[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the duration of fecal shedding and changing loads of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in feces and serum from patients
with acute HEV infection, HEV RNA was quantitated in periodic serum and fecal specimens obtained from 11 patients with sporadic
acute hepatitis E. All 11 patients had detectable HEV RNA in serum at admission, with the highest viral load being 1.9 × 103 to 1.7 × 107 copies/ml, and HEV viremia lasted until days 17 to 48 (mean, 28.3) after the onset of hepatitis. Even at the initial examination
on days 10 to 29 (mean, 17.6), the HEV load in fecal supernatant was less than 5.7 × 104 copies/ml for 10 of the 11 patients, while for the remaining patient (patient 1) it was markedly high, 2.0 × 107 copies/ml on day 22. In addition, although HEV RNA in fecal supernatant continued to be positive until days 14 to 33 (mean,
22.4) for patients 2 to 11, that for patient 1 was detectable even on day 121. HEVs in fecal specimens obtained on days 22,
24, 26, 28, and 30, but not day 121, from patient 1 grew efficiently in PLC/PRF/5 cells, reaching the highest titer of up
to 107 copies/ml in culture medium on day 50 postinoculation. The HEV genome recovered from patient 1 had 29 unique nucleotides
that were not seen in any of the 25 reported HEV isolates of the same genotype over the entire genome, with six amino acid
substitutions in the ORF1 protein.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes B and C are predominant in Japan. Previously, we reported that approximately 9% of HBV carriers in the Ehime area of western Japan were infected with genotype D (HBV/D) and their sequences closely related. Recently, serum samples from 3 patients with chronic HBV/D infections living in Tokyo and the surrounding area became available for testing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the HBV/D isolates from these different areas of Japan are closely related.
Of the 3 Tokyo area patients infected with HBV/D, 2 had chronic hepatitis, and 1 had hemophilia with a history of frequent coagulation factor injections. The complete HBV/D genome sequences of each were determined, and compared with those of subjects from the Ehime area.
All 3 HBV/D sequences had a genomic length of 3,182 bases, and the hepatitis B surface antigen subtype was ayw3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 1 of the HBV/D isolates was closely related to the isolates from Ehime Prefecture, while 1 was similar and 1 was clearly distinct.
Our results indicate that HBV/D infections in Japan are heterogeneous.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and characteristics of HBV isolates among Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), serum samples collected between September 1990 and March 2002 from 471 HIV-infected patients (age, 38.8 +/- 11.4 [mean +/- standard deviation] years; male, 90%) were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA. Positivity for HBsAg and HBV DNA was seen in 42 patients (8.9%), 41 of whom had contracted HIV infection through sexual activity and 1 had hemophilia. Genotypes of HBV were determined by comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the S gene sequence (396 nucleotides [nt]). The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 42 HBV-viremic patients was: A (50%), B (5%), C (24%), D (5%), E (2%), H (10%), A plus D (2%), A plus G (2%). The hemophilia patient had HBV genotype D. Genotypes E, G, and H which had not been reported in Japan, were found in one patient each who had traveled to Zambia, the US, and South America, respectively. Genotypes A and D, which are rare in Japan, were found in patients who had no history of traveling abroad. The entire genome of the HB-JI411 (genotype E [3,212 nt]), HB-JI444G (genotype G [3,248 nt]), and HB-JI260 (genotype H [3,218 nt]) isolates had the highest identity of 98.3%, 99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, with reported HBV isolates of the same genotype. Most Japanese patients coinfected with HIV and HBV had HBV genotypes that are found rarely or had not been reported in Japan.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections among 280 Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) and among 1,000 apparently healthy blood donors as a control. The prevalence of antibody to HAV was significantly higher among the HIV-infected patients than among the healthy donors (25.4% vs. 19.0%, P=0.025). When restricted to subjects aged <50 years, HAV antibody was detected significantly more frequently among the patients than among the donors (15.8% vs. 0.8%, P<0.0001). On the contrary, the prevalence of HEV antibody among the patients was almost equal to that among the donors (12.5% and 10.6%, respectively). HAV and HEV infections among HIV-infected patients deserve further studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of reddish markings appearing on the surface of the liver.
Methods: Subjects were patients with Hepatitis B virus-related (n = 232) or Hepatitis C-related (n = 246) chronic liver disease. Reddish lesions were obtained from this population using punch biopsy (n = 30) or wedge biopsy (n = 4), then studied histopathologically. In addition, the incidence and macroscopic forms of reddish markings in each laparoscopic stage for the 478 subjects were examined to determine when reddish markings appeared.
Results: Reddish markings on the liver surface appeared only after the appearance of hepatic parenchymal destruction subjacent to the liver capsule, rather than with the appearance of piecemeal necrosis in the portal area. Moreover, following expansion of necrotic hepatic parenchyma subjacent to the liver capsule and distortion of hepatic lobular architecture in this lesion, net-like or hemorrhagic fleck-like reddish markings appeared. Therefore, this was recognized as changes at the liver capsule, such as capillary proliferation and dilatation, and blood flow changes in both the capsule and hepatic parenchymal lesions subjacent to the liver capsule. With regards to timing, reddish markings were most frequently observed in the transition to liver cirrhosis. After the appearance of reddish markings on the liver surface, chronic hepatitis rapidly progressed to liver cirrhosis.
Conclusion: Reddish markings correspond to hepatic parenchymal destruction subjacent to the liver capsule, and not to piecemeal necrosis. Reddish markings appear in the transition to liver cirrhosis and might offer a useful marker of the progression to liver cirrhosis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Digestive Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and relative titre of TT virus (TTV) DNA, and to examine the relationship between the extent of TTV viraemia and the immune status among 144 patients with HIV infection; 178 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were also studied.
Methods: TTV DNA was detected quantitatively by two distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods [untranslated region (UTR) and N22]. UTR PCR detects all TTV genotypes, and N22 PCR can primarily detect four major TTV genotypes (1-4).
Results: Using UTR PCR and N22 PCR, respectively, TTV DNA was detected significantly more frequently in HIV-infected patients than in controls (99 versus 91%, P < 0.001; 56 versus 27%, P < 0.0001), and the relative titre (10N/ml) was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients [4.5 ± 1.2 (mean ± SD) versus 3.1 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001; 2.6 ± 1.5 versus 1.5 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001]. Age, sex, co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus, and risk factors for HIV transmission did not appear to be significant factors associated with the titre of TTV viraemia. However, the titre of TTV DNA was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients with AIDS (P < 0.0001), those with low CD4 T cell count (P < 0.0001), or those with high HIV viral loads (P = 0.0047).
Conclusion: TTV is highly prevalent and high-titred in HIV-infected patients. The TTV viral load may reflect the degree of immune status of these immunocompromised hosts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TT virus (TTV) has not yet been cultured or visualized. We attempted to recover and visualize TTV-associated particles from the serum samples and feces of infected humans. Serum samples were obtained from 7 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Three patients had a high TTV DNA titer (108 copies/ml), three had a low TTV DNA titer (102 copies/ml), and one was negative for TTV DNA. Fecal supernatant was obtained from a different TTV-infected subject. The serum samples were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and TTV DNA-rich fractions were subjected to floatation ultracentrifugation in cesium chloride. Virus-like particles, 30–32 nm in diameter, were found in the 1.31–1.33 g/cm3 fractions from each of the three serum samples with high TTV DNA titer, but not in any fraction from the four serum samples that either were negative for TTV DNA or had low TTV DNA titer. The TTV particles formed aggregates of various sizes, and immunogold electron microscopy showed that they were bound to human immunoglobulin G. Similar virus-like particles with a diameter of 30–32 nm banding at 1.34–1.35 g/cm3 were visualized in fecal supernatant with TTV genotype 1a by immune electron microscopy using human plasma containing TTV genotype 1a-specific antibody.
No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the prevalence of TT virus (TTV) infection in non-B, non-C, non-G chronic liver disease, in particular, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the clinical significance of TTV infection. Among 829 cases with chronic liver disease, 30 cases (4%) had non-B, non-C, non-G chronic liver disease. The percentage of TTV-DNA positive cases among these 30 cases with non-B, non-C, non-G chronic liver disease was 57% (17/30), significantly higher than the percentage TTV-DNA positivity (14%; 5/107) among blood donors (P < 0.01). All the TTV-DNA positive cases were still positive for TTV-DNA throughout the follow-up period (4 +/- 2 years; 1-7 years), thus demonstrating that TTV infection is persistent. These findings suggest that TTV may be one of the causes of non-B, non-C, non-G chronic liver disease. When the 30 cases of non-B, non-C, non-G chronic liver disease were divided into a TTV-DNA positive group and TTV-DNA negative group and the clinical data between the two groups compared, it was found that the serum ALP and serum gamma-GTP levels in some cases in the TTV-DNA positive group were higher than those in the TTV-DNA negative group. Twelve cases of non-B, non-C, non-G HCC were divided into two groups (TTV-DNA positive and TTV-DNA negative), and the clinical data between the two groups compared. All the four cases of HCC which were not associated with liver cirrhosis were TTV-DNA positive. However, with respect to the age at the time of onset of the HCC, no significant differences were noted between the cases of HCC associated with liver cirrhosis and those not associated with liver cirrhosis. In spite of older patients, many cases of HCC associated with TTV infection are not associated with liver cirrhosis.
No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It remains unclear whether the hepatitis C virus genotype is associated with the severity and outcome of HCV-related liver disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether hepatitis C virus genotype influenced the risk of developing hepatocelMar carcinoma. Two hundred and sixty nine patients who had chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma were studied. The stage and activity of hepatitis were determined at laparoscopy and patients were followed up until the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or for a maximum of 16 years. Hepatitis C virus genotypes were determined by a genotyping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A cross-sectional study revealed that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 increased and that of genotype 2 decreased with the progression of liver disease (pc 0.01). A follow-up study using the Kaplan-Meier method showed that hepatocellular carcinoma occurred more frequently in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (p<0.01), patients with a more advanced disease stage (p<0.01), and patients with reddish markings (p<0.05). Cox multivariate proportional hazards analysis confirmed that these three risk factors were independent. Hepatocellular carcinoma developed more frequently in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and pre-cirrhosis (stage 3 chronic hepatitis with nodules) or liver cirrhosis, in whom hepatitis showed continued activity and progression. (Dig Endosc 1999; 11: 24–31)
No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Digestive Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clear the efficacy of treatment for large porto-systemic shunts, changes of liver function and portal hemodynamics after obliteration of gastric-renal shunt (GRS) or gastric-inferior phrenic vein shunt (GIS) communicated with gastric fundic varies in 24 patients treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) were studied. 1) The wedged hepatic venous pressure and the hepatic venous pressure gradient were statistically not significant changed after obliteration of GRS or GIS. 2) Serum albumin value was significantly increased (p < 0.005) and ICGR15 was significantly improved (p < 0.005) at one year after treatment in patients that, not only whose GRS or GIS were larger than 10mm in diameter, but also whose superior mesenteric arterial venography before treatment showed hepatofugal flow. 3) At a mean follow-up abdominal angiography of 23.3 months in 20 cases, GRS or GIS was yet obliterated respectively. And more, superior mesenteric arterial venography revealed hepatopetal flow alone in 43% of patients that, whose superior mesenteric arterial venography before treatment showed hepatofugal flow. 4) During a mean follow-up of 32.5 months, gastric fundic varies were not recurrent in all patients, but the other hand, cumulative red color sign positive esophageal varies apparent rates were high (16.7% at before treatment, 38.4% at 2-years, 54.4% at 4-years). According to their hemodynamic characteristics, cumulative red color sign positive esophageal varies apparent rates in patients with another collaterals besides GRS or GIS before treatment (26.7% at before treatment, 61.1% at 2-years, 74.1% at 4-years) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in patients without another collateral except GRS or GIS (0% at 2-years, 16.7% at 4-years). We conclude that, 1) Increment of portal flom and improvement of liver function can be expected by obliteration of GRS or GIS in patients that, whose superior mesenteric venous blood flow into large GRS or GIS. 2) After obliteration of GRS or GIS, the incidence of aggravation of esophageal varies in patients with another collaterals besides GRS or GIS before treatment is high, while that in cases without another collateral is low.
No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Markers of GB virus C (GBV-C) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were sought in 80 patients before and after they underwent BMT in a metropolitan hospital in Tokyo between 1990 and 1996. RNA of GBV-C was detected in 14 (18%) patients before BMT. Of the 55 patients who had been transfused, 14 (25%) possessed GBV-C RNA at a frequency significantly higher than in the 25 untransfused patients who were all negative (P < 0.01). HCV RNA was detected in three of the 55 (5%) transfused patients, but in none of the 25 untransfused patients. Sera at 3 months after BMT were available for 57 patients. GBV-C RNA persisted in all 10 patients who were infected before BMT, while it was detected in five of the remaining 47 (11%) patients who were not. However, persistent and/or ongoing GBV-C infection had no appreciable influence on patient morbidity or mortality. Two of the 57 patients were positive for HCV RNA before BMT and this persisted after BMT in both. HCV RNA became positive in eight of the remaining 55 (15%) patients who were negative before BMT. Of the 14 patients who received transfusions screened by the first-generation test at BMT, seven (50%) became positive for HCV RNA, a rate significantly higher than the one of 41 (2%) patients who received transfusions screened by the second-generation test (P < 0.001). These results indicate that BMT patients are at increased risk of GBV-C infection transmitted by transfusions received before and at the time of BMT, and that the risk of HCV infection has decreased after the implementation of the second-generation anti-HCV test.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA of recently reported, putative non-A to E hepatitis virus designated GB virus C (GBV-C) was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in sera from 231 Japanese patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. GBV-C RNA was detected in 21 patients (9% of the total), including two of the 23 patients (8%) with markers of hepatitis B virus infection, 11 of the 114 patients (10%) with markers of hepatitis C virus infection, seven of the 86 patients (8%) with markers of both hepatitis B and C virus infections, and one of the eight patients (13%) without such markers. These results indicate that the contribution of GBV-C infection to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma would be small either by itself or in cooperation with hepatitis B and C viruses.
No preview · Article · Aug 1997 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The entire nucleotide sequence was determined for eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes from three symptom-free carriers, two patients with chronic persistent hepatitis and one patient with chronic active hepatitis, who were positive for antibody to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The two patients with chronic persistent hepatitis were tested again after they developed chronic active or fulminant hepatitis, making a total of eight samples. Six had a point mutation in the preC region prohibiting the encoding of HBeAg precursor, while the remaining two had a deletion of 8 or 21 nucleotides within the X gene upstream of the preC transcription initiation sites which would affect the X gene and the putative preC/C promoter. Most genomes from the three symptom-free carriers and the two patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, with HBV DNA levels of 10(2)-10(3)/ml, had deletion, frameshift mutation, initiation failure or a premature stop codon, rendering them replication-incompetent. In contrast, such mutations were rarely seen in HBV genomes from the two patients with chronic persistent hepatitis after they had developed active or fulminant hepatitis and from the patient with chronic active hepatitis, all of whom had vigorous HBV replication with serum HBV DNA from 10(6) to 10(9)/ml. Unique mutations for amino acid changes were more frequent in HBV genomes with a higher replicative activity. These results indicate two kinds of HBV genomes with an HBeAg-minus phenotype, one with defects seriously affecting viral replication and the other without such defects, which would account for different clinical profiles in carriers with antibody to HBeAg.
No preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Journal of Medical Virology