[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular oxidative injury accompanies many common conditions associated with hypertension. In the present study, we employed mouse models with excessive vascular production of ROS (tgsm/p22phox mice, which overexpress the NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox in smooth muscle, and mice with vascular-specific deletion of extracellular SOD) and have shown that these animals develop vascular collagen deposition, aortic stiffening, renal dysfunction, and hypertension with age. T cells from tgsm/p22phox mice produced high levels of IL-17A and IFN-γ. Crossing tgsm/p22phox mice with lymphocyte-deficient Rag1-/- mice eliminated vascular inflammation, aortic stiffening, renal dysfunction, and hypertension; however, adoptive transfer of T cells restored these processes. Isoketal-protein adducts, which are immunogenic, were increased in aortas, DCs, and macrophages of tgsm/p22phox mice. Autologous pulsing with tgsm/p22phox aortic homogenates promoted DCs of tgsm/p22phox mice to stimulate T cell proliferation and production of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and TNF-α. Treatment with the superoxide scavenger tempol or the isoketal scavenger 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) normalized blood pressure; prevented vascular inflammation, aortic stiffening, and hypertension; and prevented DC and T cell activation. Moreover, in human aortas, the aortic content of isoketal adducts correlated with fibrosis and inflammation severity. Together, these results define a pathway linking vascular oxidant stress to immune activation and aortic stiffening and provide insight into the systemic inflammation encountered in common vascular diseases.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significance:
Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA, to protein, lipids and free amino acids. Recent advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance.
The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition biomarkers are often measured using non-specific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use.
Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared to current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others. The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most proper biomarker.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Increased lipid peroxidation occurs in many conditions associated with inflammation. Because lipid peroxidation produces lipid aldehydes that can induce inflammatory responses through unknown mechanisms, elucidating these mechanisms may lead to development of better treatments for inflammatory diseases. We recently demonstrated that exposure of cultured cells to lipid aldehydes such as isolevuglandins (IsoLG) results in the modification of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We therefore sought to determine (i) whether PE modification by isolevuglandins (IsoLG-PE) occurred in vivo, (ii) whether IsoLG-PE stimulated the inflammatory responses of macrophages, and (iii) the identity of receptors mediating the inflammatory effects of IsoLG-PE.
IsoLG-PE levels were elevated in plasma of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity and hepatosteatosis. IsoLG-PE potently stimulated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. The effects of IsoLG-PE were blocked by the soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) and by RAGE antagonists. Furthermore, macrophages derived from the bone marrow of Ager null mice failed to express inflammatory cytokines in response to IsoLG-PE to the same extent as macrophages from wild-type mice.
These studies are the first to identify IsoLG-PE as a mediator of macrophage activation and a specific receptor, RAGE, which mediates its biological effects.
PE modification by IsoLG forms RAGE ligands that activate macrophages, so that the increased IsoLG-PE generated by high circulating cholesterol levels or high-fat diet may play a role in the inflammation associated with these conditions.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage and inflammation are both implicated in the genesis of hypertension; however, the mechanisms by which these stimuli promote hypertension are not fully understood. Here, we have described a pathway in which hypertensive stimuli promote dendritic cell (DC) activation of T cells, ultimately leading to hypertension. Using multiple murine models of hypertension, we determined that proteins oxidatively modified by highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes (isoketals) are formed in hypertension and accumulate in DCs. Isoketal accumulation was associated with DC production of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-23 and an increase in costimulatory proteins CD80 and CD86. These activated DCs promoted T cell, particularly CD8+ T cell, proliferation; production of IFN-γ and IL-17A; and hypertension. Moreover, isoketal scavengers prevented these hypertension-associated events. Plasma F2-isoprostanes, which are formed in concert with isoketals, were found to be elevated in humans with treated hypertension and were markedly elevated in patients with resistant hypertension. Isoketal-modified proteins were also markedly elevated in circulating monocytes and DCs from humans with hypertension. Our data reveal that hypertension activates DCs, in large part by promoting the formation of isoketals, and suggest that reducing isoketals has potential as a treatment strategy for this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are widespread in Westernized nations. Gut microbiota composition is a contributing factor to the susceptibility of an individual to the development of these disorders; therefore, altering a person's microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota. For example, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are precursors to the N-acylethanolamide (NAE) family of lipids, which are synthesized in the small intestine in response to feeding and reduce food intake and obesity. Here, we demonstrated that administration of engineered NAPE-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 bacteria in drinking water for 8 weeks reduced the levels of obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice that received modified bacteria had dramatically lower food intake, adiposity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis compared with mice receiving standard water or control bacteria. The protective effects conferred by NAPE-expressing bacteria persisted for at least 4 weeks after their removal from the drinking water. Moreover, administration of NAPE-expressing bacteria to TallyHo mice, a polygenic mouse model of obesity, inhibited weight gain. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of appropriately modified bacteria into the gut microbiota has potential as an effective strategy to inhibit the development of metabolic disorders.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid aldehydes including isolevuglandins (IsoLG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) modify phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to form proinflammatory and cytotoxic adducts. Therefore, cells may have evolved mechanisms to degrade and prevent accumulation of these potentially harmful compounds. To test if cells could degrade IsoLG-PE, we generated IsoLG-PE in HEK293 and HUVEC cells and measured its stability over time. We found that IsoLG-PE levels decreased more than 75% after 6h, suggesting that IsoLG-PE was indeed degraded. Because NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) has been described as a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of NAPE (N-acyl phosphatidylethanoamine) and both NAPE and IsoLG-PE have large aliphatic headgroups, we considered the possibility that this enzyme might also hydrolyze IsoLG-PE. We found that knockdown of NAPE-PLD expression using siRNA significantly increased the persistence of IsoLG-PE in HEK293 cells. IsoLG-PE competed with NAPE for hydrolysis by recombinant mouse NAPE-PLD, with the catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for hydrolysis of IsoLG-PE being 30% that for hydrolysis of NAPE. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that recombinant NAPE-PLD hydrolyzed IsoLG-PE to IsoLG-ethanolamine (IsoLG-Etn). These results demonstrate that NAPE-PLD contributes to the degradation of IsoLG-PE and suggest that a major physiological role of NAPE-PLD may be to degrade aldehyde-modified PE, thereby preventing the accumulation of these harmful compounds.
Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that exerts its functions via selenoproteins. Little is known about the role of Se in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological studies have inversely correlated nutritional Se status with IBD severity and colon cancer risk. Moreover, molecular studies have revealed that Se deficiency activates WNT signaling, a pathway essential to intestinal stem cell programs and pivotal to injury recovery processes in IBD that is also activated in inflammatory neoplastic transformation. In order to better understand the role of Se in epithelial injury and tumorigenesis resulting from inflammatory stimuli, we examined colonic phenotypes in Se-deficient or -sufficient mice in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and azoxymethane (AOM) followed by cyclical administration of DSS, respectively. In response to DSS alone, Se-deficient mice demonstrated increased morbidity, weight loss, stool scores, and colonic injury with a concomitant increase in DNA damage and increases in inflammation-related cytokines. As there was an increase in DNA damage as well as expression of several EGF and TGF-β pathway genes in response to inflammatory injury, we sought to determine if tumorigenesis was altered in the setting of inflammatory carcinogenesis. Se-deficient mice subjected to AOM/DSS treatment to model colitis-associated cancer (CAC) had increased tumor number, though not size, as well as increased incidence of high grade dysplasia. This increase in tumor initiation was likely due to a general increase in colonic DNA damage, as increased 8-OHdG staining was seen in Se-deficient tumors and adjacent, non-tumor mucosa. Taken together, our results indicate that Se deficiency worsens experimental colitis and promotes tumor development and progression in inflammatory carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter reviews the reaction pathways that lead to well-established products of lipid peroxidation and nitrosylation, so that the underlying patterns in species formation becomes clear. Understanding these pathways and their major products should permit a more coherent examination of the role of lipid peroxidation and nitrosylation products in physiology and disease. The chapter discusses peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including hydroperoxy fatty acid isomers, hydroxy fatty acids, isoleukotrienes, and epoxy alcohols. It then talks about cyclic endoperoxides and their products. In addition to oxygenation and cyclization reactions, peroxidation results in fragmentation of acyl chains. Fragmentation products include some of the earliest and most well-studied products of lipid peroxidation, and highly potent ligands for receptors. The chapter overviews the epoxy fatty acids. In addition to modification by oxygen, lipid radicals can also undergo modification by reactive nitrogen species. Like peroxidation, lipid nitrosylation also generates highly bioactive compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) lipid accumulation, inflammation and resistance to adipo-regulatory hormones, such as insulin and leptin, are implicated in the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR α, δ, γ) are nuclear transcription factors that act as environmental fatty acid sensors and regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation in response to dietary and endogenous fatty acid ligands. All three PPAR isoforms are expressed in the CNS at different levels. Recent evidence suggests that activation of CNS PPARα and/or PPARγ may contribute to weight gain and obesity. PPARδ is the most abundant isoform in the CNS and is enriched in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain involved in energy homeostasis regulation. Because in peripheral tissues, expression of PPARδ increases lipid oxidative genes and opposes inflammation, we hypothesized that CNS PPARδ protects against the development of DIO. Indeed, genetic neuronal deletion using Nes-Cre loxP technology led to elevated fat mass and decreased lean mass on low-fat diet (LFD), accompanied by leptin resistance and hypothalamic inflammation. Impaired regulation of neuropeptide expression, as well as uncoupling protein 2, and abnormal responses to a metabolic challenge, such as fasting, also occur in the absence of neuronal PPARδ. Consistent with our hypothesis, KO mice gain significantly more fat mass on a high-fat diet (HFD), yet are surprisingly resistant to diet-induced elevations in CNS inflammation and lipid accumulation. We detected evidence of upregulation of PPARγ and target genes of both PPARα and PPARγ, as well as genes of fatty acid oxidation. Thus, our data reveal a previously underappreciated role for neuronal PPARδ in the regulation of body composition, feeding responses, and in the regulation of hypothalamic gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation induce cell damage and inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that γ-ketoaldehydes (isolevuglandins, IsoLGs) form inflammatory mediators by modifying the ethanolamine headgroup of phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). To determine if other species of aldehyde-modified PEs (al-PEs) with inflammatory bioactivity were generated by lipid peroxidation, we oxidized liposomes containing arachidonic acid and characterized the resulting products. We detected PE modified by IsoLGs, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), as well as a novel series of N-acyl-PEs and N-carboxyacyl-PEs in these oxidized liposomes. These al-PEs were also detected in high-density lipoproteins exposed to myeloperoxidase. When we tested the ability of al-PEs to induce THP-1 monocyte adhesion to cultured endothelial cells, we found that PEs modified by MDA, HNE, and 4-oxononenal induced adhesion with potencies similar to those of PEs modified by IsoLGs (∼2μM). A commercially available medium-chain N-carboxyacyl-PE (C11:0CAPE) also stimulated adhesion, whereas C4:0CAPE and N-acyl-PEs did not. PEs modified by acrolein or by glucose were only partial agonists for adhesion. These studies indicate that lipid peroxidation generates a large family of al-PEs, many of which have the potential to drive inflammation.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of lipid aldehydes, which have been recognized to modify protein and DNA, causing inflammation and cancer. However, recent studies demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a major target for these aldehydes, forming aldehyde-modified PEs (al-PEs) as a novel family of mediators for inflammation. This review summarizes our current understanding of these al-PEs, including formation, detection, structural characterization, physiological relevance and mechanism of action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free radicals are reactive chemical species containing one or more unpaired electrons in their outer orbitals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a term used to describe chemically reactive, oxygen-containing molecules including oxygen-centered free radicals as well as oxygen ions and peroxides. ROS are also generated from exogenous genotoxic sources, including UV radiation, environmental toxicants, cigarette smoke, and other chemical carcinogens. ROS have important biological functions. Low tomoderate levels of ROS have been shown to play a key role in mediating signal transduction and normal physiological processes. A series of antioxidant defense mechanisms have been developed to maintain redox homeostasis and protect cells against free radical-induced oxidative damage. It is important to note that during the formation of F 2-IsoPs the initial abstraction of any bisallylic hydrogen atom from arachidonic acid is equally likely.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both inflammation and oxidative injury are features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the contribution of these intertwined phenomena to the loss of working memory in this disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes that are formed both by non-enzymatic free radical catalyzed lipid peroxidation and by cyclooxygenases may be causally linked to the development of memory impairment in AD. We found that levels of γ-ketoaldehyde protein adducts were increased in the hippocampus of brains obtained postmortem from patients with AD compared to age-matched controls, but that levels of γ-ketoaldehyde protein adducts in the cerebellum were not different in the two groups. Moreover, immunohistochemistry revealed that adducts localized to hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We tested the effect of an orally available γ-ketoaldehyde scavenger, salicylamine, on the development of spatial working memory deficits in hApoE4 targeted replacement mice, a mouse model of dementia. Long-term salicylamine supplementation did not significantly alter body weight or survival, but protected against the development of age-related deficits in spatial working memory in 12-14 month old ApoE4 mice. These findings suggest that γ-ketoaldehyde adduct formation is associated with damage to hippocampal neurons in patients with AD and can contribute to the pathogenesis of spatial working memory deficits in hApoE4 mice. These data provide a rational basis for future studies exploring whether γ-ketoaldehyde scavengers may mitigate the development of cognitive dysfunction in patients with AD.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute exercise results in transient change in redox balance. High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative damage to macromolecules. However, moderate periodic increases in ROS, such as experienced with habitual exercise, may activate signal transduction pathways which stimulate increases in endogenous antioxidant systems. This study tested the hypothesis that physically fit older adults would have less oxidative stress than unfit age-matched controls, due to greater circulating concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants and greater capacity to upregulate antioxidant enzymes. We compared 37 fit (mean age 65.2 ± 5 years) and 35 unfit (mean age 67.7 ± 4 years) men and women. Fitness status was classified by VO(2 max) and maximal leg power. Basal levels of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring urinary markers of nucleic acid damage and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring total antioxidant power and ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione in plasma, at rest. The capacity to counteract an oxidative insult was assessed by measuring changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostanes in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion. The fit individuals had significantly lower levels of urinary markers of oxidative damage (all P <0.05) and lower F(2)-isoprostane response to the oxidative challenge (P < 0.05), but there were no group differences in antioxidant status. The lower levels of oxidative stress in the fit individuals were not mediated by known effects of exercise training such as adiposity, HDL concentrations, or small molecular weight antioxidants. These data suggest that reduced oxidative stress associated with physical fitness results from differences in activity of antioxidant enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxidation of plasma lipoproteins has been implicated in the endothelial cell activation and monocyte adhesion that initiate
atherosclerosis, but the exact mechanisms underlying this activation remain unclear. Lipid peroxidation generates lipid aldehydes,
including the γ-ketoaldehydes (γKA), also termed isoketals or isolevuglandins, that readily modify the amine headgroup of
phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We hypothesized that aldehyde modification of PE could mediate some of the proinflammatory
effects of lipid peroxidation. We found that PE modified by γKA (γKA-PE) induced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to human umbilical
cord endothelial cells. γKA-PE also induced expression of adhesion molecules and increased MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNA in human umbilical
cord endothelial cells. To determine the structural requirements for γKA-PE activity, we tested several related compounds.
PE modified by 4-oxo-pentanal induced THP-1 adhesion, but N-glutaroyl-PE and C18:0N-acyl-PE did not, suggesting that an N-pyrrole moiety was essential for cellular activity. As the N-pyrrole headgroup might distort the membrane, we tested the effect of the pyrrole-PEs on membrane parameters. γKA-PE and
4-oxo-pentanal significantly reduced the temperature for the liquid crystalline to hexagonal phase transition in artificial
bilayers, suggesting that these pyrrole-PE markedly altered membrane curvature. Additionally, fluorescently labeled γKA-PE
rapidly internalized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); γKA-PE induced C/EBP homologous protein CHOP and BiP expression and
p38 MAPK activity, and inhibitors of ER stress reduced γKA-PE-induced C/EBP homologous protein CHOP and BiP expression as
well as EC activation, consistent with γKA-PE inducing ER stress responses that have been previously linked to inflammatory
chemokine expression. Thus, γKA-PE is a potential mediator of the inflammation induced by lipid peroxidation.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry