[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) contributes to mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Absence of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) confers susceptibility to ALI/VILI. To identify cell-specific ATF3-dependent mechanisms of susceptibility to ALI/VILI, we generated ATF3 chimera by adoptive bone marrow (BM) transfer and randomized to inhaled saline or lipopolysacharide (LPS) in the presence of mechanical ventilation (MV). Adenovirus vectors to silence or overexpress ATF3 were used in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and murine BM-derived macrophages from wild-type or ATF3-deficient mice.
Absence of ATF3 in myeloid-derived cells caused increased pulmonary cellular infiltration. In contrast, absence of ATF3 in parenchymal cells resulted in loss of alveolar-capillary membrane integrity and increased exudative edema. ATF3-deficient macrophages were unable to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Knockdown of ATF3 in resident cells resulted in decreased junctional protein expression and increased paracellular leak. ATF3 overexpression abrogated LPS induced membrane permeability. Despite release of ATF3-dependent Nrf2 transcriptional inhibition, mice that lacked ATF3 expression in resident cells had increased Nrf2 protein degradation.
In our model, in the absence of ATF3 in parenchymal cells increased Nrf2 degradation is the result of increased Keap-1 expression and loss of DJ-1 (Parkinson disease [autosomal recessive, early onset] 7), previously not known to play a role in lung injury.
Results suggest that ATF3 confers protection to lung injury by preventing inflammatory cell recruitment and barrier disruption in a cell-specific manner, opening novel opportunities for cell specific therapy for ALI/VILI.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with pro-inflammatory properties. In severe sepsis, levels of plasma OPN are significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. We hypothesized that OPN results in greater inflammation and worse outcome through modulation of endogenous glucocorticoid production in sepsis.
Methods and results:
Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in wild type (WT) and OPN gene knockout (OPN(-/-) ) mice. In response to sepsis, the OPN(-/-) mice had lower levels of plasma cytokines and chemokines than the WT mice. The levels of corticosterone in plasma were similar between WT and OPN(-/-) sham animals but they increased 24 h after CLP induction in the WT mice, but not in the OPN(-/-) mice. The mortality rate was lower in the OPN(-/-) mice than in the WT mice.
OPN is associated with greater inflammatory response and increased mortality, despite the higher corticosterone levels in plasma. Corticosterone production is not impaired in the absence of OPN.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Intratracheal aspiration and sepsis are leading causes of acute lung injury that frequently necessitate mechanical ventilation (MV), which may aggravate lung injury thereby potentially increasing the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). We compared the effects of ventilation strategies and underlying conditions on the development of AKI.
Spraque Dawley rats were challenged by intratracheal acid instillation or 24 h of abdominal sepsis, followed by MV with a low tidal volume (LVT) and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or a high tidal volume (HVT) and no PEEP, which is known to cause more lung injury after acid instillation than in sepsis. Rats were ventilated for 4 hrs and kidney function and plasma mediator levels were measured. Kidney injury was assessed by microscopy; apoptosis was quantified by TUNEL staining.
During sepsis, but not after acid instillation, MV with HVT caused more renal apoptosis than MV with LVT. Increased plasma active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 correlated to kidney apoptosis in the cortex and medulla. Increased apoptosis after HVT ventilation during sepsis was associated with a 40% decrease in creatinine clearance.
AKI is more likely to develop after MV induced lung injury during an indirect (as in sepsis) than after a direct (as after intra-tracheal instillation) insult to the lungs, since it induces kidney apoptosis during sepsis but not after acid instillation, opposite to the lung injury it caused. Our findings thus suggest using protective ventilatory strategies in human sepsis, even in the absence of overt lung injury, to protect the kidney.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Experimental work provides insight into potential lung protective strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate markers of ventilator-induced lung injury after two different ventilation approaches: (1) a “conventional” lung-protective strategy (volume control (VC) with low tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and paralysis), (2) a physiological approach with spontaneous breathing, permitting synchrony, variability and a liberated airway. For this, we used non-invasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NIV-NAVA), with the hypothesis that liberation of upper airways and the ventilator’s integration with lung protective reflexes would be equally lung protective.
In this controlled and randomized in vivo laboratory study, 25 adult White New Zealand rabbits were studied, including five non-ventilated control animals. The twenty animals with aspiration-induced lung injury were randomized to ventilation with either VC (6 mL/kg, PEEP 5 cm H2O, and paralysis) or NIV-NAVA for six hours (PEEP = zero because of leaks). Markers of lung function, lung injury, vital signs and ventilator parameters were assessed.
At the end of six hours of ventilation (n = 20), there were no significant differences between VC and NIV-NAVA for vital signs, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lung wet-to-dry ratio and broncho-alveolar Interleukin 8 (Il-8). Plasma IL-8 was higher in VC (P <0.05). Lung injury score was lower for NIV-NAVA (P = 0.03). Dynamic lung compliance recovered after six hours in NIV-NAVA but not in VC (P <0.05). During VC, peak pressures increased from 9.2 ± 2.4 cm H2O (hour 1) to 12.3 ± 12.3 cm H2O (hour 6) (P <0.05). During NIV-NAVA, the tracheal end-expiratory pressure was similar to the end-expiratory pressure during VC. Two animals regurgitated during NIV-NAVA, without clinical consequences, and survived the protocol.
In experimental acute lung injury, NIV-NAVA is as lung-protective as VC 6 ml/kg with PEEP.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Critical care (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) systemic administration reduces sepsis-associated inflammation, organ injury, and mortality in clinically relevant models of polymicrobial sepsis, the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating beneficial effects are controversial. This study identifies the molecular mechanisms of MSC-conferred protection in sepsis by interrogating transcriptional responses of target organs to MSC therapy. Sepsis was induced in C57Bl/6J mice by cecal ligation and puncture, followed 6 hours later by an i.v. injection of either MSCs or saline. Total RNA from lungs, hearts, kidneys, livers, and spleens harvested 28 hours after cecal ligation and puncture was hybridized to mouse expression bead arrays. Common transcriptional responses were analyzed using a network knowledge-based approach. A total of 4751 genes were significantly changed between placebo- and MSC-treated mice (adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Transcriptional responses identified three common effects of MSC administration in all five organs examined: i) attenuation of sepsis-induced mitochondrial-related functional derangement, ii down-regulation of endotoxin/Toll-like receptor innate immune proinflammatory transcriptional responses, and iii) coordinated expression of transcriptional programs implicated in the preservation of endothelial/vascular integrity. Transcriptomic analysis indicates that the protective effect of MSC therapy in sepsis is not limited to a single mediator or pathway but involves a range of complementary activities affecting biological networks playing critical roles in the control of host cell metabolism and inflammatory response.
Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat maps of estimated effect sizes of top genes from one-hit model (a) and two-hit model (b). For the top 20 genes shown in Figure 4a and Figure 4b, we showed heat maps of the estimated effect sizes of 8 of the 20 genes from one-hit model in 8 studies (a) (note: only 8 of the 20 genes have expression profiles in multiple platforms and species) and of 15 genes from two-hit model in 3 studies (b). The maps indicate the estimated effect sizes of the same gene have the same direction across multiple platforms and species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clustering of gene expression data of independent animal and human samples based on top genes selected from individual study. Top 20 genes were selected from one-hit model in an individual study (GSE2411, Table 2; The reason for selecting this study is that it has the largest sample size) based on effect size. These genes were used to classify lung injury samples from an independent microarray experiment, not included in the meta-analysis (GSE11434, Table 7) (a) and an independent human bronchial epithelial distal airway small cells (BEAS2b) microarray experiment (GSE16650, Table 7) (b). The top 20 genes from the differential analysis of the individual study used in meta-analysis identified group assignment correctly for all independent animal samples (a), but can not identify group assignment correctly for independent human samples (b).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a meta-analysis of gene expression microarray data from animal studies of lung injury, and to identify an injury-specific gene expression signature capable of predicting the development of lung injury in humans.
We performed a microarray meta-analysis using 77 microarray chips across six platforms, two species and different animal lung injury models exposed to lung injury with or/and without mechanical ventilation. Individual gene chips were classified and grouped based on the strategy used to induce lung injury. Effect size (change in gene expression) was calculated between non-injurious and injurious conditions comparing two main strategies to pool chips: (1) one-hit and (2) two-hit lung injury models. A random effects model was used to integrate individual effect sizes calculated from each experiment. Classification models were built using the gene expression signatures generated by the meta-analysis to predict the development of lung injury in human lung transplant recipients.
Two injury-specific lists of differentially expressed genes generated from our meta-analysis of lung injury models were validated using external data sets and prospective data from animal models of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Pathway analysis of gene sets revealed that both new and previously implicated VILI-related pathways are enriched with differentially regulated genes. Classification model based on gene expression signatures identified in animal models of lung injury predicted development of primary graft failure (PGF) in lung transplant recipients with larger than 80% accuracy based upon injury profiles from transplant donors. We also found that better classifier performance can be achieved by using meta-analysis to identify differentially-expressed genes than using single study-based differential analysis.
Taken together, our data suggests that microarray analysis of gene expression data allows for the detection of "injury" gene predictors that can classify lung injury samples and identify patients at risk for clinically relevant lung injury complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distribution of clustering accuracies based on 1000 random gene sets. (a) 20 random genes were selected from independent animal lung injury microarray experiment (GSE11434, Table 7), which were used to cluster gene expression data of animal lung injury samples in one-hit model (NV or LV vs. HV) and clustering accuracy was calculated. The procedure was repeated 1000 times. (b) 20 random genes were selected from independent human microarray experiment (GSE16650, Table 7), which were used to cluster gene expression data of human bronchial epithelial distal airway small cells (BEAS2b) samples in one-hit model and clustering accuracy was calculated. The procedure was repeated 1000 times.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter through activation of GABA receptors. Volatile anesthetics activate type-A (GABA(A)) receptors resulting in inhibition of synaptic transmission. Lung epithelial cells have been recently found to express GABA(A) receptors that exert anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane (SEVO) attenuates lung inflammation through activation of lung epithelial GABA(A) receptors.
Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with SEVO or ketamine/xylazine (KX). Acute lung inflammation was induced by intratracheal instillation of endotoxin, followed by mechanical ventilation for 4 h at a tidal volume of 15 mL/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure (two-hit lung injury model). To examine the specific effects of GABA, healthy human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were challenged with endotoxin in the presence and absence of GABA with and without addition of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin.
Anesthesia with SEVO improved oxygenation and reduced pulmonary cytokine responses compared to KX. This phenomenon was associated with increased expression of the π subunit of GABA(A) receptors and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). The endotoxin-induced cytokine release from BEAS-2B cells was attenuated by the treatment with GABA, which was reversed by the administration of picrotoxin.
Anesthesia with SEVO suppresses pulmonary inflammation and thus protects the lung from the two-hit injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of SEVO is likely due to activation of pulmonary GABA(A) signaling pathways.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Intensive Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that resveratrol administration would reverse sepsis-dependent downregulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, preserve mitochondrial integrity, and rescue animals from sepsis-induced myocardial failure.
Teaching hospital research laboratory.
Cecal ligation and puncture in mice was performed to induce sepsis. Mice that underwent cecal ligation and puncture were randomly assigned to receive resveratrol (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) or vehicle 1 mL sodium chloride 0.9% subcutaneously in the scruff of the neck directly after surgery and at 16, 24, and 40 hrs, respectively.
Forty-eight hrs after cecal ligation and puncture, cardiac performance was established using echocardiography. Mitochondrial integrity was evaluated with electron microscopy, and changes in gene expression were evaluated with microarray analysis. Survival at 48 hrs was just under 50% and comparable between groups. Myocardial contractile function significantly improved after resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol-treated mice developed focal areas of edema, whereas vehicle-treated mice developed significant, diffuse myocardial edema. Electron microscopy revealed widespread swollen mitochondria with ruptured outer membranes, autophagosomes, and vacuolation of the internal compartment, which were significantly attenuated in resveratrol-treated animals. Resveratrol treatment significantly increased cardiac expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1a. Microarray analysis revealed that resveratrol treatment resulted in upregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator gene set containing genes known to be regulated by this transcriptional coactivator. Our data strongly suggest that administration of resveratrol modulates bioenergy metabolism, substrate utilization, oxidative stress, and detoxification pathways associated with both mitochondrial and cardiac pathological conditions, but does not alter mortality from sepsis.
The salutary effects of resveratrol on cecal ligation and puncture-induced myocardial dysfunction are associated with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1a abundance and function. Preservation of myocardial energy production capacity, prevention of secondary injury, mitigation of inflammation, and reversal of sepsis-induced myocardial remodeling are likely to underlie its beneficial effects. This however, does not result in improved survival.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Critical care medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation exaggerates pneumonia-associated pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation. We hypothesized that the administration of plasma-derived human antithrombin (AT), one of the natural inhibitors of coagulation, prevents ventilator-induced pulmonary coagulopathy, inflammation and bacterial outgrowth in a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia model in rats.
Forty-eight hours after induction of S. pneumoniae pneumonia rats were subjected to mechanical ventilation (tidal volume 12 mL kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure 0 cmH(2)O and inspired oxygen fraction 40%). Rats were randomized to systemic treatment with AT (250 IU administered intravenously (i.v.) before the start of mechanical ventilation) or placebo (saline). Non-ventilated, non-infected rats and non-ventilated rats with pneumonia served as controls. The primary endpoints were pulmonary coagulation and inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).
Pneumonia was characterized by local activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis, resulting in increased levels of fibrin degradation products and fibrin deposition in the lung. Mechanical ventilation exaggerated pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation. Systemic administration of AT led to supra-normal BALF levels of AT and decreased ventilator-associated activation of coagulation. AT neither affected pulmonary inflammation nor bacterial outgrowth from the lungs or blood.
Plasma-derived human AT attenuates ventilator-induced coagulopathy, but not inflammation and bacterial outgrowth in a S. pneumoniae pneumonia model in rats.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and resultant systemic inflammatory responses.
Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV) with either a low tidal volume (Vt) of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis) or with a high Vt of 15 mL/kg and no PEEP (HVt acid, HVt sepsis). Rats sacrificed immediately after acid instillation and non-ventilated septic animals served as controls. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were monitored. After 4 h, lung wet to dry (W/D) weight ratios, histological lung injury and plasma mediator concentrations were measured.
Oxygenation and lung compliance decreased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. Additionally, W/D weight ratios and histological lung injury scores increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. MV increased W/D weight ratio and lung injury score, however this effect was mainly attributable to HVt ventilation after acid instillation. Similarly, effects of HVt on oxygenation were only observed after acid instillation. HVt during sepsis did not further affect oxygenation, compliance, W/D weight ratio or lung injury score. Plasma interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations were increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis, but plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration increased during sepsis only. In contrast to lung injury parameters, no additional effects of HVt MV after acid instillation on plasma mediator concentrations were observed.
During MV more severe lung injury develops after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. HVt causes VILI after acid instillation, but not during sepsis. However, this differential effect was not observed in the systemic release of mediators.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · BMC Anesthesiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) contributes to the mortality in patients with acute lung injury by increasing inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway may be an attractive way to attenuate inflammatory injury.
To determine the role of vagus nerve signaling in VILI and establish whether stimulation of the vagus reflex can mitigate VILI.
We performed bilateral vagotomy in a mouse model of high-tidal volume-induced lung injury. We performed pharmacological and electrical vagus nerve stimulation in a rat model of VILI following ischemia/reperfusion injury. To determine the contribution of the alpha 7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptor to pulmonary cell injury, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells to cyclic stretch in the presence of specific agonist or antagonist of the alpha 7 receptor.
Vagotomy exacerbates lung injury from VILI in mice as demonstrated by increased wet-to-dry ratio, infiltration of neutrophils, and increased IL-6. Vagal stimulation attenuates lung injury in rats after ischemia/reperfusion injury ventilated with high-volume strategies. Treatment of both mice and rats with the vagus mimetic drug semapimod resulted in decreased lung injury. Vagotomy also increased pulmonary apoptosis, whereas vagus stimulation (electrical and pharmacological) attenuated VILI-induced apoptosis. In vitro studies suggest that vagus-dependent effects on inflammation and apoptosis are mediated via the α7 nicotinc acetylcholine receptor-dependent effects on cyclic stretch-dependent signaling pathways c-jun N-terminal kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6.
Stimulation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory reflex may represent a promising alternative for the treatment of VILI.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine