David A Fullerton

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

Are you David A Fullerton?

Claim your profile

Publications (230)891.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery produces a proinflammatory response characterized by cytokine production. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) may contribute to morbidity and mortality after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Elderly patients undergoing CPB are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that patients aged >70 y produce more IL-6 during CPB.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 plays a role in post-ischemic myocardial inflammatory response and cardiac dysfunction in both males and females. Permanent ischemia was induced in male and female C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Infarct size and left ventricular (LV) function were analyzed at day 7. Myocardial levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), as well as neutrophil infiltration, were assessed at day 3, and mononuclear cell accumulation was determined at day 7. Lower MCP-1 and ICAM-1 levels, and reduced leukocyte accumulation correlated with smaller infarct size and improved LV function in male TLR2 KO mice. Female WT mice exhibited attenuated myocardial inflammatory response and injury, and TLR2 KO in females did not provide a protective effect although myocardial TLR2 levels in female WT mice were unaltered, and their cardiac cells responded to bacterial TLR2 agonist properly. TLR2 KO in male mice reduced post-ischemic myocardial inflammatory response, resulting in smaller infarct sizes and improved cardiac function. However, TLR2 KO was not beneficial in female mice. The gender disparity in the role of TLR2 in post-ischemic myocardial inflammatory response and myocardial injury suggests that interception with TLR2 signaling may have therapeutic potentials only in males.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
  • David A Fullerton

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of single lung transplantation (SLTx) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is often viewed as inferior therapy compared with bilateral lung transplantation (BLTx). We hypothesized from our experience that subpopulations of recipients with emphysema exist in which SLTx represents therapy that is equivalent to BLTx, therefore allowing more patients access to transplantation. Consecutive patients undergoing LTx for emphysema between 1992 and 2012 at a single institution were identified and analyzed retrospectively. A similar cohort from the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) national database was identified for comparison. Five-year survival in patients receiving SLTx and those receiving BLTx were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests. Two hundred thirty-six patients meeting criteria were identified from our institution. Two hundred six underwent SLTx, and 30 underwent BLTx. Five-year survival for single-center SLTx (53.2% ± 3.6%) and BLTx (56.7% ± 10.2%) was not significantly different (p = 0.753). The national database included 7,256 patients meeting selection criteria, with 4,408 undergoing SLTx and 2,848 undergoing BLTx. Five-year survival among the national cohorts was lower for SLTx (46.4% ± 0.8%) compared with BLTx (55.9% ± 1.1%) (p < 0.0001). However, 5-year survival for our single-center SLTx experience (53.2% ± 3.6%) was comparable to the national BLTx cohort (55.9% ± 1.1%) (p = 0.539). Five-year survival after SLTx for emphysema was comparable to that for BLTx in cohorts from our institution and from the UNOS national database. Further study should focus on the mechanism behind these improved outcomes. Given the potential for a larger number of life-years saved, SLTx should continue to be considered a therapeutic option in appropriately selected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a leading cardiovascular disorder in the elderly. While aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) are the main cells that express osteogenic mediators, the molecular mechanism that mediates AVIC osteogenic responses are incompletely understood. This study aims to identify pro-osteogenic factors in human AVICs affected by CAVD. Microarray analysis identified 11 up-regulated genes in AVICs of diseased valves. Among these genes, mRNA levels of neurotrophin 3 (NT3) increased by 2 fold. Higher levels of NT3 protein in diseased aortic valves and diseased AVICs were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining and immunoblotting, respectively. An exposure of AVICs of normal valves to recombinant human NT3 (0.025-0.10μg/ml) up-regulated the production of Runx2, TGF-β1 and BMP-2 in a dose-dependent fashion. NT3 also promotes calcium deposit formation. The pro-osteogenic effect of NT3 was not affected by neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 or 4. Interestingly, mRNA encoding neural growth factor receptors (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and p75 NTR) was detectable in human AVICs. Inhibition of Trk receptors markedly reduced the effects of NT3 on Runx2, TGF-β1 and BMP-2 production, calcium deposit formation and Akt phosphorylation. Further, inhibition of Akt also reduced the pro-osteogenic effects of NT3. AVICs of diseased human aortic valves express higher levels of NT3. NT3 up-regulates the production of Runx2, TGF-β1 and BMP-2, and promotes calcium deposit formation in human AVICs via the Trk-Akt pathway. Thus, NT3 is a novel pro-osteogenic factor in aortic valves and may play a role in valvular calcification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paraplegia following complex aortic intervention relies on crude evaluation of lower extremity strength such as whether the patient can lift their legs or flex the ankle. Little attention has been given to the possible long-term neurologic sequelae following these procedures in patients appearing functionally normal. We hypothesize that mice subjected to minimal ischemic time will have functional and histological changes despite the gross appearance of normal function. Male mice underwent 3min of aortic occlusion (n=14) or sham surgery (n=4) via a median sternotomy. Neurologic function was graded by Basso Motor Score (BMS) preoperatively and at 24h intervals after reperfusion. Mice appearing functionally normal and sham mice were placed on a walking beam and recorded on high-definition, for single-frame motion analysis. After 96hrs, spinal cords were removed for histological analysis. Following 3min of ischemia, functional outcomes were split evenly with either mice displaying almost normal function n=7 or near complete paraplegia n=7. Additionally, single-frame motion analysis revealed significant changes in gait. Histologically, there was a significant stepwise reduction of neuronal viability, with even the normal function ischemic group demonstrating significant loss of neurons. Despite the appearance of normal function, temporary ischemia induced marked cyto-architectural changes and neuronal degeneration. Furthermore high-definition gait analysis revealed significant changes in gait and activity following thoracic aortic occlusion. These data suggest that all patients undergoing procedures, even with short ischemic times, may have spinal cord injury that is not evident clinically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Brain research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paraplegia remains a devastating complication of aortic surgery, occurring in up to 20% of complex thoracoabdominal repairs. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates this injury in models of spinal cord ischemia. Upregulation of the beta-common receptor (βcR) subunit of the EPO receptor is associated with reduced damage in murine models of neural injury. This receptor activates anti-apoptotic pathways including signaling transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We hypothesized that spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury upregulates the βcR subunit with a subsequent increase in activated STAT3. Adult male C57/BL6 mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mL of EPO (10 U/kg) or 0.9% saline after induction of anesthesia. Spinal cord ischemia was induced through sternotomy and 4-minute thoracic aortic cross-clamp. Sham mice underwent sternotomy without cross-clamp placement. Four groups were studied: ischemic and sham groups, each with and without EPO treatment. After 4 hours of reperfusion, spinal cords were harvested and homogenized. The βcR subunit expression and STAT3 activation were evaluated by immunoblot. Ischemia reperfusion increased βcR subunit expression in spinal cords of ischemia + saline and ischemia + EPO mice compared with shams (3.4 ± 1.39 vs 1.31 ± 0.3, p = 0.01 and 3.80 ± 0.58 vs 1.56 ± 0.32, p = 0.01). Additionally, both ischemic groups demonstrated increased STAT3 activation compared with shams (1.35 ± 0.14 vs 1.09 ± 0.07, p = 0.01 and 1.66 ± 0.35 vs 1.08 ± 0.17, p = 0.02). Ischemia-reperfusion injury induces EPO receptor βcR subunit expression and early downstream anti-apoptotic signaling through STAT3 activation. Further investigation into the role of the βcR subunit is warranted to determine tissue protective functions of EPO. Elucidation of mechanisms involved in spinal cord protection is essential for reducing delayed paraplegia. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. In response to proinflammatory stimulation, the AVIC undergoes a phenotypic change from that of a myofibroblast phenotype to that of osteoblast-like cell. Matrix Gla-protein (MGP) has been identified as an important inhibitor of vascular calcification. We therefore hypothesized that MGP expression is reduced in diseased AVICs, and loss of this protective protein contributes to calcification of the aortic valve. Our purpose was to compare MGP expression in normal versus diseased AVICs. Human AVICs were isolated from normal aortic valves from explanted hearts (n = 6) at the time of heart transplantation. AVICs were also isolated from calcified, diseased valves of patients (n = 6) undergoing aortic valve replacement. AVICs were grown in culture until they reached passages 2-6 before experimentation. Immunofluorescent staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to compare levels of MGP in normal and diseased AVICs. Statistics were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). MGP expression was significantly decreased in diseased AVICs relative to normal AVICs by immunofluorescent staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An important anti-calcification defense mechanism is deficient in calcified aortic valves. MGP expression is significantly lower in diseased relative to normal AVICs. Lack of this important "anti-calcification" protein may contribute to calcification of the aortic valve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Surgical Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The signaling mechanism that mediates inflammatory responses in remote non-ischemic myocardium following regional ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) remains incompletely understood. Myocardial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can be activated by multiple proteins released from injured cells and plays a role in myocardial inflammation and injury expansion. We tested the hypothesis that TLR4 occupies an important role in mediating the inflammatory responses and matrix protein remodeling in the remote non-ischemic myocardium following regional I/R injury. TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ) and TLR4-competent (C3H/HeN) mice were subjected to coronary artery ligation (30 min) and reperfusion for 1, 3, 7 or 14 days. In TLR4-competent mice, levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were elevated in the remote non-ischemic myocardium at day 1, 3, and 7 of reperfusion. Levels of collagen I, collagen IV, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP 9 were increased in the remote non-ischemic myocardium at day 7 and 14 of reperfusion. MMP 2 and MMP 9 activities were also increased. TLR4 deficiency resulted in a moderate reduction in myocardial infarct size. However, it markedly downgraded the changes in the levels of chemokines, adhesion molecules and matrix proteins in the remote non-ischemic myocardium. Further, left ventricular function at day 14 was significantly improved in TLR4-defective mice. In conclusion, TLR4 mediates the inflammatory responses and matrix protein remodeling in the remote non-ischemic myocardium following regional myocardial I/R injury and contributes to the mechanism of adverse cardiac remodeling.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive calcification in valve leaflets. Aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of CAVD. Previous studies show that stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4 in AVICs in vitro up-regulates the expression of osteogenic mediators. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can activate pro-inflammatory signaling through TLR3, the NLRP3 inflammasome and RIG-I-like receptors. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of dsRNA on AVIC osteogenic activities and the mechanism of its action. AVICs isolated from normal human valves were exposed to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a mimic of dsRNA. Treatment with poly(I:C) increased the production of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and resulted in calcium deposit formation. Poly(I:C) induced the phosphorylation of NF-κB and ERK1/2. Knockdown of TLR3 essentially abrogated NF-κB and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and markedly reduced the effect of poly(I:C) on the production of BMP-2, TGF-β1 and ALP. Further, inhibition of either NF-κB or ERK1/2 markedly reduced the levels of BMP-2, TGF-β1 and ALP in cells exposed to poly(I:C). Poly(I:C) up-regulates the production of BMP-2, TGF-β1 and ALP, and promotes calcium deposit formation in human AVICs. The pro-osteogenic effect of poly(I:C) is mediated primarily by TLR3 and the NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways. These findings suggest that dsRNA, when present in aortic valve tissue, may promote CAVD progression through up-regulation of AVIC osteogenic activities.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · International journal of biological sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. The complex interactions between injured neurons and activated leukocytes have limited the understanding of neuron-specific injury. We hypothesize that spinal cord neuron cell cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) would simulate ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could be attenuated by specific alpha-2a agonism in an Akt-dependent fashion. Spinal cords from perinatal mice were harvested, and neurons cultured in vitro for 7-10 d. Cells were pretreated with 1 μM dexmedetomidine (Dex) and subjected to OGD in an anoxic chamber. Viability was determined by MTT assay. Deoxyuridine-triphosphate nick-end labeling staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used for apoptosis and necrosis identification, respectively. Western blot was used for protein analysis. Vehicle control cells were only 59% viable after 1 h of OGD. Pretreatment with Dex significantly preserves neuronal viability with 88% viable (P < 0.05). Dex significantly decreased apoptotic cells compared with that of vehicle control cells by 50% (P < 0.05). Necrosis was not significantly different between treatment groups. Mechanistically, Dex treatment significantly increased phosphorylated Akt (P < 0.05), but protective effects of Dex were eliminated by an alpha-2a antagonist or Akt inhibitor (P < 0.05). Using a novel spinal cord neuron cell culture, OGD mimics neuronal metabolic derangement responsible for paraplegia after aortic surgery. Dex preserves neuronal viability and decreases apoptosis in an Akt-dependent fashion. Dex demonstrates clinical promise for reducing the risk of paraplegia after high-risk aortic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Surgical Research

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
  • Rui Song · David A Fullerton · Lihua Ao · Daniel Zheng · Ke-Seng Zhao · Xianzhong Meng
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biglycan accumulates in aortic valves affected by calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), and soluble biglycan upregulates BMP-2 expression in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and induces AVIC pro-osteogenic reprogramming, characterized by elevated pro-osteogenic activities. We sought to identify the factors responsible for biglycan-induced pro-osteogenic reprogramming in human AVICs. Treatment of AVICs with recombinant biglycan induced the secretion of BMP-2 and TGF-β1, but not BMP-4 or BMP-7. Biglycan upregulated TGF-β1 expression in a TLR4-dependent fashion. Neutralization of BMP-2 or TGF-β1 attenuated the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in cells exposed to biglycan. However, neutralization of both BMP-2 and TGF-β1 abolished the expression of these osteogenic biomarkers and calcium deposition. Phosphorylated Smad1 and Smad3 were detected in cells exposed to biglycan, and knockdown of Smad1 or Smad3 attenuated the effect of biglycan on the expression of osteogenic biomarkers. While BMP-2 and TGF-β1 each upregulated the expression of osteogenic biomarkers, an exposure to BMP-2 plus TGF-β1 induced a greater upregulation and results in calcium deposition. We conclude that concurrent upregulation of BMP-2 and TGF-β1 is responsible for biglycan-induced pro-osteogenic reprogramming in human AVICs. The Smad 1/3 pathways are involved in the mechanism of AVIC pro-osteogenic reprogramming. Biglycan upregulates BMP-2 and TGF-β1 in human aortic valve cells through TLRs. Both BMP-2 and TGF-β1 are required for aortic valve cell pro-osteogenic reprogramming. Smad signaling pathways are involved in mediating the pro-osteogenic effects of biglycan.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Molecular Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Paraplegia remains a devastating complication of complex aortic surgery. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to prevent paraplegia after ischemia reperfusion, but the protective mechanism remains poorly described in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that EPO induces the CREB (cAMP [adenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate] response element-binding protein) pathway and neurotrophin production in the murine spinal cord, attenuating functional and cellular injury. Methods: Adult male mice were subjected to 4 minutes of spinal cord ischemia via an aortic and left subclavian cross-clamp. Experimental groups included EPO treatment 4 hours before incision (n = 7), ischemic control (n = 7), and shams (n = 4). Hind-limb function was assessed using the Basso motor score for 48 hours after reperfusion. Spinal cords were harvested and analyzed for neuronal viability using histology and staining with a fluorescein derivative. Expression of phosphorylated (p)AKT (a serine/threonine-specific kinase), pCREB, B-cell lymphoma 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were determined using immunoblotting. Results: By 36 hours of reperfusion, EPO significantly preserved hind-limb function after ischemia-reperfusion injury (P < .01). Histology demonstrated preserved cytoarchitecture in the EPO treatment group. Cords treated with EPO expressed significant increases in pAKT (P = .021) and pCREB (P = .038). Treatment with EPO induced expression of both of the neurotrophins, B-cell lymphoma 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, beginning at 12 hours. Conclusions: Erythropoietin-mediated induction of the CREB pathway and production of neurotrophins is associated with improved neurologic function and increased neuronal viability following spinal cord ischemia reperfusion. Further elucidation of EPO-derived neuroprotection will allow for expansion of adjunct mechanisms for spinal cord protection in high-risk thoracoabdominal aortic intervention.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) possesses antiinflammatory effects. Given that calcification occurs in adult valves, we hypothesized that AVICs from adult valves more likely undergo a proosteogenic phenotypic change than those from pediatric valves and that may be related to different Stat3 activation in the response of those two age groups to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). AVICs from healthy human aortic valve tissues were treated with TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. Cellular levels of TLR4, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and alkaline phosphatase, as well as phosphorylation of p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-κβ (NF-κβ), and Stat3, were analyzed. Toll-like receptor 4 protein levels were comparable between adult and pediatric AVICs. Adult cells produce markedly higher levels of the above markers after TLR4 stimulation, which is negatively associated with phosphorylation of Stat3. Inhibition of Stat3 enhanced p-38 MAPK and NF-κβ phosphorylation and exaggerated the expression of the above markers in pediatric AVICs after TLR4 stimulation. Adult AVICs exhibit greater inflammatory and osteogenic responses to TLR4 stimulation. The enhanced responses in adult AVICs are at least partly due to lower levels of Stat3 activation in response to TLR4 stimulation relative to pediatric cells. Stat3 functions as a negative regulator of the TLR4 responses in human AVICs. The results suggest that Stat3 activation (tyrosine phosphorylation) may be protective and that TLR4 inhibition could be targeted pharmacologically to treat calcific aortic valve disease. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Delayed paraplegia secondary to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Alpha-2 agonists have been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury, but the mechanism for protection has yet to be elucidated. A growing body of evidence suggests that astrocytes play a critical role in neuroprotection by release of neurotrophins. We hypothesize that alpha-2 agonism with dexmedetomidine increases glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor in spinal cord astrocytes to provide spinal cord protection. Spinal cords were isolated en bloc from C57BL/6 mice, and primary spinal cord astrocytes and neurons were selected for and grown separately in culture. Astrocytes were treated with dexmedetomidine, and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor was tested for by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess neuronal viability. Spinal cord primary astrocytes treated with dexmedetomidine at 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L had significantly increased glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor production compared with control (P < .05). Neurons subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation had significant preservation (P < .05) of viability with use of dexmedetomidine-treated astrocyte media. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor neutralizing antibody eliminated the protective effects of the dexmedetomidine-treated astrocyte media (P < .05). Astrocytes have been shown to preserve neuronal viability via release of neurotrophic factors. Dexmedetomidine increases glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor from spinal cord astrocytes via the alpha-2 receptor. Treatment with alpha-2 agonist dexmedetomidine may be a clinical tool for use in spinal cord protection in aortic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: C-terminal tensin-like (Cten) protein, a component of focal adhesions, contributes to cell motility and invasion in multiple human cancers. Epidermal growth factor can activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and both contribute to invasion through focal adhesion interactions. We hypothesize that Cten may mediate invasion of lung cancer cells provided by epidermal growth factor via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Four human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines were treated with epidermal growth factor to evaluate activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway and induction of Cten expression. Chemical inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was used to evaluate the effect on epidermal growth factor-induced Cten expression. Protein expression was quantified by Western blot. H125 and A549 cells were transduced with short-hairpin RNA via lentiviral vector to knockdown expression of Cten. An in vitro transwell invasion assay was used to assess the effects of Cten knockdown on cell invasion (n = 3 for all experiments). Stimulation of lung cancer cells with epidermal growth factor activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway and induced expression of Cten in all cell lines. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inhibition significantly reduced epidermal growth factor-induced expression of Cten in H125 (P < .0001), H358 (P = .006), and H441 (P = .014) cells in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Cten expression resulted in significant decreases in cellular invasion in both H125 (P = .0036) and A549 (P = .0006) cells. These are the first findings in lung cancer to demonstrate that Cten expression mediates invasion of human lung cancer cells and is upregulated by epidermal growth factor via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. Cten should be considered a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionEndotoxemia and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome have a significant impact on post-surgery outcome, particularly in the elderly. The cytokine response to endotoxin is altered by aging. We tested the hypothesis that vulnerability to endotoxemic cardiac depression increases with aging due to age-related augmentation of myocardial inflammatory responses.Methods Adult (4 to 6 months) and old (20 to 22 months) C57/BL6 mice were treated with endotoxin (0.5 mg/kg, iv). Left ventricle (LV) function was assessed using a microcatheter system. Chemokines and cytokines in plasma and myocardium were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mononuclear cells in the myocardium were examined using immunofluorescence staining.ResultsOld mice displayed worse LV function (cardiac output: 3.0¿±¿0.2 mL/min versus 4.4¿±¿0.3 mL/min in adult mice) following endotoxin treatment. The exaggerated cardiac depression in old mice was associated with higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) in plasma and myocardium, greater myocardial accumulation of mononuclear cells, and greater levels of tumor necrosis factor-¿ (TNF-¿), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in plasma and myocardium. Neutralization of MCP-1 resulted in greater reductions in myocardial mononuclear cell accumulation and cytokine production, and greater improvement in LV function in old mice while neutralization of KC had a minimal effect on LV function.Conclusion Old mice have enhanced inflammatory responses to endotoxemia that lead to exaggerated cardiac functional depression. MCP-1 promotes myocardial mononuclear cell accumulation and cardiodepressant cytokines production, and plays an important role in the endotoxemic cardiomyopathy in old mice. The findings suggest that special attention is needed to protect the heart in the elderly with endotoxemia.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Critical care (London, England)
  • Source
    David A. Fullerton · Thoralf M. Sundt

    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

Publication Stats

4k Citations
891.42 Total Impact Points


  • 1996-2015
    • University of Colorado
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2012-2014
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1999-2006
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2005
    • Medical University of Ohio at Toledo
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
  • 1999-2003
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Surgery
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1999-2002
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2000
    • Riley Hospital for Children
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1997
    • Spokane VA Medical Center
      Spokane, Washington, United States
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1993-1996
    • Wolfson Childrens Hospital
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
    • Loma Linda University
      • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      لوما ليندا، كاليفورنيا, California, United States
  • 1995
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1991-1992
    • Children's Hospital of Richmond
      Ричмонд, Virginia, United States