[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who did not respond to ranibizumab at the induction phase were assessed and referred to as initial non-responders.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 215 patients (218 eyes) with exudative AMD. For the initial treatments, patients received three intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (IVR) every 4 weeks. Minimum follow-up period was 12 months. We defined patients with no improvement of best corrected logMAR visual acuity (BCVA), and with no decrease of central retinal thickness (CRT) at the end of the initial treatment, as initial non-responders. Patients who had previous treatment history prior to this investigation were included, but patients who had photodynamic therapy (PDT) with IVR were excluded.
Twenty-two eyes (10.1%) were identified as initial non-responders. The mean BCVA of initial non-responders before IVR and after induction phase were 0.39 and 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between these values, however the mean BCVA decreased significantly to 0.55 at 12 months after the beginning of the induction phase (P = 0.021). The mean greatest linear dimension (GLD) of the lesion before IVR of initial non-responders was 4,121 μm. We found 16 eyes with typical AMD, and six eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. One eye had predominantly classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and others had occult CNV of typical AMD. As additional treatments, twelve eyes received PDT, and in three of the eyes exudation remained after PDT.
Initial non-responders were more prevalent in patients with occult CNV than in patients with other CNV types. Some of the initial non-responders did not respond to PDT. This study suggested possible involvement of other factors, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor, in the occurrence of CNV in initial non-responder patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose : To report the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cases and Method : This study was made on 43 eyes that received PDT for AMD with occult choroidal neovascularization. Fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment (FVPED) was present in 24 eyes and late-phase leakage of undetermined source (UDS) in 19 eyes. The age ranged from 54 to 89 years, average 74 years. Cases were followed up for 1 year or longer. Results : Overall visual acuity remained unchanged until one year after PDT and deteriorated thereafter (p=0.0001). Averaged visual acuity was better at one year and thereafter in eyes with UDS than FVPED. There was no difference in visual acuity in eyes with UDS between the pretreatment value and one year after PDT or final value. Visual acuity in eyes with FVPED was the same one year after PDT and significantly worse at the final visit (p= 0.00002). Conclusion : PDT for exudative AMD results in preserved visual acuity for one year and in poor outcome after one year in eyes with FVPED.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody was recently reported to be associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Optic nerve involvements in many NMO cases are bilateral and the prognosis is poor. However, it has been suggested that plasma exchange is effective for those patients when steroid pulse therapy is ineffective. Herein, we report successful treatment of a patient with NMO using double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP).
A 22-year-old woman consulted a neurologist for neck pain in March 2008. High-intensity lesions were shown in the cervical spinal cord by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. On July 15, the patient was referred to our department for a headache and pain and blurred vision in the left eye. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/50 and 20/500 in the right and left eyes, respectively, with visual field defects observed in both. After 3 courses of steroid pulse therapy, anti-AQP4 antibodies were positive. In November, the patient again noticed visual acuity loss in the left eye and was treated by additional steroid pulse therapy, which was not effective. Next, she underwent plasma exchange therapy, though it was stopped due to hypotension and dyspnea. The next day, the patient underwent DFPP treatment and visual function gradually recovered.
It is important to consider NMO when steroid pulse therapy is not effective. We successfully and safely treated NMO in a young adult patient using DFPP.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the long-term visual and anatomic outcome of treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT) or intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB; Avastin; Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA) for choroidal neovascularization attributable to pathologic myopia (mCNV).
An open-label, interventional case series.
Thirty-one eyes of Japanese women who received either PDT or IVB for mCNV. Inclusion criteria were age 50 years or older, greatest linear dimension (GLD) 1200 to 3000 microm, and baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 20/200 to 20/40. INTERVENTION PROCEDURES: Patients received either PDT or IVB (1 mg/40 microL) throughout the study, with re-treatment when necessary.
BCVA and visual gain/loss at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the initial treatment.
Age, BCVA, location of CNV, refractive error, and symptom duration at baseline did not differ significantly between groups. BCVA was significantly improved at 3 to 12 months (P < .05); however, the significance was lost at 18 and 24 months in the IVB group. The PDT group showed no significant improvement within the first year, and vision slowly worsened after 12 months, becoming significantly worse at 18 and 24 months compared to baseline (P< .01). BCVA was significantly higher in the IVB group at 6 months (P< .05), and 12 months or further (P < .01). Visual gain was significantly greater in the IVB group at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (P < .05 for 6, 18, and 24 months and P < .01 for 12 months).
These findings indicate that the effects of PDT and IVB have a different time course, and that IVB provides a significantly better BCVA than PDT for mCNV over the long-term.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · American Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some cases of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in their natural course develop into classic choroidal neovascularization(CNV) as shown by fluorescein angiography (FA) findings.
We evaluated 8 eyes of 8 PCV patients showing classic CNV by FA findings, using indocyanine green angiography (IA) and optical coherence tomography(OCT).
All patients showed subretinal grayish exudates, which were considered fibrinous. Five cases were recognized as true subretinal CNV according to IA and OCT findings. The other 3 patients showed polypoidal dilatation with vascular networks by IA, and a moderately reflective mass considered fibrinous over the polypoidal elevation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by OCT.
Both true CNV and PCV with fibrin are present in PCV patients showing classic CNV. It requires care to determine proper treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that the visual outcome of retinal pigment epithelial tear (RPE tear) in the fovea is worse than that of RPE tear sparing the fovea. We report optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of 3 cases with RPE tear in the fovea who preserved good visual acuity.
All patients had serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment involving the macula. The RPE was torn and rolled RPE was observed in the fovea. In OCT findings, a fovea was observed on the RPE flap, and visual acuity was preserved after RPE tear repair.
We considered that preservation of good visual acuity was due to the presence of a fovea on the RPE flap. We could precisely analyze the location of the fovea and RPE tear using OCT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two cases presented with subretinal pigment epithelial hemorrhage. Both cases, a female aged 59 years and a male aged 77 years, were unilaterally involved. Visual acuity in the affected eye was 0.8 and 0.15 when corrected by -4.0D and -2.75D respectively. The initially small-sized hemorrhage rapidly enlarged and induced formation of retinal pigment epithelial tear. The flap of torn retinal pigment epithelium was located towards the fovea in both cases. These lesions turned into fibrous scar resulting in visual acuity of 0.07 and 0.1 respectively. Ophthalmoscopy was more useful in the diagnosis of retinal pigment epithelial tear than angiographic procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) can detect early retinal changes after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
The intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated to induce retinal ischemia in brown Norway rats. After 90 min of ischemia, the IOP was reduced, and after reperfusion of 1, 2, 4, or 7 days, OCT was performed. After the OCT examination, the eyes were enucleated and histological sections were made.
The OCT-determined mean retinal thickness was 168 +/- 16.9 microm in the untreated control group, and 177 +/- 2.16, 170 +/- 7.55, 159 +/- 5.34, and 140 +/- 5.56 microm on days 1, 2, 4, and 7, respectively, in the ischemia-reperfusion group. The histologically determined retinal thicknesses correlated with those obtained by tomographic images, but the histologic thicknesses were 9.5% to 18.5% thinner than those obtained by OCT. Fixation and dehydration of the histological specimens most likely caused tissue shrinkage.
OCT can detect retinal changes quantitatively after ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the retinal thicknesses obtained from OCT images are probably a better measure of the true retinal thickness than those measured on histological sections.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the incidence, demographic features, and clinical characteristics of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in Japanese patients.
Consecutive patients with presumed neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who met the eligibility criteria were examined between January 1, 1999, and October 31, 2001. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography.
Among 471 eyes of 418 patients who met the criteria, 110 eyes (23%) of 100 patients were diagnosed as having PCV and 361 eyes (77%) of 318 patients as having neovascular AMD. Mean age of patients with PCV was 68.4 years, with a male preponderance (63% of patients); involvement was mostly unilateral (90% of patients), and polypoidal vascular lesions were located mainly in the macula (85% of eyes). Retinal manifestations of PCV were characterized by serous macular detachment (52% of eyes), submacular hemorrhage (30% of eyes), and retinal pigment epithelium degeneration (10% of eyes). There were few subretinal fibrovascular proliferations (7% of eyes). Mean visual acuity was 0.31 in eyes with PCV and 0.18 in eyes with AMD. The incidence of severe visual loss (0.2 or worse) was 35% in PCV and 53% in AMD.
The incidence of PCV in Japanese patients is high, and the incidence and demographic features vary in different ethnic groups. The clinical manifestations of PCV and AMD resemble each other; however, PCV is characterized by low incidence of subretinal fibrovascular proliferation, slow progression of vascular abnormality, and minimal association with conventional choroidal neovascularization. These factors seem to lead to a more favorable visual outcome in PCV compared with neovascular AMD.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Archives of Ophthalmology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical course of idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (ICNV) by optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Thirty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of ICNV were examined between December 1995 and October 1999. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 53 (mean 35.9) years, and the mean period of observation was 5.8 months. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, Indocyanine green angiography, and OCT were performed. The stage of the ICNV was classified as active, intermediate, or cicatricial, based on past history, fundus findings, and fluorescein angiography (FAG). The characteristic OCT images at these three stages were determined.
OCT revealed that there were characteristic tomographic images of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) at each stage. In the active stage, OCT revealed the CNV as a highly reflective, multi-layered area protruding into the subretinal space. In the intermediate stage, the reflectivity of the CNV became stronger and its margin in the subretinal space became smooth. With regression of the ICNV, the lesions consisted of two different areas: a most reflective area corresponding to the fibrotic changes of the CNV (imaged white in OCT images), and a reddish highly reflective area representing a compound protrusion of the CNV. In the cicatricial stage, the ICNV was observed as a moderately high reflective area covered by a dome-shaped highly reflective layer corresponding to the retinal pigment epithelium.
These findings demonstrated clearly the changes in the OCT images during the development and regression of ICNV. OCT was useful for following the clinical course and understanding the mechanism of the CNV regression.
No preview · Article · Aug 2001 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is rarely complicated by neovascular glaucoma. Only a few reports of XLRS histopathological findings with neovascular glaucoma have been published.
A 41-year-old man with XLRS complicated by neovascular glaucoma in his left eye was examined with electroretinography, B-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy and computed tomography. He was examined by ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography in the other eye. An enucleation was performed in his left eye due to uncontrollable high intraocular pressure and persistent ocular pain. We examined the enucleated eye histopathologically.
Examination of the enucleated eye showed nuclear sclerosis of the lens, pigmented retrolental membrane and retinoschisis which separated the inner layer of the retina and made a large space in the vitreous cavity without any apparent detachment of the outer layers of the retina. Sclerotic vessels were present histopathologically in both the inner and outer layers of the retina. There was a peripheral anterior synechia, ectropion uveae and a fibrovascular membrane, which contained many lumina of neovascularization, indicating marked rubeosis iridis. Small cystic spaces were observed in both the schitic retina in the peripheral region and the foveal schisis at the outer layer of the retina. The photoreceptor cells had become markedly atrophied and multiple regions of calcification were observed. The optic nerve showed severe atrophy with gliosis, but the central retinal artery and vein were still open within the nerve.
These histopathological findings suggest that rubeosis iridis may have developed secondarily to retinal ischemia due to occlusion of the retinal blood vessels.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie