Bruria Funkenstein

National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (66)155.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily, known as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. In contrast to mammals, fish possess at least two paralogs of MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. Here we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of spliced and precursor (unspliced) transcripts as well as the 5' flanking region of MSTN-2 from the marine fish Umbrina cirrosa (ucMSTN-2). In silico analysis revealed numerous putative cis regulatory elements including several E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic transcription factors. Transient transfection experiments using non-muscle and muscle cell lines showed high transcriptional activity in muscle cells and in differentiated neural cells, in accordance with our previous findings in MSTN-2 promoter from Sparus aurata. Comparative informatics analysis of MSTN-2 from several fish species reveals high conservation of the predicted amino acid sequence as well as the gene structure (exon length) although intron length varied between species. The proximal promoter of MSTN-2 gene was found to be conserved among Perciforms. In conclusion, this study reinforces our conclusion that MSTN-2 promoter is a very strong promoter, especially in muscle cells. In addition, we show that MSTN-2 gene structure is highly conserved among fishes as is the predicted amino acid sequence of the peptide.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology
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    Bruria Funkenstein · Ekaterina Krol · Elena Esterin · Yong-Soo Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of muscle growth and a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, can bind the two activin type 2 receptors (ACVR2). It has been previously shown that WT mice injected with ACVR2B extracellular domain (ACVR2B-ECD) had higher muscle mass. Likewise, fish larvae immersed in Pichia pastoris culture supernatant, containing goldfish Acvr2b-ECD, showed enhanced larval growth. However, it is not clear whether fish Mstn1 and Mstn2 signal through the same receptor and whether fish express more than one acvr2b gene. In the current study, three cDNAs encoding acvr2b (saacvr2b-1, saacvr2b-2a, and saacvr2b-2b) were cloned from gilthead sea bream. All three contain the short extracellular binding domain, a short transmembrane region, and a conserved catalytic domain of serine/threonine protein kinase. Bioinformatics analysis provided evidence for the existence of two acvr2b genes (acvr2b-1 and acvr2b-2) in several other fish species as well, probably as a result of gene or genome duplication. The two isoforms differ in their amino acid sequences. The direct inhibitory effect of Acvr2b-ECD on Mstn activity was tested in vitro. The saAcvr2b-1-ECD was expressed in the yeast P. pastoris. Evidence is provided for N-glycosylation of Acvr2b-1-ECD. The affinity-purified Acvr2b-1-ECD inhibited recombinant mouse/rat/human mature MSTN activity when determined in vitro using the CAGA-luciferase assay in A204 cells. A lower inhibitory activity was obtained when unprocessed purified, furin-digested, and activated saMstn1 was used. Results of this study demonstrate for the first time the existence of two acvr2b genes in fish. In addition, the study shows that bioactive fish Acvr2b-ECD can be produced from P. pastoris.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
  • Elisabeth Nadjar-Boger · Yaniv Hinits · Bruria Funkenstein
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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. In contrast to mammals, fish possess at least two paralogs of MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. In this study, we analyzed the structural-functional features of the four variants of Sparus aurata MSTN-2 5'-flanking region: saMSTN-2a, saMSTN-2as, saMSTN-2b and saMSTN-2c. In silico analysis revealed numerous putative cis regulatory elements including several E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic transcription factors. Transient transfection experiments using non-muscle and muscle cell lines showed surprisingly high transcriptional activity in muscle cells, suggesting the presence of regulatory elements unique to differentiated myotubes. These observations were confirmed by in situ intramuscular injections of promoter DNA followed by reporter gene assays. Moreover, high promoter activity was found in differentiated neural cell, in agreement with MSTN-2 expression in brain. Progressive 5'-deletion analysis, using reporter gene assays, showed that the core promoter is located within the first -127 bp upstream of the ATG, and suggested the presence of regulatory elements that either repress or induce transcriptional activity. Transient transgenic zebrafish provided evidence for saMSTN-2 promoter ability to direct GFP expression to myofibers. Finally, our data shows that although no mature saMSTN-2 mRNA is observed in muscle; unspliced forms accumulate, confirming high level of transcription. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that MSTN-2 promoter is a very robust promoter, especially in muscle cells.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    Elisabeth Nadjar-Boger · Bruria Funkenstein
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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-ß superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Fish express at least two genes for MSTN: MSTN-1 and MSTN-2. To date, MSTN-2 promoters have been cloned only from salmonids and zebrafish. Here we described the cloning and sequence analysis of MSTN-2 gene and its 5' flanking region in the marine fish Sparus aurata (saMSTN-2). We demonstrate the existence of three alleles of the promoter and three alleles of the first intron. Sequence comparison of the promoter region in the three alleles revealed that although the sequences of the first 1050 bp upstream of the translation start site are almost identical in the three alleles, a substantial sequence divergence is seen further upstream. Careful sequence analysis of the region upstream of the first 1050 bp in the three alleles identified several elements that appear to be repeated in some or all sequences, at different positions. This suggests that the promoter region of saMSTN-2 has been subjected to various chromosomal rearrangements during the course of evolution, reflecting either insertion or deletion events. Screening of several genomic DNA collections indicated differences in allele frequency, with allele 'b' being the most abundant, followed by allele 'c', whereas allele 'a' is relatively rare. Sequence analysis of saMSTN-2 gene also revealed polymorphism in the first intron, identifying three alleles. The length difference in alleles '1R' and '2R' of the first intron is due to the presence of one or two copies of a repeated block of approximately 150 bp, located at the 5' end of the first intron. The third allele, '4R', has an additional insertion of 323 bp located 116 bp upstream of the 3' end of the first intron. Analysis of several DNA collections showed that the '2R' allele is the most common, followed by the '4R' allele, whereas the '1R' allele is relatively rare. Progeny analysis of a full-sib family showed a Mendelian mode of inheritance of the two genetic loci. No clear association was found between the two genetic markers and growth rate. These results show for the first time a substantial degree of polymorphism in both the promoter and first intron of MSTN-2 gene in a perciform fish species which points to chromosomal rearrangements that took place during evolution.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · BMC Genetics
  • Bruria Funkenstein · Elena Olekh
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    ABSTRACT: Growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is thought to be derived together with myostatin (known also as GDF-8) from an ancestral gene. In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of GDF-11 homolog from a marine teleost, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, and show that this growth factor is highly conserved throughout vertebrates. Using bioinformatics, we identified GDF-11 in Tetraodon, Takifugu, medaka, and stickleback and found that they are highly conserved at the amino acid sequence as well as gene organization. Moreover, we found conservation of syntenic relationships among vertebrates in the GDF-11 locus. Transcripts for GDF-11 can be found in eggs and early embryos, albeit at low levels, while in post-hatching larvae expression levels are high and decreases as development progresses, suggesting that GDF-11 might have a role during early development of fish as found in tetrapods and zebrafish. Finally, GDF-11 is expressed in various tissues in the adult fish including muscle, brain, and eye.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Development Genes and Evolution
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    Bruria Funkenstein · Elena Olekh · Sonia B Jakowlew
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    ABSTRACT: Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR) and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF-β family of cytokines in vertebrates.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · BMC Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In aquaculture, fish are exposed to stressful conditions, which cause an increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) at the cellular level. In this work we considered the expression of the constitutive and inducible forms of HSP70 as an indicator of stress caused by transport, during development of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a teleost fish of high value for aquaculture. Qualitative RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of inducible HSP70 gene in larvae and fry (25, 40 and 80 days) as well as in adult tissues (liver, brain, muscle, gills, kidney, gonads, heart, spleen and skin) of both control and stressed animals. Expression of inducible HSP70 mRNA examined in different adult tissues by Real-Time PCR, was significantly higher in skin and skeletal muscle of stressed animals than in controls. Immunolocalization of inducible and constitutive forms of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and HSC70), reported here for the first time, demonstrated an ubiquitous distribution of HSC70 protein in several tissues of both stressed and control animals (at all stages), while inducible HSP70 protein was found only in skeletal muscle of stressed animals. In all stressed animals, regardless of their developmental stage, cortisol levels were higher than in control animals.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · European journal of histochemistry: EJH
  • Bruria Funkenstein · Viki Balas · Yanai Rebhan · Anna Pliatner
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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Although several MSTN promoters were described in fish, no functional analysis was reported so far. Here, the 5' flanking region (1372 bp) of the MSTN-1 gene of the marine fish Sparus aurata (saMSTN-1) was cloned, sequenced and characterized. It contains two consensus sequences for TATA box (TATAA), a CAAT box, ten putative E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs) and two putative binding sites to TF Myocyte enhancing factor-2 (MEF2). In addition, it has several putative binding sites to TF Pit-1a and several response elements to nuclear receptors (GRE, ERE, PRE, ARE, TRE, RARE and PPARRE) and cAMP-response elements. Transcriptional activity of five genomic fragments (truncated at their upstream region) of 372, 941, 972, 1113 and 1355 bp was studied in vitro, using transient transfection in A204 cells. All constructs directed luciferase activity, with the highest activity obtained by the 1113 bp fragment. These experiments show that all five genomic fragments are functional MSTN promoters and differences in promoter activity might be due to presence of enhancers and/or repressor sequences, regulating MSTN promoter activity.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • Yanai Rebhan · Bruria Funkenstein
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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and has a potential application in aquaculture. Inactivation of MSTN results in significant muscle mass growth, a phenomenon known as “double muscling”. As part of our efforts to define ways in order to lower MSTN in fish, leading to enhanced muscle growth, we report here on the expression and purification of two potential binding proteins to fish MSTN: MSTN prodomain and follistatin (FST), both cloned from the marine fish, gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. MSTN prodomain was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified using anion-exchange chromatography. FST was stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells and partially purified from conditioned medium by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA column. Secreted FST is glycosylated as evidenced from the reduction in its apparent molecular weight following treatment with Peptide N-glycosidase F seen on SDS-PAGE. Both MSTN prodomain and FST inhibited the biological activity of purified, cleaved and activated recombinant S. aurata MSTN in a dose-dependent manner, using the mammalian CAGA reporter gene assay. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of MSTN prodomain and FST on MSTN activity, probably through binding, is conserved in fish. Moreover, these results offer an approach for lowering bioactive MSTN and thereby enhance muscle growth in fish important for aquaculture.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Aquaculture

    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology
  • B. Funkenstein · Y. Rebhan · T. Skopal · G. Radaelli
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    ABSTRACT: This work describes the cloning of follistatin (FST) cDNA from the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (saFST), the expression of FST gene during development and in various tissues including gonads. In addition, recombinant sea bream FST was expressed and purified from medium of CHO-K1 cells.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Marine Environmental Research
  • G Radaelli · C Poltronieri · D Bertotto · B Funkenstein · C Simontacchi
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular localization of IGF-II protein was investigated during larval and postlarval developmental stages of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by immunohistochemistry using antisera raised against Sparus aurata IGF-II. At hatching, IGF-II immunoreactivity was already present in the skin, developing intestine and skeletal muscle. During larval life IGF-II protein was also observed in heart musculature, in kidney and gill epithelia as well as in liver. In fry skeletal muscle a moderate IGF-II immunostaining was detected in red fibres, whereas white muscle fibres exhibited a faint immunoreactivity. In adults, a marked IGF-II immunostaining was observed in red muscle fibres. A moderate immunoreactivity was also present in white fibres as well as in heart striated myocardial fibres. These results are in agreement with previous findings on the spatial localization of IGF-II and IGF type 1 receptor in S. aurata and Umbrina cirrosa, confirming the role of IGF system during development and growth of fish.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Histology and histopathology
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and myostatin (MSTN) was investigated in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR indicated that IGF-I mRNA increased from the second day post-hatching and that this trend became significant from day 4. ISH confirmed a strong IGF-I mRNA expression from the first week post-hatching, with the most abundant expression being detected in the liver of larvae and adults. Real-time PCR also showed that the level of MSTN mRNA increased significantly from day 25. The expression of MSTN mRNA was higher in muscle and almost absent in other anatomical regions in both larvae and adults. Interestingly, the lateral muscle showed a quantitative differential expression of IGF-I and MSTN mRNAs in red and white muscle, depending on the developmental stage examined. IGF-I immunoreactivity was detected in developing intestine at hatching and in skeletal muscle, skin and yolk sac. MSTN immunostaining was evident in several tissues and organs in both larvae and adults. Both IGF-I and MSTN proteins were detected in the liver from day 4 post-hatching and, subsequently, in the kidney and heart muscle from day 10. Our results suggest, on the basis of a combined methodological approach, that IGF-I and MSTN are involved in the regulation of somatic growth in the sea bass.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Cell and Tissue Research
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    Ricardo Almuly · Tal Skopal · Bruria Funkenstein
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    ABSTRACT: Transcriptional activity of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) growth hormone (saGH) gene promoter has been investigated using transient transfection assays in GH3 cells. Analysis of two fragments (1.7 kb and a 5'-deleted 0.9 kb) of saGH gene promoter directed luciferase reporter gene activity, indicating transcriptional activity of both fragments in vitro. The shorter fragment, containing five potential binding sites for the pituitary-specific transcription factor GHF-1/Pit-1, two cAMP-response elements and two glucocorticoid-response elements conferred higher reporter gene activity than the longer fragment. This result suggests presence of an inhibitory region upstream of the saGH promoter. Transient transfection assays were also used to investigate the effect of the polymorphic minisatellite saGHFIM found in the first intron of saGH gene on gene expression in four cell lines: fish pituitary (RTP-2) and non-pituitary (RTH-149) and mammalian pituitary (GH3) and non-pituitary (HEK293T). Luciferase activity was repressed by saGHFIM containing a high number of tandem repeats compared to a Control construct and to a construct with a smaller number of tandem repeats. Moreover, this repression was dependent on the orientation of the repeats relative to the viral promoter. These in vitro results imply that long GH introns might influence GH gene expression in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D Genomics and Proteomics
  • Bruria Funkenstein · Yanai Rebhan · Tal Skopal
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    ABSTRACT: Follistatin (FST) is an activin-binding protein that neutralizes the activity of activin. FST also binds other members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, including myostatin (MSTN). We report herein on the isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA sequence predicted to encode FST in a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. The deduced amino acid sequence of sea bream FST (saFST) is highly conserved to the counterpart sequences in other vertebrates and contains the N-terminal domain and three FST domains. The deduced mature saFST shows 81-86% identity with FSTs from other vertebrates. It is 290 amino acids long, similar to other fish FSTs and the short isoform of Xenopus FST but longer by two residues than mammalian FST288. Ontogeny of MSTN (a TGF-beta superfamily member and a negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle in mammals), and FST (known to bind MSTN) gene expression revealed the presence of both transcripts throughout larval development. However, a different expression pattern was found in earlier developmental stages; while MSTN could not be detected prior to the day of hatching, FST transcript was detected in embryos 12 h post-fertilization, confirming its role during vertebrate embryonic development. Both FST and MSTN were expressed in many adult tissues, with variable levels of expression, including muscle. Recombinant saFST inhibited saMSTN activity in a reporter gene assay, indicating a similar effect to that reported in mammals.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Molecular Biology Reports
  • B Funkenstein · T Skopal · B Rapoport · Y Rebhan · S.J. Du · G Radaelli
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    ABSTRACT: The promoter region ( approximately 1400 bp) of myosin light chain 2 gene of fast skeletal muscle from the marine fish Sparus aurata was cloned, sequenced and characterized. It contains a consensus sequence for TATA box, six perfect E-boxes known as binding sites to myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and four putative MEF2-binding sites. Three genomic fragments (truncated at their upstream region) of 244, 650 and 1400 bp showed promoter activity evidenced by muscle-specific reporter gene activity using transient expression of green fluorescent protein in microinjected zebrafish embryos and in skeletal muscle of S. aurata fry following intramuscularly injection of plasmid DNA. The three genomic fragments also directed luciferase activity in skeletal muscle of S. aurata fry following intramuscularly injection of plasmid DNA showing a 60 to 150-fold higher luciferase activity compared to that obtained with pGL3-Basic. These experiments show that the three genomic fragments are functional muscle-specific promoters which will be useful for directing myostatin and follistatin expression in fish muscle in order to study their effect on fish muscle growth.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D Genomics and Proteomics
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    Bruria Funkenstein · Yanai Rebhan
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    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (growth and differentiation factor-8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle and acts as a negative growth regulator. Mature myostatin (C-terminal) is a homodimer that is cleaved post-translationally from the precursor myostatin, also yielding the N-terminal prodomain. We expressed in Escherichia coli three forms of fish myostatin: precursor, prodomain and mature. The three forms were over-expressed as inclusion bodies. Highly purified inclusion bodies were solubilized in a solution containing guanidine hydrochloride and the reducing agent DTT. Refolding (indicated by a dimer formation) of precursor myostatin, mature myostatin or a mixture of prodomain and mature myostatin was compared under identical refolding conditions, performed in a solution containing sodium chloride, arginine, a low concentration of guanidine hydrochloride and reduced and oxidized glutathione at 4 degrees C for 14 days. While precursor myostatin formed a reversible disulfide bond with no apparent precipitation, mature myostatin precipitated in the same refolding solution, unless CHAPS was included, and only a small proportion formed a disulfide bond. The trans presence of the prodomain in the refolding solution prevented precipitation of mature myostatin but did not promote formation of a dimer. Proteolytic cleavage of purified, refolded precursor myostatin with furin yielded a monomeric prodomain and a disulfide-linked, homodimeric mature myostatin, which remained as a latent complex. Activation of the latent complex was achieved by acidic or thermal treatments. These results demonstrate that the cis presence of the prodomain is essential for the proper refolding of fish myostatin and that the cleaved mature dimer exists as a latent form.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Protein Expression and Purification
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    B Funkenstein · V Balas · T Skopal · G Radaelli · A Rowlerson
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are mammalian myoblast cell lines, no fish myoblast cell line has been developed so far. The aim of this study was to develop a culture system of muscle explants for fish, as explants provide an approximation of the in vivo conditions for cell proliferation and differentiation, and enable a close comparison with events in muscle regenerating in vivo. Here we describe the main features of a long-term in vitro culture system for muscle explants from Sparus aurata fry. At the time of sampling, the original fibres were damaged and subsequently degenerated as shown by the loss of parvalbumin (PV) and presence of apoptotic nuclei. This mechanical damage provoked a myogenic response by activation of myogenic precursor cells. After a few days, new mononucleate cells aligned with the original fibres were seen in the explants, some with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-) and Myf-5-positive nuclei, indicating proliferation and their myogenic fate. By 1 week, multinucleate cells with desmin immunoreactivity but PCNA- and Myf5-negative nuclei were present, equivalent to differentiated, postmitotic myotubes. Some of these myotubes were also immunoreactive for PV and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). By 11 days, many of the myotubes were also immunoreactive for myostatin (MSTN). By 23 days, many of the myotubes had increased in diameter, were packed with myofibrils, and were strongly PV-positive and immunoreactive for MSTN, IGF-I and IGF-I receptor. This study shows that a proliferative process occurs in the explants despite the death of the original muscle fibres, and new muscle fibres expressing growth regulators are formed by regeneration from myogenic precursors present in the explants at the time of sampling.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Tissue and Cell
  • Marco Patruno · Lisa Maccatrozzo · Bruria Funkenstein · Giuseppe Radaelli
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are evolutionarily ancient polypeptides, with potent metabolic actions, affecting cell development and growth. The IGF system consists of two ligands: IGF-I and IGF-II, several binding proteins and high-affinity transmembrane receptors. To understand growth regulation in the teleost shi drum, Umbrina cirrosa, we cloned IGF-I and IGF-II cDNAs, studied their expression and determined the cellular localization of IGF-II peptide by immunohistochemistry. A fragment of 1110 nucleotides, coding for U. cirrosa IGF-I (ucIGF-I), was cloned from liver by PCR. It includes an open reading frame of 561 nucleotides, encoding a 187 amino acid preproIGF-I. A fragment of 938 nucleotides that includes part of the coding sequence and the 3' UTR of IGF-II (ucIGF-II) was cloned as well. Sequence analysis of ucIGF-I and ucIGF-II showed a high degree of homology with known fish IGF-I and IGF-II. Real-Time PCR showed a higher expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in liver, compared to all other tissues analysed. IGF-II peptide was detected in larval liver, intestine, gills and heart musculature. After metamorphosis, reactivity was particularly evident in the kidney and in red fibres of skeletal muscle. These results add novel information on the nucleotide sequence of IGF-I and IGF-II in a marine teleost, the shi drum, that was recently introduced to the mariculture industry in southern Europe and emphasizes the conservation in the 5' UTR of IGF-I among teleosts. Furthermore, this study suggests, on the basis of a combined approach of RT-PCR, Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry that IGF-I and IGF-II are involved in the regulation of somatic growth in the shi drum.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
155.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2012
    • National Oceanography Centre
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989-2012
    • Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute (IOLR)
      • National Center for Mariculture (NCM)
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 1994
    • First Institute of Oceanography
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China