Jaana Suvisaari

National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (227)1453.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The enormous variability in electrical properties of neurons is largely affected by a multitude of potassium channel subunits. Kv2.1 is a widely expressed voltage-dependent potassium channel and an important regulator of neuronal excitability. The Kv2.1 auxiliary subunit AMIGO constitutes an integral part of the Kv2.1 channel complex in brain and regulates the activity of the channel. AMIGO and Kv2.1 localize to the distinct somatodendritic clusters at the neuronal plasma membrane. Here we have created and characterized a mouse line lacking the AMIGO gene. Absence of AMIGO clearly reduced the amount of the Kv2.1 channel protein in mouse brain and altered the electrophysiological properties of neurons. These changes were accompanied by behavioral and pharmacological abnormalities reminiscent of those identified in schizophrenia. Concomitantly, we have detected an association of a rare, population-specific polymorphism of KV2.1 (KCNB1) with human schizophrenia in a genetic isolate enriched with schizophrenia. Our study demonstrates the involvement of AMIGO-Kv2.1 channel complex in schizophrenia-related behavioral domains in mice and identifies KV2.1 (KCNB1) as a strong susceptibility gene for schizophrenia spectrum disorders in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. We identified putamen circuitry in which the signal aberrance (poor correlation with the comparison signal time course) was predicted by the dopamine theory, being greater in patients than controls; correlating positively with delusion scores; and correlating negatively with antipsychotic-equivalent dosage. In Granger causality analysis, patients showed a compromised contribution of the cortical salience network to the putamen and compromised contribution of the putamen to the default mode network. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons at the cluster level with primary voxel-wise threshold p<0.005 for the salience network contribution, but liberal primary threshold p<0.05 was used in other group comparisons. If replicated in larger studies, these findings may help unify and extend current hypotheses on dopaminergic dysfunction, salience processing and pathogenesis of delusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
  • Ilona Merikanto · Jaana Suvisaari · Tuuli Lahti · Timo Partonen
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    ABSTRACT: Diurnal preference towards eveningness among adults has been associated with unhealthy habits and a range of health hazards, such as sleeping problems and higher odds for depression. We wanted to analyse whether diurnal preference towards eveningness is associated with more severe symptoms regarding sleep problems and mental disorders among young adults. Our sample consists of 469 young adults, aged 18-29 years, from the Mental Health in Early Adulthood Study in Finland (MEAF) conducted in 2003-2005. Chronotype was based on the assessment of one question that was asked first in 2000-2001 and the second time in 2003-2005. Those 73 participants who changed their chronotype were excluded from the main analysis, but separate analyses were performed with this group. Concerning sleep, E-types reported higher dependency on alarm clocks (p < 0.001), and E-types and I-types had more problems in feeling refreshed after waking up (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively) than M-types. Regarding mental health, E-types and I-types had lower odds for any lifetime DSM-IV Axis I disorder (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) than M-types. Our results are in line with previous findings that those with the diurnal preference towards eveningness have more frequently three or more lifetime mental disorders, more sleeping problems, more seasonal variation in mood and behaviour, and more burnout compared with those with the diurnal preference towards morningness.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Nordic journal of psychiatry
  • V Lehti · M Gissler · J Suvisaari · M Manninen
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    ABSTRACT: To increase knowledge on the reproductive health of women who have been placed in a residential school, a child welfare facility for adolescents with severe psychosocial problems. All women (n=291) who lived in the Finnish residential schools on the last day of the years 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006 were included in this study and compared with matched general population controls. Register-based information on induced abortions and births was collected until the end of the year 2011. Compared to controls, women with a residential school history had more induced abortions. A higher proportion of their births took place when they were teenagers or even minors. They were more often single, smoked significantly more during pregnancy and had a higher risk of having a preterm birth or a baby with a low birth weight. The findings have implications for the planning of preventive and supportive interventions that aim to increase the well-being of women with a residential school history and their offspring. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia patients are in danger of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its outcomes type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Antipsychotic treatment and adverse lifestyle increase the burden of metabolic problems in schizophrenia, but little is known about the role of patients' current psychiatric problems and living arrangements in MetS. This study aims to evaluate correlations between MetS, severity of psychiatric symptoms, living arrangements, health behaviour and antipsychotic medication in outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A general practitioner and psychiatric nurses performed a comprehensive health examination for all consenting patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated in a psychosis outpatient clinic. Examination comprised of an interview, a questionnaire, measurements, laboratory tests and a general clinical examination. Diagnosis of MetS was made according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition. Correlations were calculated and logistic regression analysis performed with SAS. 276 patients (men n = 152, mean age± standard deviation = 44.9 ± 12.6 years) participated in the study; 58.7% (n = 162) of them had MetS according to the IDF definition. Clozapine use doubled the risk of MetS (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.82, P = 0.03), whereas self-reported regular physical activity decreased the risk significantly (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.18-0.57, P < 0.001). We found no correlations between MetS and living arrangements or current severity of psychiatric symptoms. MetS was alarmingly common in our sample. Even moderate physical activity was associated with decreased risk of MetS. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle should be one of the targets in treatment of schizophrenia, especially in patients using clozapine.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Nordic journal of psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with inflammatory and brain structural changes, but few studies have investigated whether systemic inflammation associates with brain structural changes in FEP. Thirty-seven FEP patients (median 27 days on antipsychotic medication), and 19 matched controls were recruited. Serum levels of 38 chemokines and cytokines, and cardiovascular risk markers were measured at baseline and 2 months later. We collected T1- and diffusion-weighted MRIs with a 3 T scanner from the patients at baseline. We analyzed the association of psychosis-related inflammatory markers with gray and white matter (WM) volume using voxel-based morphometry and WM diffusion using tract-based spatial statistics with whole-brain and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. FEP patients had higher CCL22 and lower TGFα, CXCL1, CCL7, IFN-α2 and ApoA-I than controls. CCL22 decreased significantly between baseline and 2 months in patients but was still higher than in controls. The association between inflammatory markers and FEP remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and BMI. We did not observe a correlation of inflammatory markers with any symptoms or duration of antipsychotic treatment. Baseline CCL22 levels correlated negatively with WM volume and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity bilaterally in the frontal lobes in ROI analyses. Decreased serum level of ApoA-I was associated with smaller volume of the medial temporal WM. In whole-brain analyses, CCL22 correlated positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, and CXCL1 associated negatively with fractional anisotropy and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in several brain regions. This is the first report to demonstrate an association between circulating chemokine levels and WM in FEP patients. Interestingly, CCL22 has been previously implicated in autoimmune diseases associated with WM pathology. The results suggest that an altered activation of innate immunity may contribute to WM damage in psychotic disorders.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D has been suggested to protect against depression, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study investigated the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders. The study population consisted of a representative sample of Finnish men and women aged 30–79 years from the Health 2000 Survey. The sample included 5371 individuals, of which 354 were diagnosed with depressive disorder and 222 with anxiety disorder. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was determined from frozen samples. In a cross-sectional study, a total of four indicators of depression and one indicator of anxiety were used as dependent variables. Serum 25(OH)D was the risk factor of interest, and logistic models used further included sociodemographic and lifestyle variables as well as indicators of metabolic health as confounding and/or effect-modifying factors. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Individuals with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed a reduced risk of depression. The relative odds between the highest and lowest quartiles was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·93; P for trend = 0·006) after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of depressive disorder especially among men, younger, divorced and those who had an unhealthy lifestyle or suffered from the metabolic syndrome. The PAF was estimated to be 19 % for depression when serum 25(OH)D concentration was at least 50 nmol/l. These results support the hypothesis that higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations protect against depression even after adjustment for a large number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The British journal of nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is little information on lung function and respiratory diseases in people with psychosis. Aims To compare the respiratory health of people with psychosis with that of the general population. Method In a nationally representative sample of 8028 adult Finns, lung function was measured by spirometry. Information on respiratory diseases and symptoms was collected. Smoking was quantified with serum cotinine levels. Psychotic disorders were diagnosed utilising the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and medical records. Results Participants with schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses had significantly lower lung function values compared with the general population, and the association remained significant for schizophrenia after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders. Schizophrenia was associated with increased odds of pneumonia (odds ratio (OR) = 4.9), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, OR = 4.2) and chronic bronchitis (OR = 3.8); and with high cotinine levels. Conclusions Schizophrenia is associated with impaired lung function and increased risk for pneumonia, COPD and chronic bronchitis. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF≥1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 × 10−9) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 × 10−14). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 × 10−9) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 × 10−11). All common variants explain ≥20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21 856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43 879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16 731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: AimWe investigated the associations between clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR), psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients.Methods The sample consisted of 54 CHR and 107 non-CHR psychiatric patients aged 15–18 in Helsinki, Finland, who were assessed at the beginning of their psychiatric treatment with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Current suicidality was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (item 9), while lifetime suicidality was evaluated from all available data, including patient files. The participants were followed for 2.8–8.9 years via the national hospital discharge register, with the follow-up outcome being intentional self-harm. Data on suicides were also gathered from the Causes of Death statistics.ResultsOnly 30.5% of the adolescents had no suicidal ideation at the beginning of their treatment. CHR risk state and SIPS-assessed delusions, suspiciousness, and hallucinations were associated with higher current suicidality. Of the 154 adolescents with register follow-up, there were five (3.2%) with intentional self-harm resulting in hospital treatment, all female. CHR status was not associated with self-harm. Current suicidality, familial risk of psychosis, and SIPS decreased expression of emotions were associated with self-harm during follow-up. In a Cox regression analysis model among girls, only decreased expression of emotions remained a significant predictor of intentional self-harm. Baseline suicidality measures were not associated with transitions to psychosis.ConclusionsCHR status was associated with higher current suicidality but did not predict follow-up intentional self-harm in treatment-seeking adolescents. Decreased expression of emotions may indicate higher risk of intentional self-harm in adolescent treatment-seeking girls.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Early Intervention in Psychiatry

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: It is generally believed that long-term use of antipsychotics increases mortality and, especially, the risk of cardiovascular death. However, there are no solid data to substantiate this view. We identified all individuals in Sweden with schizophrenia diagnoses before year 2006 (N = 21 492), aged 17-65 years, and persons with first-episode schizophrenia during the follow-up 2006-2010 (N = 1230). Patient information was prospectively collected through nationwide registers. Total and cause-specific mortalities were calculated as a function of cumulative antipsychotic exposure from January 2006 to December 2010. Compared with age- and gender-matched controls from the general population (N = 214920), the highest overall mortality was observed among patients with no antipsychotic exposure (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.3, 95% CI: 5.5-7.3), ie, 0.0 defined daily dose (DDD)/day, followed by high exposure (>1.5 DDD/day) group (HR = 5.7, 5.2-6.2), low exposure (<0.5 DDD/day) group (HR = 4.1, 3.6-4.6), and moderate exposure (0.5-1.5 DDD/day) group (HR = 4.0, 3.7-4.4). High exposure (HR = 8.5, 7.3-9.8) and no exposure (HR = 7.6, 5.8-9.9) were associated with higher cardiovascular mortality than either low exposure (HR = 4.7, 3.7-6.0) or moderate exposure (HR = 5.6, 4.8-6.6). The highest excess overall mortality was observed among first-episode patients with no antipsychotic use (HR = 9.9, 5.9-16.6). Among patients with schizophrenia, the cumulative antipsychotic exposure displays a U-shaped curve for overall mortality, revealing the highest risk of death among those patients with no antipsychotic use. These results indicate that both excess overall and cardiovascular mortality in schizophrenia is attributable to other factors than antipsychotic treatment when used in adequate dosages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: Up-to-date epidemiological data on depressive disorders is needed to understand changes in population health and health care utilization. This study aims to assess the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia in the Finnish population and possible changes during the past 11 years. In a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30 and above (BRIF8901), depressive disorders were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) in 2000 and 2011. To account for nonresponse, two methods were compared: multiple imputation (MI) utilizing data from the hospital discharge register and from the interview in 2000 and statistical weighting. The MI-corrected 12-month prevalence of MDD was 7.4% (95% CI 5.7-9.0) and of dysthymia was 4.5% (95% CI 3.1-5.9), whereas the corresponding figures using weights were 5.4% (95% CI 4.7-6.1) for MDD and 2.0% (95% CI 1.6-2.4) for dysthymia. Women (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.6-3.4) and unmarried people (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) had a higher risk of depressive disorders. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of depressive disorders during the follow-up period from 7.3% in 2000 to 9.6% in 2011. Prevalences were two percentage points higher, on average, when using MI compared to weighting. Hospital treatments for depressive disorders and other mental disorders were strongly associated with nonparticipation. The CIDI response rate dropped from 75% in 2000 to 57% in 2011, but this was accounted for by MI and weighting. Depressive disorders are a growing public health concern in Finland. Non-participation of persons with severe mental disorders may bias the prevalence estimates of mental disorders in population-based studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately five percent of the Finnish population are Swedish-speaking and have higher socioeconomic position and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. Previous studies have not investigated whether Swedish-speaking Finns have lower risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) than Finnish-speaking Finns. We investigated this in a representative sample of 47 445 Finns born in 1972-1984. Hazard ratios of SSD between language groups were assessed with conditional proportional hazards regression. Sex, parental ages at birth, paternal employment around conception, parental psychosis and place and residence in the capital area were used as other explanatory variables. The prevalence of SSD was 0.7% in the Swedish-speaking minority and 1.5% in the Finnish-speaking majority. In the adjusted regression model, belonging to the Swedish-speaking minority was associated with lower risk of SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.69). In a subset analysis by gender, the protective effect was evident among Swedish-speaking males (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.68) but marginal in females (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41-1.37). Parental psychosis and place of birth in the capital area were associated with higher risk of SSD, whereas paternal employment at the time of conception was associated with lower risk of SSD. Our results support the role of social factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. Belonging to a minority with high socioeconomic status and social capital may be protective against schizophrenia, especially for males.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Lähtökohdat Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin koulutusryhmien välisten terveys- ja hyvinvointierojen kehitystä 30–74-vuotiailla suomalaisilla vuodesta 2000 vuoteen 2011. Menetelmät Tutkimuksessa verrattiin kahta poikkileikkaustilannetta käyttämällä koko aikuisväestöä edustavia toistomittaukseen perustuvia Terveys 2000 ja Terveys 2011 -aineistoja. Tutkimukseen osallistujat valittiin kaksiasteisella koko aikuisväestöä edustavalla ositetulla ryväsotanta-asetelmalla. 30–74-vuotiaita osallistujia oli 6 107 vuonna 2000 ja 5 164 vuonna 2011. Koulutusryhmät määriteltiin Tilastokeskuksen tutkintorekisterin tietojen perusteella. Terveyden, toimintakyvyn, elintapojen ja elinolojen osoittimina olivat koettu terveys, pitkäaikaissairastavuus, lääkärinhoidon tarpeen tyydyttyminen, psyykkinen kuormittuneisuus, suoriutuminen puolen kilometrin kävelystä, opittujen sanojen lukumäärä CERAD-tehtäväsarjan muistitestissä, työkykypistemäärä, tupakointi, kasvisten ja juuresten käyttö, toimeentulon riittävyys ja työttömyys. Mallivakioinnin avulla laskettiin esiintyvyysluvut tai keskiarvot ja näiden 95 %:n luottamusvälit. Koulutusryhmien välisiä eroja testattiin logistisen tai lineaarisen regressiomallin avulla. Tulokset Koulutusryhmien väliset terveys- ja hyvinvointierot olivat huomattavat useimpien osoittimien mukaan. Ylimmässä koulutusryhmässä tilanne oli paras ja alimmassa koulutusryhmässä huonoin. Miesten ja naisten pitkäaikaissairastavuuden koulutusryhmittäiset erot kaventuivat. Miehillä myös koetun terveyden ja naisilla oppimiskyvyn koulutusryhmittäiset erot kaventuivat. Kasvisten käytön, kävelyvaikeuksien, työkyvyn, riittämättömän toimeentulon ja työttömyyden yleisyyden koulutusryhmien väliset jyrkät erot säilyivät ennallaan. Tupakoinnin koulutusryhmittäiset erot kasvoivat naisilla, kun enintään perusasteen koulutuksen suorittaneiden tupakointi yleistyi ja korkea-asteen koulutuksen suorittaneiden tupakointi väheni. Päätelmät Väestön terveys ja hyvinvointi pääosin kohenivat vuodesta 2000 vuoteen 2011. Kuitenkin useimmilla terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin ulottuvuuksilla koulutusryhmien väliset erot säilyivät suurina. Huolestuttavin havainto oli tupakoinnin koulutusryhmittäisten erojen kasvu naisten keskuudessa.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Suomen lääkärilehti. Finlands läkartidning
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    ABSTRACT: Hearing impairment is associated with psychotic symptoms, but has not been systematically studied in people with psychotic disorder. We used a population-based sample of 6654 persons aged 30 + to compare hearing, as measured by audiometry, in persons with schizophrenia, other non-affective psychosis and affective psychosis in the general population. The prevalence of hearing impairment did not differ in persons with psychotic disorder compared with the general population. Participants with schizophrenia and affective psychotic disorder had significantly more difficulties to hear in a noisy environment than the general population. Our results suggest that psychotic disorders are associated with minor hearing difficulties but not hearing impairment.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Schizophrenia Research
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nature Communications
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nature Communications

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,453.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2015
    • National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland
      • Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (MHSA)
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2013
    • University of Verona
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
    • deCODE genetics, Inc.
      Reikiavik, Capital Region, Iceland
  • 2007-2012
    • University of Tampere
      • School of Health Sciences
      Tammerfors, Pirkanmaa, Finland
  • 2006-2011
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM)
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1997-2011
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2009-2010
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland