[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivating mutations of the CDC73/HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene have been reported in parathyroid carcinomas, in association with the loss of nuclear expression of the encoding protein, parafibromin. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of the CDC73 gene in parathyroid carcinoma and evaluate whether the gene carrier status and/or the loss of parafibromin staining might have an impact in the outcome of the disease. We performed genetic and immunohistochemical studies in parathyroid tumor samples from 35 patients with sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. Nonsense or frameshift CDC73 mutations were detected in 13 samples suitable for DNA sequencing. Six of these mutations were germline. Loss of parafibromin expression was found in 17 samples. The presence of the CDC73 mutation as well as the loss of parafibromin predicted a high likelihood of subsequent recurrence and/or metastasis (92.3%, P=0.049 and 94.1%, P= 0.0083, respectively), but only the latter was associated with a decreased overall 5- and 10-year survival rates (59%, P=0.107, and 23%, P=0.0026, respectively). The presence of both CDC73 mutation and loss of parafibromin staining compared with their absence predicted a lower overall survival at 10- (18% vs 84%, P=0.016) but not at 5-year follow-up. In conclusion, loss of parafibromin staining better than CDC73 mutation predicts the clinical outcome and mortality rate. The added value of CDC73 mutational analysis is the possibility to identify germline mutations, which will prompt the screening other family members.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Endocrine Connections
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of metronomic ceramide analogs and their relevant molecular mechanisms.
Human endothelial cells [human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC)] and pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1 and MIA PaCa-2) were treated with the ceramide analogs (C2, AL6, C6, and C8), at low concentrations for 144 hours to evaluate any antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects and inhibition of migration and to measure the expression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mRNAs by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Assessment of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt phosphorylation and of CAV-1 and cyclin D1 protein expression was performed by ELISA. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) gemcitabine was compared against metronomic doses of the ceramide analogs by evaluating the inhibition of MIA PaCa-2 subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice.
Metronomic ceramide analogs preferentially inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in endothelial cells. Low concentrations of AL6 and C2 caused a significant inhibition of HUVEC migration. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were significantly decreased after metronomic ceramide analog treatment. Such treatment caused the overexpression of CAV-1 and TSP-1 mRNAs and proteins in endothelial cells, whereas cyclin D1 protein levels were reduced. The antiangiogenic and antitumor impact in vivo of metronomic C2 and AL6 regimens was similar to that caused by MTD gemcitabine.
Metronomic C2 and AL6 analogs have antitumor and antiangiogenic activity, determining the up-regulation of CAV-1 and TSP-1 and the suppression of cyclin D1.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant accumulation of beta-catenin has been found in various types of human tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas. We studied 154 parathyroid tumors (18 carcinomas (13 with distant metastases), six atypical adenomas, and 130 adenomas). Three normal parathyroid tissues were used as control. Direct sequencing of exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene showed absence of stabilizing mutations in all the tumors. Immunostaining of beta-catenin was performed in all carcinomas and in 66 adenomas (including three atypical). Normal parathyroid showed a homogeneous distinct outer cell membrane staining in the majority of cells and no nuclear staining. A weak cytoplasmic staining was observed in one case. All tumors showed negative nuclear staining. With the exception of one carcinoma, which had a negative membrane staining, all other samples showed a membrane staining which was similar to that of the normal parathyroid. beta-Catenin expression was heterogeneous with a range of positive cells between 5 and 80%, independently of tumor type. Our results suggest that the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is not involved in the development of parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas.
Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine cutaneous malignancy that predominantly arises in the head and neck region. We describe clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment in 4 cases of MCC, presenting an uncommon female predominant occurrence and an unusual primary site: the lower limb. In all cases diagnosis was established by histopathologic examination. Primary MCC and locally recurrence disease were treated in all patients with a wide surgical excision (3-cm margin) including fascia. Lymphadenectomy was reserved for a patient with clinical evidence of nodal involvement. Both chemotherapy administered in 2 cases and radiotherapy in 1 case produced limited responses. Early diagnosis is critical because this tumor is aggressive and has a high rate of local recurrence and metastatic spread. However, its nondistinctive appearance frequently delays diagnosis and its rarity avoids an optimal treatment guideline setting.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Annals of plastic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analyzed histological and histochemical features of specimens of the orbicularis oris muscle, and palatal and pharyngeal muscles biopsied during surgery from 33 patients affected by cleft lip and palate.
Three groups were studied: 20 patients affected by cleft palate with or without cleft lip (at the time of primary palatoplasty), seven by cleft lip with or without cleft palate (primary lip closure), and six by cleft lip with or without cleft palate (secondary cheiloplasty). Muscle sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, modified Gomori trichrome, ATPase reaction at pH 9.4, and NADH-TR. Analyzed parameters included organization, muscle fiber size and type, nuclear changes, presence of ragged-red fibers, degree of fibrosis, and presence of inflammatory infiltrate.
In all patients who underwent primary palatoplasty and lip closure we noted dystrophic-like alterations of orbicularis oris and palatopharyngeal muscles, such as variability of fiber size, fiber disorganization, and increased fibrosis. The same alterations were found in adult patients submitted to secondary cheiloplasty, notwithstanding surgical repair. Furthermore, in all groups neither neurogenic atrophy nor ragged-red fibers or inflammatory infiltrate were detected.
Muscle damage is a constant event in this deformity, and it could play an important role in its etiopathogenesis. Muscular biopsy during cheiloplasty and palatoplasty could offer useful information about muscle condition and possible functional recovery in cleft lip and palate patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HRPT2 and parafibromin studies improved the diagnostic accuracy in two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) referred to us after surgery, in whom the clinical data were at variance with the pathological diagnosis of adenoma and carcinoma, respectively. Patients were referred to us after parathyroidectomy. Patient #1 had had a 1.5-cm tumor easily removed with a histological diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma and normocalcemia for 2 years. Re-examination of the histology showed no cardinal signs of parathyroid cancer. Patient #2, with severe PHPT, had had the removal of a 3.5-cm tumor described histologically as adenoma. Ten years later PHPT recurred and persisted despite removal of two mildly enlarged parathyroid glands that were histologically normal. Re-review of the initial histology showed a trabecular pattern, fibrous bands, and atypical mitoses, suggesting an atypical adenoma. Because of the suspicion that case #1 could be an atypical adenoma and case #2 a carcinoma further molecular studies were performed. No HRPT2 and parafibromin abnormalities were identified in patient #1, strongly indicating a benign lesion. In patient #2, an HRPT2 germline mutation was found (E115X in exon 4) and associated with no parafibromin staining. These data, together with the clinical features, supported the suspicion of a parathyroid carcinoma that was confirmed by histological examination of further slides of the tumor, showing capsular and vascular invasion. A lung 1.5-cm nodule detected by computed tomography was excised. Histology showed a metastasis of parathyroid carcinoma. HRPT2 gene studies improved the diagnostic accuracy in 2 parathyroid tumors that are of uncertain type.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metronomic chemotherapy refers to the administration of chemotherapy at low, nontoxic doses on a frequent schedule with no prolonged breaks. The aim of the study is to rationally develop a CPT-11 metronomic regimen in preclinical settings of colon cancer. In vitro cell proliferation, apoptosis and thrombospondin-1/vascular endothelial growth factor (TSP-1/VEGF) expression analyses were performed on endothelial (HUVEC, HMVEC-d) and colorectal cancer (HT-29, SW620) cells exposed for 144 h to metronomic concentrations of SN-38, the active metabolite of CPT-11. HT-29 human colorectal cancer xenograft model was used, and tumour growth, microvessel density and VEGF/TSP-1 quantification was performed in tumours. In vitro and in vivo combination studies with the tyrosine inhibitor semaxinib were also performed. SN-38 preferentially inhibited endothelial cell proliferation alone and interacted synergistically with semaxinib; it induced apoptosis and increased the expression and secretion of TSP-1. Metronomic CPT-11 alone and combined with semaxinib significantly inhibits tumour growth in the absence of toxicity, which was accompanied by decreases in microvessel density and increases in TSP-1 gene expression in tumour tissues. In vitro results show the antiangiogenic properties of low-concentration SN-38, suggesting a key role of TSP-1 in this effect. In vivo, the CPT-11 metronomic schedule is effective against tumour and microvessel growth without toxic effect on mice.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart hypertrophy is a common finding of acromegaly, a syndrome due to GH excess. Impairment of adenine nucleotide translocase-1 (ANT-1) gene, the main mitochondrial ADP/ATP exchanger, leads to cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac expression and the functional role of ANT-1 in 1- to 12-month-old transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH (acromegalic mice, Acro) and littermate controls (wild-type mice, Wt). GH specificity of protein degree variation was assessed treating Acro with pegvisomant, a GH receptor competitor. Tissue levels of ANT-1, NF-kappaB, ATP, and lactic acid were evaluated by western blot, bioluminescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy respectively. The degree of ANT-1 expression was higher in 1-month-old Acro than in Wt (47+/-5% OD vs 33+/-4% OD, P<0 01). On the contrary, ANT-1 expression was lower in 3- to 12-month-old Acro than in Wt (P<0 03). Changes in ANT-1 expression were associated with consistent changes of cellular ATP content, increasing at 1 month (P<0 05) and reducing thereafter in Acro when compared with Wt (P<0 04). Treatment with pegvisomant abolished ANT-1 and ATP changes observed in 1- and 3-month-old Acro, thus supporting a GH-dependent mechanism. Reduced ATP generation in hypertrophied hearts of older Acro was associated with increased lactic acid levels suggesting that part of energy was due to glycolysis. Variations in ANT-1 expression were linked to GH through changes in NF-kappaB, the levels of which changed accordingly. In conclusion, 1-month-old acromegalic mice had increased ANT-1 expression and higher degree of ATP production. Long-standing disease was associated with a consistent reduction of ANT-1 and ATP tissue levels, which became GH-independent in older animals. This study demonstrated a direct effect of GH on key proteins involved in energy metabolism of acromegalic hearts.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 15-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical signs, which had commenced 6 months previously, included loss of appetite, loss of weight, and depression. As reported by the owner, the cat developed alopecia a week before referral. The hair loss was localized to the ventral aspect of the thorax and abdomen, medial aspect of front and hind limbs, and ventral aspect of the tail, and was associated with histological features consistent with paraneoplastic alopecia. At necropsy, multiple hepatic nodules were observed, and subsequent histopathological investigation showed cords and sheets of hepatocyte-like neoplastic cells positive for the hepatocyte marker (Hep Par 1), thereby demonstrating the hepatocellular origin of the tumour, which was diagnosed as a hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report of feline paraneoplastic alopecia associated with hepatocellular carcinoma confirmed by the Hep Par 1 marker.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Veterinary Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early onset of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and multiglandular involvement suggest a familial form in which germline mutation of a PHPT-related gene(s) and a somatic event at the same locus can be often demonstrated. We investigated the involvement of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and HRPT2 genes in a 39-year-old man with recurrent PHPT. PHPT was firstly diagnosed at the age of 21 and the patient had two recurrences separated by extended periods of normocalcemia. This unusual history prompted us to investigate other family members and study the MEN1 and HRPT2 genes. An HRPT2 germline missense mutation in exon 3 (R91P) was found in the index case, which was associated with different HRPT2 somatic alterations in each of the three examined parathyroid tumors. These findings are consistent with Knudson's 'two hit' concept of biallelic inactivation of classical tumor suppressor genes. Screening of 15 asymptomatic relatives was negative for the R91P germline mutation. All the three abnormal parathyroid specimens showed cystic features at histology and were negative for parafibromin immunostaining. In one specimen, diffuse parafibromin staining was evident in a rim of normal parathyroid tissue surrounding the adenomatous lesion. Our study shows that different somatic genetic events at the HRPT2 locus are responsible for the asynchronous occurrence of multiple adenomas in a patient carrying an HRPT2 germline mutation. The finding of diffuse parafibromin staining in a rim of normal parathyroid tissue, but not in the contiguous adenomatous lesion, reinforces the concept that loss of parafibromin expression is responsible for the development of parathyroid tumors in this setting.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Endocrine Related Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a slow growing tumor with low metastatic potential. The most frequent sites of distant metastases are lung and bone; less frequent sites are brain, liver, kidney, and skin. Ovarian metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma are exceptional. We describe a case of bilateral ovarian metastases from a papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with autoimmune thyroiditis in a 38-year-old woman who underwent thyroidectomy and cervical lymph-node dissection 7 years before, followed by 948 mCi of 131I. A primary ovarian cancer could be excluded by the typical pathological aspects of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in a context of an aggressive form of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the clinical history and the absence of normal thyroid epithelium and teratomatous components could exclude a papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. This is a singular case of papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to the ovary, combined with an autoimmune thyroiditis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HRPT2 gene mutations are associated with parathyroid carcinomas, and absence of parafibromin immunoreactivity has been suggested as a diagnostic marker of malignancy. The aim of our study was to extend parafibromin studies in a series of benign and malignant parathyroid tumors and cross-validate the results of immunohistochemistry with those of HRPT2 analysis.
We performed parafibromin and cyclin D1 immunostaining and HRPT2 gene analysis using loss of heterozygosity studies and sequencing analysis in parathyroid specimens from 11 patients with carcinoma (eleven primary tumors, one skin, and four lung metastases), 22 with sporadic adenomas, and 4 with atypical adenomas.
Ten out of eleven parathyroid cancers were negative for parafibromin staining and showed HRPT2 gene abnormalities. The remaining sample was negative for immunostaining and genetic analyses. All but one sporadic adenomas showed parafibromin immunoreactivity and no HRPT2 gene abnormalities. The sample with negative immunostaining carried an HRPT2 mutation. Two atypical adenomas were positive and two negative with parafibromin staining. No HRPT2 abnormalities were found in these samples. Cyclin D1 expression was heterogeneous and there was no relationship between expression/expression level of cyclin D1 and parafibromin expression.
We have shown that negative parafibromin staining is almost invariably associated with HRPT2 mutations and confirm that loss of parafibromin staining strongly predicts parathyroid malignancy. In clinical practice, these tests could be particularly useful in the subset of parathyroid tumors with equivocal histological examination. However, their diagnostic value in this setting remains to be proven.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform (i) an immunohistochemical investigation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and malignancy markers in 15 functioning and 15 nonfunctioning thyroid adenomas, and in normal adjacent tissue, and (ii) a genetic analysis of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-r), Gsalpha, and RAS mutations in the same group of adenomas, in order to describe their expression within tissues and to correlate them with the hormonal functioning.
Thirty patients who underwent surgery for a solitary thyroid nodule were included in the study. Adenomas and normal adjacent tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using the following antibodies: MIB-1 for proliferative activity, bcl-2 and mutant p53 for apoptosis control, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) for angiogenic activity, and galectin-3 as a marker for malignancy. To calculate microvascular density, "hot spots" were selected and defined by cells positive for CD34 staining. Genetic analysis for TSH-r, Gsalpha, and H-, K-, and N-RAS mutations was performed on adenoma specimens.
Our results evidenced that a proportion of both functioning and nonfunctioning adenomas showed immunohistochemical phenotypes similar to normal adjacent tissue. No differences were found between functioning and nonfunctioning thyroid adenomas with regard to the expression of markers associated to angiogenesis (VEGF-A, microvascular density) and apoptosis control (mutant p53, bcl-2). All adenomas resulted negative for galectin-3 immunostaining. MIB-1 was the only marker showing a substantial difference of expression between the two groups of adenomas. TSH-r mutations were found in 12 out of 15 functioning adenomas, whereas the absence of Gsalpha and H-, K-, and N-RAS mutations was demonstrated in all adenomas.
Our data suggest that the differences between functioning and nonfunctioning thyroid adenomas are restricted to the genetic mutations of the TSH-r, to the hormonal status of tumors, and to the proliferative activity, not involving markers of apoptosis control and angiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iodide (I(-)) is crucial for foetal thyroid function. Foetal iodide results from maternal circulating iodide and from deiodination of iodothyronines within the placenta. The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) localized in placental cells appears to be involved in iodide exchange. Low NIS expression has been reported in trophoblast cells from the first trimester and pregnancy at term.
The aim of this study was to examine NIS expression by immunohistochemistry in the major components of human ovular tissue and placenta.
Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of placental tissue from the first trimester and at term were analysed. NIS expression was quantified as percentage of NIS-positive cells/total cells. NIS expression was also evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in five first-trimester and five at-term placental specimens.
In the first-trimester specimens heterogeneous NIS immunoreactivity was found in cyto-syncytiotrophoblast cells, with a range of NIS-positive cells from 5% to 80% (mean +/- SD 21.85 +/- 23.95), in mesenchymal and endothelial cells from 1% to 40% (14.5 +/- 11.16), in decidual cells from 5% to 40% (10.38 +/- 11.98) and in endometrial glands from 3% to 40% (21.86 +/- 13.93). In specimens from placenta at term, NIS-positive cyto-syncytiotrophoblast cells were between 5% and 40% (mean 17.85 +/- 18.15), mesenchymal and endothelial cells between 1% and 40% (13.67 +/- 12.16), decidual tissue between 5% and 30% (16.43 +/- 9.08), and endometrial glands between 3% and 40% (16.67 +/- 15.27). No significant differences in NIS expression were observed between the first trimester and placenta at term. A similar level of mRNA expression for the NIS gene was obtained by RT-PCR both in ovular material of the first trimester and in placenta at term.
We found NIS to be expressed in various placental and ovular components and its expression to remain constant during pregnancy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess whether the intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) in primary tumour specimens had any impact on the clinical outcome of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer treated in two Italian departments of gynaecological oncology.
The study was conducted on 101 patients who underwent initial surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy (37) or paclitaxel/platinum-based chemotherapy (64) for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III-IV epithelial ovarian cancer. The median follow-up of survivors from initial surgery was 65 months (range, 27 to 132 months). Paraffin-embedded sections of primary tumour specimens were analysed for IMD by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 antibodies.
Progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly better in patients with IMD > or =40 microvessels/field compared with those with lower IMD (p = 0.0105 and p = 0.0065, respectively). Cox model showed that IMD was the strongest independent prognostic variable for both progression-free survival (p = 0.0267) and overall survival (p = 0.0189).
An elevated IMD was associated with a significantly better progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with stage III-IV epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent initial surgery followed by chemotherapy, mainly consisting of a paclitaxel/platinum-based regimen.
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Megalin is an endocytic receptor responsible for thyroglobulin (Tg) transcytosis, a process that favors hormone release. Accordingly, megalin KO mice have primary hypothyroidism. In the kidney, megalin expression is reduced when the gene encoding the chloride transporter ClC-5 is mutated. We investigated whether megalin expression and function in the thyroid are affected by ClC-5 using a ClC-5 KO mouse model. By Western blotting, ClC-5 was found in thyroid tissue extracts of WT, but not of ClC-5 KO mice. In addition, ClC-5 was found to be expressed by cultured thyroid cells (FRTL-5). The thyroid size, weight, and histology were similar in ClC- 5 KO and WT mice, as were the amounts of megalin in thyroid extracts. Accordingly, serum Tg, a measure of megalin-mediated transcytosis, was similar in WT and ClC-5 KO mice, suggesting that megalin function was unaffected. Thus, unlike in megalin KO mice, in ClC-5 KO mice thyroid function was unchanged, as indicated by the normal serum FT4 and TSH. We concluded that in the thyroid, unlike in the kidney, ClC-5 does not affect megalin expression and function, suggesting that megalin is differentially regulated in these two organs.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA)-cytology is widely used for the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules but this task is difficult for follicular lesions, which often remain undefined. We propose a strategy for improving the preoperative characterisation of selected follicular thyroid proliferations, which is based on large needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB) and galectin-3 expression analysis. Eighty-five thyroid specimens were obtained by LNAB (20-gauge needles) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate follicular FNA-cytology. Aspirated material was processed as a tissue microbiopsy to obtain cell blocks for both cyto/histo-morphological evaluation and galectin-3 expression analysis, by using a purified monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and a biotin-free immunoperoxidase staining method. Preoperative diagnosis was compared to the final histology. LNAB and cell-block technique allow a preliminary distinction between nodules with a homogeneous microfollicular/trabecular structure, as frequently observed in tumours, and lesions with mixed normo-micro-macrofollicular architecture, as observed in goitre. Furthermore, LNAB provides optimal substrates for galectin-3 expression analysis. Among 85 cases tested, 14 galectin-3-positive cases were discovered preoperatively (11 thyroid cancers and three adenomas confirmed at the final histology), whereas galectin-3-negative cases were 71 (one carcinoma and 70 benign proliferations at the final histology). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of this integrated morphologic and phenotypic diagnostic approach were 91.6, 97.2 and 95.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LNAB plus galectin-3 expression analysis when applied preoperatively to selected thyroid nodules candidate to surgery can potentially reduce unnecessary thyroid resections.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a tool to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) in routine cytological samples scraped from the uterine cervix. Moreover, attention has been focused on the correlation between HPV types and early intraepithelial lesions. The study involved 586 women who had undergone conventional Pap test. Analysis of HPV infection was performed by PCR and HPV typing by dot blot. In a group of 78 cases histologically diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), the cytological diagnosis was correct in 92.3% and the HPV test was positive in 89.8% of cases; combined positivity at Pap and/or HPV tests raised this figure to 99.0%. In a group of 67 cases histologically diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), the cytological diagnosis was correct in 73.1% and the PCR-based HPV test was positive in 64.2%; combined positivity at Pap and/or HPV tests raised this figure to 91.0%. This study confirms the limitations of screening programs based on Pap test only. Our results suggest, in fact, that adding the HPV test to primary screening could increase the yield of preinvasive cervical lesions.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · The International journal of biological markers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Information on angiogenesis in parathyroid pathology is scanty and in particular no data are available in parathyroid carcinomas. The aim of this study was to analyze angiogenesis as microvascular density (MVD) in parathyroid neoplastic progression from normal gland to adenoma and carcinoma.
Sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 33 normal parathyroids, 43 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and 6 parathyroid carcinomas were cut for immunohistochemistry using anti-endothelial marker CD34. MVD was evaluated in each specimen as number microvessels per mm2. MVD data were compared with some anatomoclinical parameters as tumor size, serum calcium, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level.
All normal parathyroid glands, all carcinomas, and 8 adenomas out of 43 (18%) showed MVD less than 100 microvessels/mm2 (median 70.8; 95% Cl 66.9–88.5); in the majority of parathyroid adenomas (n=35; 82%) the number of microvessels/mm2 was higher than 100 (median 188.3; 95% Cl 174.9–210.1). In adenomas both preoperative serum intact PTH concentration and the diameters were significantly and inversely related to the microvessel density (r=0.320, p<0.05 and r=0.334, p<0.05, respectively).
This study shows that in parathyroid adenomas MVD is heterogeneous and negatively related to the endocrine activity (secretory status and tumor size). Therefore, angiogenesis in parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas appears to be an early event, which does not follow a parallel increase in size.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Endocrine Pathology