[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NtrC transcription factor is a member of a family of homologous prokaryotic regulatory proteins that participate in the transduction of extracellular and nutritional signals. It has been demonstrated that the phosphate group from a histidine residue of the phosphorylated NtrB protein autokinase is transferred to the NtrC protein. Phosphorylation of the NtrC protein is transient and activates its transcriptional enhancement activity. We have investigated the site of phosphorylation of the Salmonella typhimurium NtrC protein and find that it is an aspartate residue (Asp-54) that is found within a sequence conserved in all of the members of the family of regulatory proteins. We propose that this phosphorylation is an NtrC protein histidine phosphatase catalytic intermediate. This conclusion suggests that the NtrC family should be viewed not as kinase substrates but as enzymes that can catalyze the hydrolysis of their activated forms in a concentration-independent fashion. They are similar in this sense to eukaryotic signal-transducing GTPases.
Full-text · Article · Sep 1992 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an overlay technique, we previously showed that the Gram-negative periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum binds to a glycoprotein of Mr 89,000 (Prakobphol, A., Murray, P., and Fischer, S.J. (1987) Anal. Biochem. 164, 5-11) in the parotid saliva of some individuals. We now show that deglycosylation of the purified glycoprotein results in loss of receptor activity. Amino acid analysis of the protein core showed predominantly proline, glycine, and glutamic acid/glutamine, a characteristic of proline-rich glycoproteins (PRG). The amino terminus contained repeating sequences of Ser-Gln-Gly-Pro-Pro-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro-Glu-Gly-Pro-Pro-Pro- Gln-Gly that had significant compositional and sequence homology to that encoded by exon 3 of the PRB3 gene. We analyzed the PRG oligosaccharides by a combination of mass spectrometry techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-seven highly fucosylated structures were identified. The most abundant was as follows (where Fuc is fucose). (formula; see text) To understand the structural basis of F. nucleatum binding, we screened glycolipids and neoglycolipids carrying carbohydrate structures related to those of the PRG for receptor activity; components with unsubstituted terminal lactosamine residues best supported adherence. Neoglycolipids constructed from PRG oligosaccharides were also receptors. Treatment with beta-galactosidase, but not alpha-fucosidase, abolished binding, suggesting that unsubstituted lactosamine units, including the 6-antenna of the major oligosaccharide, mediate F. nucleatum adherence.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1991 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for characterizing O-linked glycopeptides without chemical degradation is presented. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis of intact O-linked glycopeptides containing mono- and disaccharides was performed. For glycopeptides containing one hexose unit, both the peptide sequence and the site of attachment of the sugar moiety were obtained from a single high-energy CID spectrum. However, in a glycopeptide bearing multiple sugar residues per site, the CID spectrum was dominated by fragments resulting from cleavages of the carbohydrate substituents and the gas-phase deglycosylated peptide, thus obviating the concomitant observation of peptide sequence ions. Hence, information on the structures of the carbohydrate substituents was obtained, but not on the sites of attachment of these residues to the peptide. Subsequent CID analysis of the gas-phase deglycosylated peptide ion can be used to obtain the sequence of the peptide backbone from the same sample. This method holds promise for simultaneously determining the carbohydrate structure and the peptide sequence of intact O-linked glycopeptides without chemical degradation.
No preview · Article · Jan 1991 · Biomedical & environmental mass spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for characterizing O-linked glycopeptides without chemical degradation is presented. Collisioninduced dissociation (CID) analysis of intact O-linked glycopeptides containing mono-and disaccharides was performed. For glycopeptides containing one hexose unit, both the peptide sequence and the site of attachment of the sugar moiety were obtained from a single high-energy CID spectrum. However, in a glycopeptide bearing multiple sugar residues per site, the CID spectrum was dominated by fragments resulting from cleavages of the carbohydrate substituents and the gas-phase deglycosylated peptide, thus obviating the concomitant observation of peptide sequence ions. Hence, information on the structures of the carbohydrate substituents was obtained, but not on the sites of attachment of these residues to the peptide. Subsequent CID analysis of the gas-phase deglycosylated peptide ion can be used to obtain the sequence of the peptide backbone from the same sample. This method holds promise for simultaneously determining the carbohydrate structure and the peptide sequence of intact O-linked glycopeptides without chemical degradation.
No preview · Article · Dec 1990 · Journal of Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses oligosaccharide characterization with high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry. The diverse suite of established mass spectrometric methods have been used for over two decades to characterize oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates by identifying molecular weight, sequence, and isomeric structures. Typically, glycans and glycoconjugates are derivatized to increase their volatility and thermal stability in order to permit determination of their molecular weights and structures by electron impact and chemical ionization. This is accomplished by either alkylation of all hydroxyl and acetamido functions with methyl groups or esterification with acetyl groups. Structure determination of the permethylated or peracetylated small glycans has been accomplished by electron impact ionization. Collision-induced dissociation is a process whereby a small portion of the kinetic energy of the mass-selected incident ion is transformed into vibronic energy upon collision with helium atoms for the purpose of promoting unimolecular decompositions. There are a variety of ways to carry out the CID experiment using a variety of differing ion-optical instrument configurations and ion sources.
No preview · Article · Feb 1990 · Methods in Enzymology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein (Escherichia coli CheY) that controls the direction of flagellar rotation during bacterial chemotaxis has been shown to be phosphorylated on the aspartate 57 residue. The residue phosphorylated is present within a conserved sequence in every member of a family of bacterial regulatory proteins. The phosphorylation is transient, with a much shorter half-life than that expected of a simple acyl phosphate intermediate, indicating that the sequence and conformation of the protein is designed to achieve a rapid hydrolysis. The CheY-phosphate linkage can be reductively cleaved by sodium borohydride. High-performance tandem mass-spectrometric analysis of proteolytic peptides derived from [3H]borohydride-reduced phosphorylated CheY protein was used to identify the position of phosphorylation. Mutants with altered aspartate 57 exhibited no chemotaxis. When aspartate 13, another conserved residue, was changed, greatly reduced chemotaxis was observed, suggesting an important role for aspartate 13. The rate-determining step of chemotactic signaling is governed by the kinetics of formation and hydrolysis of the CheY protein phosphoaspartate bond. The CheY protein apparently functions as a protein phosphatase that possesses a transient covalent intermediate. Transient phosphorylation of an aspartate residue is an effective mechanism for producing a biochemical signal with a short concentration-independent half-life. The duration of the signal can be controlled by small structural elements within the phosphorylated protein.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1990 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We find that the N-linked Man8GlcNAc2- core oligosaccharide of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn mutant mannoproteins is enlarged by the addition of the outer chain to the alpha 1----3-linked mannose in the side chain that is attached to the beta 1----4-linked mannose rather than by addition to the terminal alpha 1----6-linked mannose. This conclusion is derived from structural studies on a phosphorylated oligosaccharide fraction and from mass spectral fragment analysis of neutral core oligosaccharides.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1989 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report results of a mass-spectrometric-based strategy for determining the detailed structural features of N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins. The method was used to characterize a series of intact, high mannose oligosaccharides isolated from human immunoglobulin M (IgM). The IgM was purified from a patient with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. The strategy included releasing the oligosaccharides by digestion of the purified glycoprotein with endoglycosidase H, separating the released oligosaccharides by high resolution gel filtration, and derivatizing the resulting reducing termini with the uv-absorbing moiety, ethyl p-aminobenzoate. This particular derivative facilitates HPLC detection and provides centers for protonation and deprotonation enhancing liquid secondary ion mass spectra. Positive and negative ion spectra contained molecular species of similar abundance. However, fragment ion peaks yielding sequence information were significantly more prominent in the negative ion mass spectra. Furthermore, it was obvious that the fragmentation patterns differed substantially for linear and branched oligomers. For linear oligosaccharides, a smooth envelope of fragment ions was observed; from low to high mass there was an ordered decrease in ion abundance from both the reducing and nonreducing termini. This pattern of fragment ions was not observed for branched oligosaccharides since in these cases fragments at certain masses could not arise by single bond cleavages. Therefore, these fragments were either significantly reduced in abundance or absent as compared with identical fragments formed from linear molecules. Importantly, 200 pmol of an oligosaccharide could be derivatized, separated, and detected by mass spectrometry, allowing identification of previously unreported minor components of the IgM oligosaccharides. Therefore, this experimental strategy is particularly useful for the purification and detailed structural characterization of low abundance oligosaccharides isolated from heterogeneous biological samples.
No preview · Article · Apr 1988 · Analytical Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatitis B surface antigen, which constitutes the currently available vaccine, is the empty envelope of the hepatitis B virus. We investigated the carbohydrate structures of the envelope glycoproteins. The intact oligosaccharides were enzymatically released from the coat glycoproteins using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase F and isolated by gel permeation chromatography. Cesium ion liquid secondary ion mass spectra of the intact, underivatized oligosaccharides showed molecular weights of 1932, 2078, and 2223. The mixture included partially and totally sialylated structures, a fraction (approximately 8%) of which were substituted with a single terminal fucose residue; no desialylated oligosaccharides were detected. The reducing termini of the oligomers were derivatized by reduction of the Schiff base formed using p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, and fragmentation patterns identical to those produced from standard biantennary complex oligosaccharides were obtained. Methylation linkage analysis of the oligosaccharides showed that the carbohydrate composition and the mannose branching patterns also resembled those of a biantennary oligosaccharide. The results of this study indicate that glycosylation of the hepatitis B surface antigen, which takes place in the liver, is typical of other serum glycoproteins made in the liver; and this analytical strategy, including cesium ion liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, is an effective approach for the structural analysis of complex carbohydrates available in only the 1-10 micrograms sample size range.
No preview · Article · Aug 1987 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics