassociative components of fear learning. Arrest of neurogenesis sensitizes mice to nonassociative effects of fear conditioning, as evidenced by increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field after (but not in the absence of) fear conditioning. In addition, arrest of neurogenesis impairs associative trace conditioning, but this impairment can be masked by nonassociative fear. The results suggest that adult neurogenesis modulates emotional learning via two distinct but opposing mechanisms: it supports associative trace conditioning while also buffering against the generalized fear and anxiety caused by fear conditioning.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical neural activities lead to changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF), which involves astrocytic control of cerebrovascular tone. However, the manner in which astrocytic activity specifically leads to vasodilation or vasoconstriction is difficult to determine. Here, cortical astrocytes genetically expressing a light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), were transcranially activated with a blue laser while the spatiotemporal changes in CBF were noninvasively monitored with laser speckle flowgraphy in the anesthetised mouse cortex. A brief photostimulation induced a fast transient increase in CBF. The average response onset time was 0.7 ± 0.7 sec at the activation foci, and this CBF increase spread widely from the irradiation spot with an apparent propagation speed of 0.8-1.1 mm/sec. The broad increase in the CBF could be due to a propagation of diffusible vasoactive signals derived from the stimulated astrocytes. Pharmacological manipulation showed that topical administration of a K(+) channel inhibitor (BaCl2; 0.1-0.5 mM) significantly reduced the photostimulation-induced CBF responses, which indicates that the ChR2-evoked astrocytic activity involves K(+) signalling to the vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings demonstrate a unique model for exploring the role of the astrocytes in gliovascular coupling using non-invasive, time-controlled, cell-type specific perturbations.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    Akiyo Natsubori · Norio Takata · Kenji F. Tanaka
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    ABSTRACT: The development of gene-encoded indicators and actuators to observe and manipulate cellular functions is being advanced and investigated. Expressing these probe molecules in glial cells is expected to enable observation and manipulation of glial cell activity, leading to elucidate the behaviors and causal roles of glial cells. The first step toward understanding glial cell functions is to express the probes in sufficient amounts, and the Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression (KENGE)-tet system provides a strategy for achieving this. In the present article, three examples of KENGE-tet system application are reviewed: depolarization of oligodendrocytes, intracellular acidification of astrocytes, and observation of intracellular calcium levels in the fine processes of astrocytes.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Although the CRISPR/Cas system has enabled one-step generation of knockout mice, low success rates of cassette knock-in limit its application range. Here we show that cloning-free, direct nuclear delivery of Cas9 protein complex with chemically synthesized dual RNAs enables highly efficient target digestion, leading to generation of knock-in mice carrying a functional cassette with up to 50% efficiency, compared with just 10% by a commonly used method consisting of Cas9 mRNA and single guide RNA. Our cloning-free CRISPR/Cas system facilitates rapid one-step generation of cassette knock-in mice, accelerating functional genomic research by providing various in vivo genetic tools. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0653-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Genome biology
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a phenomenon associated with a propagating large shift in direct current (DC) potential followed by suppression of electrophysiological activity. For temporal analysis of CSD propagation, electrophysiological recording is the most reliable tool. However, it is difficult to completely identify the spatial area of the brain influenced by CSD, because recording sites are technically limited. Histological post hoc identification of activated neurons by labeling the induction of an immediate early gene (IEG) could determine areas of CSD propagation. We found that cortical application of potassium chloride induced expression of Npas4 IEG mRNA in the ipsilateral dorsal cortex. Interestingly, induction of Npas4 was never observed in the ipsilateral hippocampus and there was a clear boundary to the area of Npas4 expression. To determine whether the boundary of the area of Npas4 mRNA expression was the limit of CSD propagation, we recorded local field potentials from multiple sites that crossed the boundary of Npas4 expression. We found that the area of Npas4 mRNA expression coincided with the area of DC-potential shift propagation. We propose that induction of Npas4 identifies the area influenced by CSD propagation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulates impulsive behavior during adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Neuron
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    ABSTRACT: The dorsal and ventral hippocampal regions (dHP and vHP) are proposed to have distinct functions. Electrophysiological studies have revealed intra-hippocampal variances along the dorsoventral axis. Nevertheless, the extra-hippocampal influences of dHP and vHP activities remain unclear. In this study, we compared the spatial distribution of brain-wide responses upon dHP or vHP activation and further estimate connection strengths between the dHP and the vHP with corresponding extra-hippocampal areas. To achieve this, we first investigated responses of local field potential (LFP) and multi unit activities (MUA) upon light stimulation in the hippocampus of an anesthetized transgenic mouse, whose CA1 pyramidal neurons expressed a step-function opsin variant of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation increased hippocampal LFP power at theta, gamma, and ultra-fast frequency bands, and augmented MUA, indicating light-induced activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Brain-wide responses examined using fMRI revealed that optogenetic activation at the dHP or vHP caused blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals in situ. Although activation at the dHP induced BOLD responses at the vHP, the opposite was not observed. Outside the hippocampal formation, activation at the dHP, but not the vHP, evoked BOLD responses at the retrosplenial cortex (RSP), which is in line with anatomical evidence. In contrast, BOLD responses at the lateral septum (LS) were induced only upon vHP activation, even though both dHP and vHP send axonal fibers to the LS. Our findings suggest that the primary targets of dHP and vHP activation are distinct, which concurs with attributed functions of the dHP and RSP in spatial memory, as well as of the vHP and LS in emotional responses.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: An increase in the ratio of cellular excitation to inhibition (E/I ratio) has been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). A proper E/I ratio is achieved via factors expressed in neuron and glia. In astrocytes, the glutamate transporter GLT1 is critical for regulating an E/I ratio. However, the role of GLT1 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown because mice with a complete deficiency of GLT1 exhibited seizures and premature death. Here, we show that astrocyte-specific GLT1 inducible knockout (GLAST(CreERT2/+)/GLT1(flox/flox), iKO) mice exhibit pathological repetitive behaviors including excessive and injurious levels of self-grooming and tic-like head shakes. Electrophysiological studies reveal that excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapse is normal in a basal state but is increased after repetitive stimulation. Furthermore, treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine ameliorated the pathological repetitive behaviors in iKO mice. These results suggest that astroglial GLT1 plays a critical role in controlling the synaptic efficacy at cortico-striatal synapses and its dysfunction causes pathological repetitive behaviors.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 09 February 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.26.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin is a neuromodulator that is involved extensively in behavioral, affective, and cognitive functions in the brain. Previous recording studies of the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) revealed that the activation of putative serotonin neurons correlates with the levels of behavioral arousal [1], rhythmic motor outputs [2], salient sensory stimuli [3-6], reward, and conditioned cues [5-8]. The classic theory on serotonin states that it opposes dopamine and inhibits behaviors when aversive events are predicted [9-14]. However, the therapeutic effects of serotonin signal-enhancing medications have been difficult to reconcile with this theory [15, 16]. In contrast, a more recent theory states that serotonin facilitates long-term optimal behaviors and suppresses impulsive behaviors [17-21]. To test these theories, we developed optogenetic mice that selectively express channelrhodopsin in serotonin neurons and tested how the activation of serotonergic neurons in the DRN affects animal behavior during a delayed reward task. The activation of serotonin neurons reduced the premature cessation of waiting for conditioned cues and food rewards. In reward omission trials, serotonin neuron stimulation prolonged the time animals spent waiting. This effect was observed specifically when the animal was engaged in deciding whether to keep waiting and was not due to motor inhibition. Control experiments showed that the prolonged waiting times observed with optogenetic stimulation were not due to behavioral inhibition or the reinforcing effects of serotonergic activation. These results show, for the first time, that the timed activation of serotonin neurons during waiting promotes animals' patience to wait for a delayed reward.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Current Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Plastic changes in white matter have received considerable attention in relation to normal cognitive function and learning. Oligodendrocytes and myelin, which constitute the white matter in the central nervous system, can respond to neuronal activity with prolonged depolarization of membrane potential and/or an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Depolarization of oligodendrocytes increases the conduction velocity of an action potential along axons myelinated by the depolarized oligodendrocytes, indicating that white matter shows functional plasticity, as well as structural plasticity. However, the properties and mechanism of oligodendrocyte depolarization-induced functional plastic changes in white matter are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional plasticity of white matter in the hippocampus using mice with oligodendrocytes expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Using extracellular recordings of compound action potentials at the alveus of the hippocampus, we demonstrated that light-evoked depolarization of oligodendrocytes induced early- and late-onset facilitation of axonal conduction that was dependent on the magnitude of oligodendrocyte depolarization; the former lasted for approximately 10 min, whereas the latter continued for up to 3 h. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and recordings of antidromic action potentials, we found that the early-onset short-lasting component included the synchronization of action potentials. Moreover, pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the activation of Ba2+-sensitive K+ channels was involved in early- and late-onset facilitation, whereas 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ channels were only involved in the early-onset component. These results demonstrate that oligodendrocyte depolarization induces short- and long-term functional plastic changes in the white matter of the hippocampus and plays active roles in brain functions. GLIA 2014
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Glia
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes regulate the activity of neighboring neurons by releasing chemical transmitters, including ATP. Adenosine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of mice that express a mutant human glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes are slightly elevated compared to those in wild type mice and this might result from the observed increased release by mutant astrocytes of ATP, which can be used to produce adenosine. Using hippocampal slices from these mutant mice, we examined whether the increased endogenous adenosine levels in the hippocampus modulate the reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP), i.e. depotentiation (DP), in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from wild type mice, a stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 100 pulses at 100 Hz, and this was reversed by a train of low frequency stimulation (LFS) of 500 pulses at 1 Hz applied 30 min later. This induction of DP was inhibited by application of either 100 nM adenosine or 0.5 nM N6-cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, during LFS, indicating that the increase in extracellular adenosine levels attenuated DP induction by acting on adenosine A1 receptors. In contrast, although a stable LTP was also induced in hippocampal slices from mutant mice, induction of DP was inhibited, but DP could be induced by application, during LFS, of 50 nM 8-cyclopentyltheophylline, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that a small increase in extracellular adenosine levels resulting from increased ATP release by astrocytes results in attenuation of DP in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the mutant mice.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: Memory traces are believed to be ensembles of cells used to store memories. To visualize memory traces, we created a transgenic line that allows for the comparison between cells activated during encoding and expression of a memory. Mice re-exposed to a fear-inducing context froze more and had a greater percentage of reactivated cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 than mice exposed to a novel context. Over time, these differences disappeared, in keeping with the observation that memories become generalized. Optogenetically silencing DG or CA3 cells that were recruited during encoding of a fear-inducing context prevented expression of the corresponding memory. Mice with reduced neurogenesis displayed less contextual memory and less reactivation in CA3 but, surprisingly, normal reactivation in the DG. These studies suggest that distinct memory traces are located in the DG and in CA3 but that the strength of the memory is related to reactivation in CA3. VIDEO ABSTRACT:
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Neuron
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes generate local calcium (Ca(2+)) signals that are thought to regulate their functions. Visualization of these signals in the intact brain requires an imaging method with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we describe such a method using transgenic mice expressing the ultrasensitive ratiometric Ca(2+) indicator yellow Cameleon-Nano 50 (YC-Nano50) in astrocytes. In these mice, we detected a unique pattern of Ca(2+) signals. These occur spontaneously, predominantly in astrocytic fine processes, but not the cell body. Upon sensory stimulation, astrocytes initially responded with Ca(2+) signals at fine processes, which then propagated to the cell body. These observations suggest that astrocytic fine processes function as a high-sensitivity detector of neuronal activities. Thus, the method provides a useful tool for studying the activity of astrocytes in brain physiology and pathology.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Whether increased serotonin (5-HT) release in the forebrain attenuates or enhances anxiety has been controversial for over 25 yr. Although there is considerable indirect evidence, there is no direct evidence that indicates a relationship between acute 5-HT release and anxiety. In particular, there is no known method that can reversibly, selectively, and temporally control serotonergic activity. To address this issue, we generated transgenic animals to manipulate the firing rates of central 5-HT neurons by optogenetic methods. Activation of serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus was correlated to enhanced anxiety-like behaviour in mice, whereas activation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour. These results indicate that an acute increase in 5-HT release from the median raphe nucleus enhances anxiety.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
411.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • Keio University
      • Department of Neuropsychiatry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2014
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008-2012
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Department of Genetics and Development
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Division of Neurobiology and Bioinformatics
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2009
    • National Institutes Of Natural Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan