[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 78-year-old man underwent laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy for gastric cancer (pT3N0M0). Multiple port sites were used, including a 10 mm port for a videoscope at the umbilical point and three other working ports. During the six-month follow-up evaluation, a 2 cm enhancing mass confined to the muscle layer was found 12 mm from the right lower quadrant port site, suggesting a metastatic or desmoid tumor. Follow-up computed tomography imaging two months later showed that the mass had increased in size to 3.5 cm. We confirmed that there was no intra-abdominal metastasis by diagnostic laparoscopy and then performed a wide resection of the recurrent mass. The histologic findings revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suggesting a metastatic mass from the stomach cancer. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient completed adjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1 (tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium). There was no evidence of tumor recurrence during the 50-month follow-up period.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Gastric Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment and prognosis of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) according to the 7th UICC/AJCC tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system and the modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) risk classification. The study cohort consisted of 1057 patients with gastric GIST who underwent surgery between January 2000 and December 2007 from 13 institutions in Korea and 2 in Japan. Clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcomes, recurrence, and 5-year recurrence-free survival were evaluated.
The mean age of the patients was 58.6 years. Thirty patients (2.8%) had distant metastasis preoperatively. Median tumor size was 4.0 cm. Complete resection (R0 resection) was achieved in 1018 patients (96.3%). Eighty-six patients (8.1%) had postoperative complications, and 2 patients (0.2%) died within 30 days after surgery. According to the 7th UICC/AJCC TNM system, 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 95% to 99% in stage I, 94.1% in stage II, 74.1% in stage IIIA, 48.6% in stage IIIB, and 50.0% in stage IV patients. On survival analysis of high-risk patients according to the TNM system, the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 91.6% in stage II, 74.1% in stage IIIA, and 48.6% in stage IIIB patients. Independent factors of recurrence following surgery for gastric GIST were gender, tumor size, mitotic count, and radicality on multivariate analysis.
The treatment outcome and prognosis of gastric GIST in Korea and Japan seem more favorable compared to those in Western countries. Compared to the modified NIH risk classification, the 7th UICC/AJCC TNM system is more reflective of the 5-year recurrence-free survival of patients with gastric GIST.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To determine the safety of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) compared with open distal gastrectomy (ODG) in patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer in Korea.
There is still a lack of large-scale, multicenter randomized trials regarding the safety of LADG.
A large-scale, phase 3, multicenter, prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The primary end point was 5-year overall survival. Morbidity within 30 postoperative days and surgical mortality were compared to evaluate the safety of LADG as a secondary end point RESULTS:: A total of 1416 patients were randomly assigned to the LADG group (n = 705) or the ODG group (n = 711) between February 1, 2006, and August 31, 2010, and 1384 patients were analyzed for modified intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) and 1256 were eligible for per protocol (PP) analysis (644 and 612, respectively). In the PP analysis, 6 patients (0.9%) needed open conversion in the LADG group. The overall complication rate was significantly lower in the LADG group (LADG vs ODG; 13.0% vs 19.9%, P = 0.001). In detail, the wound complication rate of the LADG group was significantly lower than that of the ODG group (3.1% vs 7.7%, P < 0.001). The major intra-abdominal complication (7.6% vs 10.3%, P = 0.095) and mortality rates (0.6% vs 0.3%, P = 0.687) were similar between the 2 groups. Modified ITT analysis showed similar results with PP analysis.
LADG for patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer is safe and has a benefit of lower occurrence of wound complication compared with conventional ODG.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Annals of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the well-described benefits of laparoscopic surgery such as lower operative blood loss and enhanced postoperative recovery in gastric cancer surgery, the application of laparoscopic surgery in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer remains elusive owing to a lack of clinical evidence. Recently, the Korean Laparoscopic Surgical Society Group launched a new multicenter randomized clinical trial to compare laparoscopic and open D2 lymphadenectomy for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. Here, we introduce the protocol of this clinical trial.
This trial is an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, parallel group, non-inferiority trial. Gastric cancer patients diagnosed with primary tumors that have invaded into the muscle propria and not into an adjacent organ (cT2-cT4a) in preoperative studies are recruited. Another criterion for recruitment is no lymph node metastasis or limited perigastric lymph node (including lymph nodes around the left gastric artery) metastasis. A total 1,050 patients in both groups are required to statistically show non-inferiority of the laparoscopic approach with respect to the primary end-point, relapse-free survival of 3 years. Secondary outcomes include postoperative morbidity and mortality, postoperative recovery, quality of life, and overall survival. Surgeons who are validated through peer-review of their surgery videos can participate in this clinical trial. Surgeons who are validated through peer-review of their surgery videos can participate in this clinical trial.
This clinical trial was designed to maintain the principles of a surgical clinical trial with internal validity for participating surgeons. Through the KLASS-02 RCT, we hope to show the efficacy of laparoscopic D2 lymphadenectomy in AGC patients compared with the open procedure.
ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01456598 .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) of the stomach are extremely rare in adults, and their oncologic prognosis is not well understood. We present a 28-year-old man with a proximal gastric IMT. The patient visited the emergency department of Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital with syncope and hematemesis. Hemoglobin levels were <5.5 g/dl. Gastric fibroscopy showed a protruding mass 4×4 cm in size, with central ulceration on the posterior wall of the fundus and diffuse wall thickening throughout the cardia and anterior wall of the upper body. Endoscopic biopsy revealed indeterminate spindle cells, along with inflammation. Given the risk of rebleeding, an operation was performed despite the uncertain diagnosis. Because the mass was circumferential, laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy and double-tract anastomosis were performed to ensure a safe resection margin. The pathological diagnosis was consistent with an IMT originating from the stomach, although the tumor was negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene mutation.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Gastric Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) has not been as popular as laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) because of its undetermined safety and postoperative complications compared with LADG. Therefore, LATG requires further study.
A total of 663 patients who underwent LADG or LATG for gastric cancer in a single institution from April 2004 to April 2014 were included. The clinicopathologic characteristics and risk factors related to major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ IIIa) were analyzed between the LADG (n = 569) and LATG groups (n = 94).
The incidence of major postoperative complications was significantly higher for LATG (LADG vs. LATG: 8.1 vs. 18.1 %, P = 0.002). Although postoperative bleeding was not different between the groups (3.2 vs. 3.2 %, P = 0.991), the incidence of bowel leakage was significantly higher for LATG (2.6 vs. 6.8 %, P = 0.028). Leakage from the anastomosis site was more frequent following LATG (5.3 %) compared with LADG (0.5 %) (P < 0.001). Leakage from the duodenal stump tended to be more frequent, though not significant, for LADG (2.0 vs. 1.1 %, P = 0.602). Advanced gastric cancer, LATG, and longer operation time were significant factors that affected the incidence of postoperative complications in a univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, there were no independent risk factors, but LATG was nearly a significant, independent risk factor (odds ratio 1.89; 95 % CI 0.965-3.71, P = 0.063).
More major complications were observed for LATG, particularly with esophagojejunostomy. These results show that LATG is more invasive than LADG in terms of the postoperative morbidity. More caution and experience are needed when performing LATG.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The macroscopic diagnosis of tumor invasion through the serosa during surgery is not always distinct in patients with gastric cancer. The prognostic impact of the difference between macroscopic findings and pathological diagnosis of serosal invasion is not fully elucidated and needs to be re-evaluated.
A total of 370 patients with locally advanced pT2 to pT4a gastric cancer who underwent curative surgery were enrolled in this study. Among them, 155 patients with pT3 were divided into three groups according to the intraoperative macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion, as follows: serosa exposure (SE)(-) (no invasion, 72 patients), SE(±) (ambiguous, 47 patients), and SE(+) (definite invasion, 36 patients), and the clinicopathological features, surgical outcomes, and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed.
A comparison of the 5-year DFS between pT3_SE(-) and pT2 groups and between pT3_SE(+) and pT4a groups revealed that the differences were not statistically significant. In addition, in a subgroup analysis of pT3 patients, the 5-year DFS was 75.1% in SE(-), 68.5% in SE(±), and 39.4% in SE(+) patients (P<0.05). In a multivariate analysis to evaluate risk factors for tumor recurrence, macroscopic diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], SE(-) : SE(±) : SE(+)=1 : 1.01 : 2.45, P=0.019) and lymph node metastasis (HR, N0 : N1 : N2 : N3=1 : 1.45 : 2.20 : 9.82, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for recurrence.
Gross inspection of serosal invasion by the surgeon had a strong impact on tumor recurrence in gastric cancer patients. Consequently, the gross appearance of serosal invasion should be considered as a factor for predicting patients' prognosis.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Gastric Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether signet ring cell (SRC) histology carries a worse prognosis than other forms of gastric adenocarcinoma has been questioned. The present study investigated the differences in clinicopathologic features and survival between SRC and non-SRC adenocarcinoma. The prospectively collected data of 2643 patients who had undergone curative gastrectomy between 1998 and 2005 by 10 surgeons were reviewed. Additionally, we employed analysis of covariance, propensity-score risk adjustment, and propensity-based matching to account for possible selection bias. The baseline characteristics of prematched patients with SRC or non-SRC adenocarcinoma histology differed: SRC presented in younger patients and less often in men, was more likely found in the middle stomach, and was more likely to be Stage I. After applying the propensity-score strata and propensity-score matching, there was no difference in the baseline characteristics, and SRC was not an independent risk factor for mortality in the same stage. SRC is not an independent predictor of poor prognosis after curative resection for gastric cancer in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic fistula (PF) has traditionally been a source of significant morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). External drainage of pancreatic duct with stent and Blumgart anastomosis had reduced PF after PD in some studies. We applied compounding described two methods for pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) during PD, and investigated the effectiveness of this modified PJ technique to prevent PF.
Between March 2002, and March 2013, 90 patients who underwent PD were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to pancreatienterostomy method. Group 1 contain patients who did not undergo modified PJ (n=70) compared with group 2 (n=20) those who did undergo the modified PJ technique. We compared clinical data between two groups.
No differences were noted in the demographics and operation-related factors, between the 2 groups. A PF occurred in 38 of 70 patients in group 1 (54.3%) and in 2 of 20 in group 2 (10.0%). Group 2 had a significantly lower incidence of PF (P=.0016), and these fistulas were classified as being grade A using the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula Definition. Mortality in group 1 was 10.0% and no mortality in group 2.
External drainage with Blumgart method of PJ showed reducing high grade PF after PD.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Hepato-gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenal metastasis following gastrectomy for gastric cancer is often encountered as part of advanced systemic dissemination, which is usually unresectable. Thus, there are very few published case reports describing metastasectomy for adrenal metastasis from gastric cancer. Herein we present our experience in treating two patients diagnosed and treated for adrenal metastasis 6 years following initial surgery for advanced gastric cancer (pT2bN1M0 and pT2bN0M0, respectively, according to the classification system set forth in the sixth edition of The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours by the International Union against Cancer). They underwent successful en bloc R0 resections, followed by systemic chemotherapy with close postoperative follow-up for another recurrence, and have remained alive without recurrence for 1 year. These results suggest that active surgical treatment for resectable metastatic gastric cancer in the adrenal glands has an important role in prolonging survival in selected patients.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aims to elucidate the treatment strategies of laparoscopic resection for gastroduodenal submucosal tumors (SMTs).
Data of 125 gastroduodenal STMs were collected retrospectively resected from August, 2004 to February, 2013. Surgical outcomes according to tumor locations, pathologic results and survival data for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were collected and analyzed.
There were 55 male and 70 female patients with mean age 57.9 ± 12.7 years old. Mean tumor size of gastric SMTs was 2.7 ± 1.64 cm (range, 0.4-8.5 cm). GIST was the most common (n = 70, 56%). Regarding the tumor location, all the fundic lesions were GISTs and leiomyoma was occurred 58.8% of cardiac lesions. Ectopic pancreas and schwannomas were mostly located at body portion, 73% and 80%, respectively. SMTs located at duodenal bulb comprise 4 GISTs and 3 carcinoids. Surgical results comparing between lesions located at cardia, near-pylorus and else had no difference in operation time, hospital stay and complications. In terms of outcome of GIST, all patients underwent curative resection except one case of peritoneal sarcomatosis. There was one recurrence in a high risk group following resection. The cumulative 5-year disease free survival rate was 93.5% in all GISTs. There were two postoperative complications, one gastric outlet obstruction and one leakage following wedge resection.
Laparoscopic wedge resection is a safe and feasible procedure for the small to medium sized gastroduodenal SMTs even their locations are near cardia or pylorus.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive surgery has been slowly introduced into the field of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) surgery. However, the appropriate extent of omentectomy during laparoscopic gastrectomy for AGC is unknown.
From July 2004 to December 2011, 146 patients with serosa-negative advanced gastric cancer were divided into the total omentectomy group (TO group, n = 80) and the partial omentectomy group (PO group, n = 66). The clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcomes, recurrence pattern and survival were analyzed.
There were no significant differences in the clinicopathologic features between the two groups, except for depth of invasion; more T3 (subserosal invasion) cases (65%) were included in total omentectomy group (P = 0.011). The mean time for PO was significantly shorter (35.1 +/- 13.0 min) than TO (50.9 +/- 15.3 min) (P <0.001), and there were two omentectomy-related complications in the TO group: spleen and mesocolon injuries. Recurrence occurred in 14 (17.5%) and 5 (7.6%) cases in the TO and PO group, respectively (P = 0.054). Disease-free survival (TO versus PO: 81.5% versus 89.3%, P = 0.420) and disease-specific survival (TO versus PO: 89% versus 94.7%) were not significantly different between the two groups. In the case-matched analysis using propensity score matching, there was no difference in disease-free survival (TO versus PO: 83.3% versus 90.5%, P = 0.442).
Partial omentectomy might be an oncologically safe procedure during laparoscopic gastrectomy for serosa-negative advanced gastric cancer, similar to early gastric cancer.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionLittle is known about the long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in severely obese Asian individuals.Methods and MaterialsA total of 33 severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes underwent RYGB. All patients were followed up for 2 years. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computed tomography (CT) before, and 12 and 24 months after RYGB. The muscle attenuation (MA) of paraspinous muscles observed by CT were used as indices of intramuscular fat.ResultsThe mean percentage weight loss was 22.2 ± 5.3% at 12 months, and 21.3 ± 5.1% at 24 months after surgery. Compared with the baseline values, the visceral fat area was 53.6 ± 17.1% lower 24 months after surgery, and the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was 32.7 ± 16.1% lower 24 months after surgery. The MA increased from 48.7 ± 10.0 at baseline to 52.2 ± 8.9 (P = 0.009) 12 months after surgery. The MA after the first 12 months maintained changes until 24 months. Triglycerides and free fatty acids were reduced after surgery, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased significantly after surgery. At the last follow-up visit, 18 patients (55%) had diabetes remission. The percentage of iron and vitamin D deficiency was 30% and 52%, respectively.Conclusions
We found that patients subjected to RYGB had significant sustained reductions in visceral and intramuscular fat. There were durable improvements in the cardiometabolic abnormalities without any significant comorbidities. However, there were mild nutritional deficiencies in these patients despite daily supplementation with multivitamins and minerals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oncologic outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer have not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to validate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in terms of long-term survival, morbidity, and mortality retrospectively.
The study group comprised 2,976 patients who were treated with curative intent either by laparoscopic gastrectomy (1,477 patients) or open gastrectomy (1,499 patients) between April 1998 and December 2005. The long-term 5-year actual survival analysis in case-control and case-matched population was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The morbidity and mortality and learning curves were evaluated.
In the case-control study, the overall survival, disease-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival (median follow-up period, 70.8 months) were not statistically different at each cancer stage with the exception of an increased overall survival rate for patients with stage IA cancer treated via laparoscopy (laparoscopic group; 95.3%, open group: 90.3%; P < .001). After matching using a propensity scoring system, the overall survival, disease-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival rates were not statistically different at each stage. The morbidity of the case-matched group was 15.1% in the open group and 12.5% in the laparoscopic group, which also had no statistical significance (P = .184). The mortality rate was also not statistically significant (0.3% in the open group and 0.5% in the laparoscopic group; P = 1.000). The mean learning curve was 42.
The long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy for patients with gastric cancer were comparable to those of open gastrectomy in a large-scale, multicenter, retrospective clinical study.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dissemination is one of the treatment failures following gastric cancer surgery. We present a case with very early peritoneal recurrence, detected 8 days following curative surgery. A 39-year-old man, with Borrmann-4 advanced gastric cancer with signet ring cell type, underwent curative open total gastrectomy. However, focal peritoneal nodules on the left side of the diaphragmatic surface, which did not exist at the initial operation, were incidentally found during the reoperation for a postoperative intestinal obstruction via a laparoscopic approach. The pathologic result of the biopsied nodule revealed signet ring cell carcinoma. The patient underwent combination chemotherapy for several months without tumor regression. He suffered from intestinal obstruction again due to carcinomatosis peritonei, and died 9 months following initial surgery. Through this case report, we can carefully suspect that very early progression of cancer cells to carcinomatosis can occur in just several days after an operation.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 85 year male patient complaining epigastric discomfort was admitted. From the esophagogastroduodenoscopy, three early gastric cancer (EGCa) lesions had been identified and these were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with poorly differentiated cell type. The patient underwent operation. From the post-operative mapping, however, additional 4 EGCa lesions were found, and the patient was diagnosed with 7 synchronous EGCa. Out of the 7 EGCa lesions, 6 had shown invasion only to the mucosal layer and one had shown invasion into the 1/3 layer of submucosa. In spite of such superficial invasions, 28 of 48 lymph nodes had been identified as metastases. The multiple lesions of EGCa do not increase the risk of lymph node metastasis, but if their differentiations are poor or if they have lympho-vascular invasion, multiple lymph node metastases could incur even if the depth of invasion is limited to the mucosal layer or the upper portion of the submucosal layer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology