[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract TLR ligands have been reported to promote DC maturation and enhance CD8+ CTL responses. We have demonstrated previously that CD4-8- DCs secreting TGF-beta stimulate CD4+ Tr1 cell responses. Here, we have assessed whether TLR4 and TLR9 signaling through LPS and CpG stimulation can convert CD4-8- DC-induced tolerance. We demonstrate that immature OVA-pulsed CD4-8- DCs cultured in medium with LPS (2 microg/ml) and CpG (5 microg/ml) for 8 h became mature DCs (DCOVA) with no TGF-beta secretion. CpG-treated, CD4-8- DCOVA-secreting IL-6/IL-15 induced IFN-gamma/IL-17-secreting/T-bet- and ROR-gammat-expressing CD4+ Th1/Th17, whereas LPS-treated CD4-8- DCOVA stimulated IFN-gamma-secreting/T-bet-expressing CD4+ Th1 responses. The former also significantly stimulated more efficient OVA-specific CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor immunity against OVA-expressing BL6-10OVA tumor cells than the latter (P<0.05). CpG-treated, CD4-8- DCOVA-stimulated CD4+ Th1/Th17 cell responses and antitumor immunity were found to be reduced by using neutralizing anti-IL-6, IL-15, and NK1.1 antibodies in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, IL-15R-/- mice for immunization, or CD4-8- (IL-6-/-) DCOVA for immunization in C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, in vitro-generated CD4+ Th17 cells significantly enhanced LPS-treated, CD4-8- DCOVA-induced in vivo antitumor immunity via increasing CD8+ CTL responses (P<0.05), although they did not show any direct killing activity against tumor cells in vitro. In addition, prolonged 48 h CpG-treated CD4-8- DCOVA dramatically diminished its cytokine secretion, stimulatory effect, and antitumor immunity. Taken together, our data demonstrate an effect of conversion of tolerogenic DCs into immunogenic ones capable of stimulating antitumor immunity via activating CD4+ Th1/Th17 and NK cell responses by optimal CpG signaling, which may advance current understanding of the importance of TLR9 signaling in a DC-based cancer vaccine.
Preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of leukocyte biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell apoptosis induced by radiation therapy results in apoptotic tumor cells and apparition of membrane blebs termed apoptotic bodies (APB). The immune responses induced by apoptotic tumor cells have been extensively studied. However, the role of APB in modulation of tumor immune responses is elusive. In this study, we induced apoptosis in 90% ovabumin-expressing EG7 tumor cells by in vitro irradiation (9,000 rad) of tumor cells with a subsequent cell culture for 9 hours. APB purified from irradiation-induced apoptotic EG7 cell culture supernatant by differential ultracentrifugation were vesicles with 50 to 90 nm in diameter and expressed apoptosis-specific Annexin V, 14-3-3, and Histone H3. We then investigated its potential modulation in DC(OVA)-induced T-cell responses and antitumor immunity. We found that EG7-derived APB were tolerogenic and capable of suppressing DC(OVA)-stimulated CD8+ CTL responses and antitumor immunity via its induction of CD8+ T-cell anergy and type 1 regulatory CD4+ T-cell responses. Analysis of apoptotic tumor cells and APB revealed the expression of membrane-bound transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 associated with irradiation-induced apoptosis formation, which is a result from activation of transcriptional factor NF-AT specific for TGF-beta1 promoters. Our data further elucidate that it is the membrane-bound TGF-beta1 expression on APB that contributes to its in vitro antiproliferative effect as shown by using neutralizing TGF-beta1-specific antibody. Administration of anti-TGF-beta1 antibody in vivo also blocked APB-mediated immune suppression of CD8+ CTL responses and antitumor immunity. Therefore, our study may have great impact in designing a combined radiation therapy with immunotherapy of cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes (EXO) derived from tumour cells have been used to stimulate antitumour immune responses, but only resulting in prophylatic immunity. Tumour-derived heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) molecules are molecular chaperones with a broad repertoire of tumour antigen peptides capable of stimulating dendritic cell (DC) maturation and T-cell immune responses. To enhance EXO-based antitumour immunity, we generated an engineered myeloma cell line J558(HSP) expressing endogenous P1A tumour antigen and transgenic form of membrane-bound HSP70 and heat-shocked J558(HS) expressing cytoplasmic HSP70, and purified EXO(HSP) and EXO(HS) from J558(HSP) and J558(HS) tumour cell culture supernatants by ultracentrifugation. We found that EXO(HSP) were able to more efficiently stimulate maturation of DCs with up-regulation of Ia(b) , CD40, CD80 and inflammatory cytokines than EXO(HS) after overnight incubation of immature bone-marrow-derived DCs (5 × 10⁶ cells) with EXO (100 μg), respectively. We also i.v. immunized BALB/c mice with EXO (30 μg/mouse) and assessed P1A-specific T-cell responses after immunization. We demonstrate that EXO(HSP) are able to stimulate type 1 CD4(+) helper T (Th1) cell responses, and more efficient P1A-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and antitumour immunity than EXO(HS) . In addition, we further elucidate that EXO(HSP) -stimulated antitumour immunity is mediated by both P1A-specific CD8(+) CTL and non-P1A-specific natural killer (NK) responses. Therefore, membrane-bound HSP70-expressing tumour cell-released EXO may represent a more effective EXO-based vaccine in induction of antitumour immunity.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ag-specific CD4(+) regulatory T (Tr) cells play an important role in immune suppression in autoimmune diseases and antitumor immunity. However, the molecular mechanism for Ag-specificity acquisition of adoptive CD4(+) Tr cells is unclear. In this study, we generated IL-10- and IFN-gamma-expressing type 1 CD4(+) Tr (Tr1) cells by stimulation of transgenic OT II mouse-derived naive CD4(+) T cells with IL-10-expressing adenovirus (AdV(IL-10))-transfected and OVA-pulsed dendritic cells (DC(OVA/IL-10)). We demonstrated that both in vitro and in vivo DC(OVA/IL-10)-stimulated CD4(+) Tr1 cells acquired OVA peptide MHC class (pMHC) I which targets CD4(+) Tr1 cells suppressive effect via an IL-10-mediated mechanism onto CD8(+) T cells, leading to an enhanced suppression of DC(OVA)-induced CD8(+) T cell responses and antitumor immunity against OVA-expressing murine B16 melanoma cells by approximately 700% relative to analogous CD4(+) Tr1 cells without acquired pMHC I. Interestingly, the nonspecific CD4(+)25(+) Tr cells can also become OVA Ag specific and more immunosuppressive in inhibition of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cell responses and antitumor immunity after uptake of DC(OVA)-released exosomal pMHC I complexes. Taken together, the Ag-specificity acquisition of CD4(+) Tr cells via acquiring DC's pMHC I may be an important mean in augmenting CD4(+) Tr cell suppression.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC) and DC-derived exosomes (EXO) have been used extensively for tumor vaccination. However, its therapeutic efficiency is limited to only production of prophylactic immunity against tumors. T cells can uptake DC-released EXO. However, the functional effect of transferred exosomal molecules on T cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that OVA protein-pulsed DC-derived EXO (EXO(OVA)) can be taken up by Con A-stimulated, nonspecific CD4(+) T cells derived from wild-type C57BL/6 mice. The active EXO-uptaken CD4(+) T cells (aT(EXO)), expressing acquired exosomal MHC I/OVA I peptide (pMHC I) complexes and costimulatory CD40 and CD80 molecules, can act as APCs capable of stimulating OVA-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and inducing efficient CD4(+) Th cell-independent CD8(+) CTL responses in vivo. The EXO(OVA)-uptaken CD4(+) aT(EXO) cell vaccine induces much more efficient CD8(+) T cell responses and immunity against challenge of OVA-transfected BL6-10 melanoma cells expressing OVA in wild-type C57BL/6 mice than EXO(OVA). The in vivo stimulatory effect of the CD4(+) aT(EXO) cell to CD8(+) T cell responses is mediated and targeted by its CD40 ligand signaling/acquired exosomal CD80 and pMHC I complexes, respectively. In addition, CD4(+) aT(EXO) vaccine stimulates a long-term, OVA-specific CD8(+) T cell memory. Therefore, the EXO(OVA)-uptaken CD4(+) T cells may represent a new, effective, EXO-based vaccine strategy in induction of immune responses against tumors and other infectious diseases.
Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell-to-T cell Ag presentation is increasingly attracting attention. In this study, we demonstrated that active CD4+ T (aT) cells with uptake of OVA-pulsed dendritic cell-derived exosome (EXO(OVA)) express exosomal peptide/MHC class I and costimulatory molecules. These EXO(OVA)-uptaken (targeted) CD4+ aT cells can stimulate CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation into central memory CD8+ CTLs and induce more efficient in vivo antitumor immunity and long-term CD8+ T cell memory responses than OVA-pulsed dendritic cells. They can also counteract CD4+25+ regulatory T cell-mediated suppression of in vitro CD8+ T cell proliferation and in vivo CD8+ CTL responses and antitumor immunity. We further elucidate that the EXO(OVA)-uptaken (targeted)CD4+ aT cell's stimulatory effect is mediated via its IL-2 secretion and acquired exosomal CD80 costimulation and is specifically delivered to CD8+ T cells in vivo via acquired exosomal peptide/MHC class I complexes. Therefore, EXO-targeted active CD4+ T cell vaccine may represent a novel and highly effective vaccine strategy for inducing immune responses against not only tumors, but also other infectious diseases.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes (EXO) derived from dendritic cells (DC), which express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and costimulatory molecules, have been used for antitumour vaccines. However, they are still less effective by showing only prophylatic immunity in animal models or very limited immune responses in clinical trials. In this study, we showed that ovalbumin (OVA) protein-pulsed DC (DC(OVA))-derived EXO (EXO(OVA)) displayed MHC class I-OVA I peptide (pMHC I) complexes, CD11c, CD40, CD80, CCR7, DEC205, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR9, MyD88 and DC-SIGN molecules, but at a lower level than DC(OVA). EXO(OVA) can be taken up by DC through LFA-1/CD54 and C-type lectin/mannose (glucosamine)-rich C-type lectin receptor (CLR) interactions. Mature DC pulsed with EXO(OVA), which were referred to as mDC(EXO), expressed a higher level of pMHC I, MHC II, and costimulatory CD40, CD54 and CD80 than DC(OVA). The mDC(EXO) could more strongly stimulate OVA-specific CD8(+) T-cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and more efficiently induce OVA-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, antitumour immunity and CD8(+) T-cell memory in vivo than EXO(OVA) and DC(OVA). In addition, mDC(EXO) could also more efficiently eradicate established tumours. Therefore, mature DC pulsed with EXO may represent a new, highly effective DC-based vaccine for the induction of antitumour immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes (EXO) derived from dendritic cells (DC) and tumor cells have been used to stimulate antitumor immune responses in animal models and in clinical trials. However, there has been no side-by-side comparison of the stimulatory efficiency of the antitumor immune responses induced by these two commonly used EXO vaccines. In this study, we selected to study the phenotype characteristics of EXO derived from a transfected EG7 tumor cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-pulsed DC by flow cytometry. We compared the stimulatory effect in induction of OVA-specific immune responses between these two types of EXO. We found that OVA protein-pulsed DCOVA-derived EXO (EXODC) can more efficiently stimulate naïve OVA-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation into cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo, and induce more efficient antitumor immunity than EG7 tumor cell-derived EXO (EXOEG7). In addition, we elucidated the important role of the host DC in EXO vaccines that the stimulatory effect of EXO is delivered to T cell responses by the host DC. Therefore, DC-derived EXO may represent a more effective EXO-based vaccine in induction of antitumor immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is clear that dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for priming of T cell responses against tumors. However, the distinct roles DC subsets play in regulation of T cell responses in vivo are largely undefined. In this study, we investigated the capacity of OVA-presenting CD4-8-, CD4+8-, or CD4-8+ DCs (OVA-pulsed DC (DC(OVA))) in stimulation of OVA-specific T cell responses. Our data show that each DC subset stimulated proliferation of allogeneic and autologous OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro, but that the CD4-8- DCs did so only weakly. Both CD4+8- and CD4-8+ DC(OVA) induced strong tumor-specific CD4+ Th1 responses and fully protective CD8+ CTL-mediated antitumor immunity, whereas CD4-8- DC(OVA), which were less mature and secreted substantial TGF-beta upon coculture with TCR-transgenic OT II CD4+ T cells, induced the development of IL-10-secreting CD4+ T regulatory 1 (Tr1) cells. Transfer of these Tr1 cells, but not T cells from cocultures of CD4-8- DC(OVA) and IL-10-/- OT II CD4+ T cells, into CD4-8+ DC(OVA)-immunized animals abrogated otherwise inevitable development of antitumor immunity. Taken together, CD4-8- DCs stimulate development of IL-10-secreting CD4+ Tr1 cells that mediated immune suppression, whereas both CD4+8- and CD4-8+ DCs effectively primed animals for protective CD8+ CTL-mediated antitumor immunity.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CXC chemokine SDF-1 has been characterized as a T-cell chemoattractant both in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SDF-1 expression within tumors can influence tumor growth, we transfected an expression vector pCI-SDF-1 for SDF-1 into J558 myeloma cells and tested their ability to form tumors in BALB/c. Production of biologically active SDF-1 (1.2 ng/mL) was detected in the culture supernatants of cells transfected with the expression vector pCI-SDF-1. J558 cells gave rise to a 100% tumor incidence, whereas SDF-1-expressing J558/SDF-1 tumors invariably regressed in BALB/c mice and became infiltrated with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Regression of the J558/SDF-1 tumors was dependent on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells. Our data also indicate that TIT cells containing both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells within J558/SDF-1 tumors express the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4, and that SDF-1 specifically chemoattracts these cells in vitro. Furthermore, immunization of mice with engineered J558/SDF-1 cells elicited the most potent protective immunity against 0.5 x 10(6) cells J558 tumor challenge in vivo, compared to immunization with the J558 alone, and this antitumor immunity mediated by J558/SDF-1 tumor cell vaccination in vivo appeared to be dependent on CD8(+) CTL. Thus, SDF-1 has natural adjuvant activities that may augment antitumor responses through their effects on T-cells and thereby could be important in gene transfer immunotherapies for some cancers.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals