[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial brush border (BB) Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) accounts for most renal and intestinal Na+ absorption. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibits NHE3 activity under basal conditions in intact intestine, acting
in the BB, but the mechanism is unclear. We now demonstrate that in both PS120 fibroblasts and polarized Caco-2BBe cells expressing
NHE3, CaMKII inhibits basal NHE3 activity, because the CaMKII-specific inhibitors KN-93 and KN-62 stimulate NHE3 activity.
This inhibition requires NHERF2. CaMKIIγ associates with NHE3 between aa 586 and 605 in the NHE3 C terminus in a Ca2+-dependent manner, with less association when Ca2+ is increased. CaMKII inhibits NHE3 by an effect on its turnover number, not changing surface expression. Back phosphorylation
demonstrated that NHE3 is phosphorylated by CaMKII under basal conditions. This overall phosphorylation of NHE3 is not affected
by the presence of NHERF2. Amino acids downstream of NHE3 aa 690 are required for CaMKII to inhibit basal NHE3 activity, and
mutations of the three putative CaMKII phosphorylation sites downstream of aa 690 each prevented KN-93 stimulation of NHE3
activity. These studies demonstrate that CaMKIIγ is a novel NHE3-binding protein, and this association is reduced by elevated
Ca2+. CaMKII inhibits basal NHE3 activity associated with phosphorylation of NHE3 by effects requiring aa downstream of NHE3 aa
690 and of the CaMKII-binding site on NHE3. CaMKII binding to and phosphorylation of the NHE3 C terminus are parts of the
physiologic regulation of NHE3 that occurs in fibroblasts as well as in the BB of an intestinal Na+-absorptive cell.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most common symptoms among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is diarrhea, which is thought to be contributed by changes in electrolyte transport associated with intestinal inflammation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that intestinal Na(+)-related transporters/channels and their regulatory proteins may be downregulated as a potential contributor to IBD-associated diarrhea.
SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and/or confocal immunomicroscopy were used to examine the expression of Na(+)/H(+)-exchangers 1-3 (NHE1-3), epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, the intracellular Cl(-) channel 5 (ClC-5), and NHE3 regulatory factors (NHERF1,2) in ileal and colonic pinch biopsies from IBD patients and noninflammatory controls, as well as from colonic mucosa of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)- and TNBS-induced acute murine IBD models.
NHE1,3 (but not NHE2), beta-ENaC, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-alpha, ClC-5, and NHERF1 were all downregulated in sigmoid mucosal biopsies from most cases of active UC and/or CD compared to controls. NHE3 was also decreased in ileal mucosal biopsies of active CD, as well as in approximately 50% of sigmoid biopsies from inactive UC or CD. Importantly, similar downregulation of NHE1,3, beta-ENaC, and NHERF1,2 was also observed in the mouse colon (but not ileum) of DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis.
IBD-associated diarrhea may be due to a coordinated downregulation of multiple Na(+) transporter and related regulatory proteins, including NHE1,3, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and ENaC, as well as NHERF1,2, and ClC-5, all of which are involved directly or indirectly in intestinal Na(+) absorption.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) is the epithelial-brush border isoform responsible for most intestinal and renal Na(+) absorption. Its activity is both up- and down-regulated under normal physiological conditions, and it is inhibited in most diarrheal diseases. NHE3 is phosphorylated under basal conditions and Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors stimulate basal exchange activity; however, the kinases involved are unknown. To identify kinases that regulate NHE3 under basal conditions, NHE3 was immunoprecipitated; LC-MS/MS of trypsinized NHE3 identified a novel phosphorylation site at S(719) of the C terminus, which was predicted to be a casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylation site. This was confirmed by an in vitro kinase assay. The NHE3-S719A mutant but not NHE3-S719D had reduced NHE3 activity due to less plasma membrane NHE3. This was due to reduced exocytosis plus decreased plasma membrane delivery of newly synthesized NHE3. Also, NHE3 activity was inhibited by the CK2 inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole DMAT when wild-type NHE3 was expressed in fibroblasts and Caco-2 cells, but the NHE3-S(719) mutant was fully resistant to DMAT. CK2 bound to the NHE3 C-terminal domain, between amino acids 590 and 667, a site different from the site it phosphorylates. CK2 binds to the NHE3 C terminus and stimulates basal NHE3 activity by phosphorylating a separate single site on the NHE3 C terminus (S(719)), which affects NHE3 trafficking.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Molecular biology of the cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first detailed description of the proteome of the mouse jejunal brush border membrane vesicle is presented here. This was obtained by a combination of purification via divalent (Mg2+) cation precipitation starting with isolated cells plus strong cation exchange chromatography LC-MS/MS. Five-hundred seventy proteins were identified including 45 transport proteins. Among the latter, 18 had either not been identified in the intestine in the past or there was a single unconfirmed report of their presence. Validation was accomplished by a combination of immunoblotting and immunofluorescence using mouse jejunum and previously described antibodies. The validated BB proteins were aquaporin 7, Glut 9b, Na+I- symporter (NIS), and non-gastric H+/K+-ATPase. This study helps to further define the brush border membrane vesicle, a preparation which has been widely used to identify transport function of the small intestine.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multi-PDZ domain containing protein Na(+)/H(+) Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) binds to Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) and is associated with the brush border (BB) membrane of murine kidney and small intestine. Although studies in BB isolated from kidney cortex of wild type and NHERF1(-/-) mice have shown that NHERF1 is necessary for cAMP inhibition of NHE3 activity, a role of NHERF1 in NHE3 regulation in small intestine and in intact kidney has not been established. Here a method using multi-photon microscopy with the pH-sensitive dye SNARF-4F (carboxyseminaphthorhodafluors-4F) to measure BB NHE3 activity in intact murine tissue and use it to examine the role of NHERF1 in regulation of NHE3 activity. NHE3 activity in wild type and NHERF1(-/-) ileum and wild type kidney cortex were inhibited by cAMP, whereas the cAMP effect was abolished in kidney cortex of NHERF1(-/-) mice. cAMP inhibition of NHE3 activity in these two tissues is mediated by different mechanisms. In ileum, a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent mechanism accounts for all cAMP inhibition of NHE3 activity since the PKA antagonist H-89 abolished the inhibitory effect of cAMP. In kidney, both PKA-dependent and non-PKA-dependent mechanisms were involved, with the latter reproduced by the effect on an EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) agonist (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'O-Me-cAMP). In contrast, the EPAC agonist had no effect in proximal tubules in NHERF1(-/-) mice. These data suggest that in proximal tubule, NHERF1 is required for all cAMP inhibition of NHE3, which occurs through both EPAC-dependent and PKA-dependent mechanisms; in contrast, cAMP inhibits ileal NHE3 only by a PKA-dependent pathway, which is independent of NHERF1 and EPAC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial brush border membrane (BBM) Na(+)-H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) is the major transport protein responsible for ileal electroneutral Na(+) absorption. We have previously shown that ileal BBM NHE3 activity is rapidly inhibited by carbachol, an agonist that mimics cholinergic activation in digestion. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in this NHE3 inhibition. Carbachol decreased the amount of ileal Na(+) absorptive cell BBM NHE3 within 10 min of exposure. Based on OptiPrep gradient centrifugation, carbachol increased the amount of NHE3 in early endosomes and decreased the amount of NHE3 in BBM, consistent with effects on NHE3 trafficking. The decrease in BBM NHE3 occurred in the detergent-soluble BBM fraction with no change in the amount of NHE3 in the BBM detergent-resistant membranes. The size of BBM NHE3 complexes increased in carbachol-exposed ileum, as studied with sucrose gradient centrifugation. The NHE3 complex size increased in the total BBM, but did not change in the detergent-soluble fraction. This suggests that carbachol treatment enhanced the association of proteins with NHE3 complexes specifically in the detergent-resistant fraction of ileal BBM. NHERF2, alpha-actinin-4 and protein kinase C were among those NHE3-associated proteins because they were more efficiently coimmunoprecipitated from total BBM after carbachol treatment. Moreover, Src was involved in the carbachol-mediated inhibition since: (1) c-Src was rapidly activated in the detergent-resistant membranes by carbachol; and (2) carbachol inhibition of ileal Na(+) absorption was completely abolished by the Src family inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2). Moreover, the carbachol-induced increase in the size of NHE3-containing complexes was reversed by PP2. These data demonstrate that regulation of NHE3 activity by carbachol can be achieved at several interrelated levels: (1) the subcellular level, at which NHE3 is rapidly endocytosed from BBM to endocytic vesicles upon treatment with carbachol; (2) multiple BBM pools, in which carbachol selectively decreases the amount of NHE3 in the BBM detergent-soluble fraction but not the detergent-resistant membrane; and (3) the molecular level, at which NHE3 complex-associated proteins can be changed upon carbachol treatment, with carbachol leading to larger BBM NHE3 complexes and increased co-IP of NHERF2 with alpha-actinin-4 and activated PKC. The study further describes NHE3 presence simultaneously in multiple dynamic BBM pools in which NHE3 distribution and associated proteins are altered as part of carbachol-induced and Src-mediated rapid signal transduction, which decreases the amount of BBM NHE3 and thus inhibits NHE3 activity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · The Journal of Physiology