[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Asia, patients increasingly seek tuberculosis (TB) treatment in the private sector; however, few private sector practices follow international TB management guidelines. We conducted a study to measure the frequency and predictors of seeking TB diagnosis in the private sector among 756 HIV-infected TB patients in four Thai provinces during 2005-2006. Of enrolled patients, 97 (13%) first sought care at a private provider and 83 (11%) at a pharmacy. In multivariable analysis, the only factor independently associated with seeking care at a private provider was having a high TB stigma score. Factors independently associated with seeking care at a pharmacy included not knowing that TB can be cured and that TB care can be provided close to home. Patients reported that the most influential factor in choosing a provider was confidentiality (468; 62%). Further research is needed to evaluate whether educating the community about the confidentiality, availability, and success of curing TB at government health facilities can promote prompt utilization of public TB treatment services by HIV-infected patients in Thailand.
Preview · Article · Nov 2009 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemics are closely linked. In Thailand as part of a sentinel surveillance system, we collected data prospectively about pulmonary TB cases treated in public clinics. A subset of HIV-infected TB patients identified through this system had additional data collected for a research study. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with MDR-TB. Of 10,428 TB patients, 2,376 (23%) were HIV-infected; 145 (1%) had MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB cases, 52 (37%) were HIV-infected. Independent risk factors for MDR-TB included age 18-29 years old, male sex, and previous TB treatment, but not HIV infection. Among new patients, having an injection drug use history was a risk factor for MDR-TB. Of 539 HIV-infected TB patients in the research study, MDR-TB was diagnosed in 19 (4%); the only significant risk factors were previous TB treatment and previous hepatitis. In Thailand, HIV is common among MDR-TB patients, but is not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB. Populations at high risk for HIV-young adults, men, injection drug users - should be prioritized for drug susceptibility testing.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Southeast Asia, HIV-infected patients frequently die during TB treatment. Many physicians are reluctant to treat HIV-infected TB patients with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and have questions about the added value of opportunistic infection prophylaxis to ART, the optimum ART regimen, and the benefit of initiating ART early during TB treatment.
We conducted a multi-center observational study of HIV-infected patients newly diagnosed with TB in Thailand. Clinical data was collected from the beginning to the end of TB treatment. We conducted multivariable proportional hazards analysis to identify factors associated with death.
Of 667 HIV-infected TB patients enrolled, 450 (68%) were smear and/or culture positive. Death during TB treatment occurred in 112 (17%). In proportional hazards analysis, factors strongly associated with reduced risk of death were ART use (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.36), fluconazole use (HR 0.34; CI 0.18-0.64), and co-trimoxazole use (HR 0.41; CI 0.20-0.83). Among 126 patients that initiated ART after TB diagnosis, the risk of death increased the longer that ART was delayed during TB treatment. Efavirenz- and nevirapine-containing ART regimens were associated with similar rates of adverse events and death.
Among HIV-infected patients living in Thailand, the single most important determinant of survival during TB treatment was use of ART. Controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings that early ART initiation improves survival and that the choice of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor does not.
Preview · Article · May 2009 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve understanding about the epidemiology and clinical features of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) infection we conducted a prospective, multi-center observational study of HIV-infected TB patients in Thailand. We enrolled HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB at public health facilities from three provinces and the national infectious diseases referral hospital in Thailand. Patients underwent standardized interviews, evaluations, and laboratory testing at the beginning of TB treatment. We analyzed demographic and clinical characteristics of patients and stratified our findings by level of immune-suppression and whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) was used before TB diagnosis. Of 769 patients analyzed, pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 461 (60%). The median CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) count was 63 cells/microl [interquartile range (IQR), 23-163.5] and the median HIV RNA viral load was 308,000 copies/ml (IQR, 51,900-759,000) at the time of TB diagnosis. Methamphetamine use was reported by 304 patients (40%), marijuana by 267 patients (35%), and injection drug use by 199 patients (26%). Three hundred three patients (40%) reported having been previously incarcerated. Among sexually active patients, 142 (42%) reported never using condoms at all. Patients with CD4 counts <200 cells/microl were significantly more likely than patients with CD4 counts > or =200 cells/microl to have extra-pulmonary TB, fever, fatigue, muscle weakness, no hemoptysis, tachycardia, low body mass index, jaundice, or no pleural effusion. Of the 94 patients that received ART before TB diagnosis, the median time from ART initiation to TB diagnosis was 105 days (IQR, 31-468). HIV-infected patients who developed TB after ART initiation were more likely than other HIV-infected TB patients to have extra-pulmonary TB, a normal chest radiograph, low HIV RNA viral load, or a history of previous TB treatment.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational cohort study in Thailand to characterize the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected persons and to identify risk factors for death.
From May 2005 to September 2006, we enrolled, interviewed, examined, and performed laboratory tests on HIV-infected adult TB patients and followed them from TB treatment initiation until the end of TB treatment. We conducted multivariate proportional hazards analysis to identify factors associated with death.
Of the 769 patients, pulmonary TB only was diagnosed in 461 (60%), both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in 78 (10%), extrapulmonary TB at one site in 223 (29%), and extrapulmonary TB at more than one site in seven (1%) patients. Death during TB treatment occurred in 59 of 308 patients (19%) with any extrapulmonary involvement. In a proportional hazards model, patients with extrapulmonary TB had an increased risk of death if they had meningitis, and a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <200 cells/microl. Patients who received co-trimoxazole, fluconazole, and antiretroviral therapy during TB treatment had a lower risk of death.
Among HIV-infected patients with TB, extrapulmonary disease occurred in 40% of the patients, particularly in those with advanced immune suppression. Death during TB treatment was common, but the risk of death was reduced in patients who took co-trimoxazole, fluconazole, and antiretroviral therapy.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective, observational study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) at public health facilities in Thailand to evaluate the impact of TB and HIV treatment on overall physical and mental health. Standardized data were collected from patients at the time of TB diagnosis, two months into TB treatment, and at completion of TB treatment. We calculated composite physical and mental health scores for patients that completed treatment, compared scores during treatment, and analyzed factors associated with improvements in these scores. Of 493 patients analyzed, 488 (99%) reported at least one physical health complaint and 210 (43%) had at least one mental health complaint at baseline. Improvement in physical health occurred in 377 (76%) and improvement in mental health occurred in 182 (37%). In a multivariable analysis, factors strongly associated with improvement in physical health were receiving TB treatment in Bangkok, age greater than 50 years, and improved mental health. Improvement in mental health was strongly associated with alleviation of physical symptoms, including bloody urine, foot pain, headache, muscle weakness, difficulty sleeping, chest pain, and dizziness.
Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health