[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Various devices have been proposed for ring annuloplasty in patients with degenerative mitral valve disease. This study reports for the first time midterm results with the rigid three-dimensional Medtronic Profile 3D (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States) annuloplasty ring. Methods Between June 2009 and June 2011, 200 patients (mean age 61 ± 13 years, 70% male) with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation underwent mitral valve repair using the Medtronic Profile 3D annuloplasty ring. A total of 106 patients (53.0%) underwent isolated mitral valve repair and 94 patients (47.0%) underwent a concomitant procedure such as coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 21), tricuspid valve surgery (n = 49), AF ablation (n = 17), and aortic valve surgery (n = 13). The follow-up is 94.5% complete (mean 2.5 ± 0.5 years). Results Thirty-day mortality was 1.5%. Survival at 3 years was 97.1 ± 1.6% for isolated procedures and 92.4 ± 2.8% for combined procedures (p = 0.137). Freedom from mitral valve-related reoperation at 3 years was 97.1 ± 1.7% for isolated procedures and 95.5 ± 2.2% for combined procedures (p = 0.561). Seven patients (3.5%) required a mitral valve-related reoperation. Two of these reoperations were required for endocarditis, two for ring dehiscence, one for progression of the native disease (flail leaflet), one for leaflet suture dehiscence, and one for persistent systolic anterior motion. Conclusion The three-dimensional Medtronic Profile 3D annuloplasty ring is suitable for mitral valve repair for degenerative diseases. This saddle-shaped annuloplasty device provides excellent early results with a very good functional outcome at midterm either in isolated or combined procedures.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertebrate heart development is strictly regulated by temporal and spatial expression of growth and transcription factors (TFs). We analyzed nine TFs, selected by in silico analysis of an Nkx2.5 enhancer, for their ability to transactivate the respective enhancer element that drives, specifically, expression of genes in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Mzf1 showed significant activity in reporter assays and bound directly to the Nkx2.5 cardiac enhancer (Nkx2.5 CE) during murine ES cell differentiation. While Mzf1 is established as a hematopoietic TF, its ability to regulate cardiogenesis is completely unknown. Mzf1 expression was significantly enriched in CPCs from in vitro differentiated ES cells and in mouse embryonic hearts. To examine the effect of Mzf1 overexpression on CPC formation, we generated a double transgenic, inducible, tetOMzf1-Nkx2.5 CE eGFP ES line. During in vitro differentiation an early and continuous Mzf1 overexpression inhibited CPC formation and cardiac gene expression. A late Mzf1 overexpression, coincident with a second physiological peak of Mzf1 expression, resulted in enhanced cardiogenesis. These findings implicate a novel, temporal-specific role of Mzf1 in embryonic heart development. Thereby we add another piece of puzzle in understanding the complex mechanisms of vertebrate cardiac development and progenitor cell differentiation. Consequently, this knowledge will be of critical importance to guide efficient cardiac regenerative strategies and to gain further insights into the molecular basis of congenital heart malformations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The impact of permanent pacemaker (PPM) leads on functional outcome of tricuspid valve (TV) repair has not been clearly demonstrated. Therefore, controversy exists as to whether transvalvular PPM leads should be explanted and replaced by epicardial leads at the time of valve repair. This study evaluates the influence of PPM leads on functional outcome, TV-related reoperations and survival in patients undergoing TV repair for functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR).
We retrospectively reviewed 415 consecutive patients who underwent TV ring annuloplasty at our institution from July 2007 to February 2013. In 112 patients (27%), a PPM was implanted either pre- or postoperatively. The follow-up is 94% complete (mean: 24.4 months; cumulative total 845 patient-years).
The mean age was 70.2 ± 9.8 years and the mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was 12.4%. Of note, 76.6% of the patients were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. Echocardiography documented moderate or severe TR in 96.4% of the patients, with a mean annulus diameter of 44.8 ± 5.4 mm. 95.4% of the patients underwent a combined procedure and 16.4% an urgent or emergent operation. The 30-day mortality was 7.5%. The preoperative TR grade was reduced from 2.47 ± 0.52 to 0.70 ± 0.54 (P < 0.001). At hospital discharge, residual ≥II TR was present in 7.1% of the patients. Freedom from recurrent ≥II TR at 5 years was 86.7 ± 3.2%. Upon uni- and multivariate analyses, the presence of a transvalvular PPM was not a risk factor for recurrent ≥II TR and late mortality. Freedom from TV-reoperations was 98.1 ± 0.8% at 5 years without significant difference between groups.
The presence of a transvalvular PPM lead is not a risk factor for recurrent TR, TV-related reoperations and late mortality in patients undergoing ring annuloplasty for functional TR.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR, upper partial sternotomy) is performed in many institutions.
Besides the improved cosmetic results, we investigated if these procedures have any advantages over conventional aortic valve
replacement (CAVR, full sternotomy).
Methods: We retrospectively analysed data of 2103 patients who underwent primary, isolated aortic valve replacement in our
department between January 2001 and May 2012 (MIAVR, n = 936; CAVR, n = 1167). After propensity score matching for relevant preoperative risk factors (age, sex and comorbidities), 585 matched
patients were included in each subgroup. Follow-up was 98% completed.
Results: Mean age (65 ± 10.5 vs 65.7 ± 11.5 years, P = 0.23), gender (females 37.2%, P = 0.9), aortic cross-clamp times (65.6 ± 18.4 vs 64.3 ± 19.8 min, P = 0.25), and postoperative blood loss [median (range) 400 (224–683) vs 400 (250–610) ml/24 h, P = 0.83] were similar in both subgroups. Thirty-day and 1-year mortality were also not significantly different (1.5% vs 1.7%,
P = 0.74 and 3.1% vs 4.8%, P = 0.12, respectively). In contrast, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times were significantly longer in MIAVR (93.5 ± 25 vs 88
± 28 min, P < 0.001). Intraoperative and postoperative autologous blood transfusions were significantly lower in MIAVR (927.2 ± 425.6
and 170.2 ± 47.6 ml vs 1036.4 ± 599.6 and 243.5 ± 89.3 ml, P < 0.001, respectively). Intubation times were significantly shorter in MIAVR [median (range) 7 (5–11) vs 8 (6–14) h, P = 0.01]. The incidence of renal and respiratory insufficiency (need for non-invasive ventilation, re-intubation) was significantly
lower in MIAVR (9 vs 11.8%, P < 0.001 and 8.5 vs 16%, P = 0.03, respectively).
Conclusion: MIAVR is a safe procedure which yields excellent cosmetic results. Although CPB times are slightly longer, MIAVR
is associated with less blood transfusions, shorter ventilation time and lower rates of renal and respiratory insufficiency.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aim was to examine the hemodynamic performance of the BioValsalva porcine aortic valve conduit in the aortic root position.
Between February 2007 and April 2012, a total of 223 patients underwent aortic root replacement at the authors' institution. The BioValsalva valved conduit was implanted in 131 patients, and 86 of these patients (mean age 64.7 +/- 9.7 years) consented to participate in the present study. The parameters assessed to evaluate prosthetic valve function included mean pressure gradient (MPG) as measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, and the effective orifice area (EOA) by means of the continuity equation. Hemodynamic data were obtained from all 86 patients within 10 days and six months postoperatively.
The mean aortic cross-clamp time was 103 +/- 30 min. Concomitant procedures were performed in 50 patients (56.5%). Four patients developed valve dysfunction due to endocarditis, and underwent a reoperation without the need to perform a redo Bentall. The early MPG across the implanted valve was 12 +/- 4.6 mmHg (range: 4-24.8 mmHg), and the early mean EOA was 1.81 +/- 0.6 cm2 (range: 0.9-3.2 cm2). After six months the MPG was 11.6 +/- 4.6 mmHg (range: 2.2-25.5 mmHg) and the EOA was 1.69 +/- 0.43 cm2 (range: 0.8-2.6 cm2).
Based on its special design with a stentless valve, which is not incorporated into the proximal suture line, the BioValsalva conduit has an advantage over intraoperatively prepared conduits in cases of reoperation. Besides simplified intraoperative handling, the BioValsalva conduit exhibits good systolic hemodynamic performance with large EOAs.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of heart valve disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of different surgical procedures on clinical outcome in patients undergoing aortic root replacement for ascending aorta aneurysm (AAA) with or without concomitant aortic valve regurgitation (AR).
Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 370 patients (mean age 52 ± 17 years) underwent aortic root replacement. Patients were retrospectively assigned to three groups according to the surgical procedures: valve-sparing root replacement (VSRR) (Group A; n = 178), Bentall procedure with a biological conduit (Group B; n = 91) and with a mechanical conduit (Group C; n = 101). All patients were studied with clinical assessment and echocardiography during a mean follow-up time of 4.3 years.
Estimated 5-year survival probability rates for Groups A, B and C were 95.2 ± 1.8, 80.9 ± 4.4 and 79.3 ± 4.5%, respectively (P < 0.01; log-rank). Estimated 5-year survival probability rates for patients who had undergone elective operations for Groups A, B and C were 96.1 ± 1.8, 88.9 ± 4.4 and 82.3 ± 4.9%, respectively (P = 0.02; log-rank). Actuarial overall 5-year freedom from valve-related reoperations was 94.3 ± 1.9%, without being significantly different between groups (P = 0.13; log-rank). Estimated 5-year probability rates for freedom from major bleeding events for Groups A, B and C were 99.3 ± 0.7, 100 and 93.0 ± 3.4%, respectively (P = 0.03; log-rank). Actuarial overall 5-year freedom from thromboembolism and endocarditis were 93.6 ± 0.2% (P = 0.53; log-rank) and 96.1 ± 1.5% (P = 0.46; log-rank), respectively, without significant differences between groups.
The data from the present study support the VSRR strategy in patients undergoing aortic root replacement. Furthermore, if Bentall operation is unavoidable, biological valved conduit should be preferred in order to avoid late bleeding complications.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is evolving rapidly as a therapeutic option in patients deemed
to be at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. Early outcome and survival of controlled feasibility trials and single-
center experience with TAVI have been previously reported. Valve performance and hemodynamics seem to improve
significantly after TAVI. Long-term outcome up to 3 years have been demonstrated in recent studies. Admittedly, the results
are encouraging with a survival rate at 2 and 3 years ranging from 62 to 74% and from 56 to 61% respectively. The
improvement in hemodynamical and clinical status sustained beyond the 3 years follows up. However, paravalvular leakage
after TAVI remains an important issue in this rapidely evolving field.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Current Cardiology Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most frequent acquired valvular heartdisease in western industrialized countries and its prevalence considerably increases with age. Once becoming symptomatic severe AVS has a very poor prognosis. Progressive and rapid symptom deterioration leads to an impairment of functional status and compromised health related quality-of-life (HrQoL) simultaneously. Until recently, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been the only effective treatment option for improving symptoms and prolonging survival. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) emerged as an alternative treatment modality for those patients with severe symptomatic AVS in whom the risk for SAVR is considered prohibitive or too high. TAVR has gained clinical acceptance with almost startling rapidity and has even quickly become the standard of care for the treatment of appropriately selected individuals with inoperable AVS during recent years. Typically, patients currently referred for and treated by TAVR are elderly with a concomitant variable spectrum of multiple comorbidities, disabilities and limited life expectancy.Beyond mortality and morbidity, the assessment of HrQoL is of paramount importancenot only to guide patient-centered clinical decision-making but also to judge this new treatment modality. As per current evidence, TAVR significantly improves HrQoL in high-surgical risk patients with severe AVS with sustained effects up to two years when compared with optimal medical care and demonstrates comparable benefits relative to SAVR.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Current Cardiology Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation) is a less invasive treatment of the stenotic aortic valve while avoiding midline sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. A crimped biological valve on a self-expanding or balloon-expandable stent is inserted antegradely or retrogradely under fluoroscopy, and deployed on the beating heart. Among the worldwide TAVI programs, many different concepts have been established for the choice of the access site. Whether retrograde or antegrade TAVI should be considered the superior approach is matter of an ongoing debate. The published literature demonstrates safety of all techniques if performed within a dedicated multidisciplinary team. Since there is no data providing evidence if one approach is superior to another, we conclude that an individualized patient-centered decision making process is most beneficial, taking advantage of the complementarity of the different access options. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the current practice of access techniques for transcatheter based valve treatment and to outline the respective special characteristics.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Current Cardiology Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undersized ring annuloplasty is the treatment of choice for functional mitral regurgitation. However, recurrence of mitral regurgitation within the first years is frequent. The aim of this study was to analyze the functional and clinical outcome after mitral valve repair with the 3-dimensional saddle-shaped Edwards GeoForm (Edwards Lifesciences LLC, Irvine, Calif) annuloplasty ring in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation.
Between November 2006 and November 2012, 70 patients (mean age, 68 ± 10 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 40% ± 15%) with functional mitral regurgitation due to ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent mitral valve repair with the Edwards GeoForm annuloplasty ring. Concomitant procedures, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (75.7%), tricuspid valve repair (25.7%), aortic valve replacement (8.6%), and the Maze procedure (4.3%), were performed in 92.9% of patients. Follow-up is 97% complete (mean, 3.0 ± 1.7 years). Transthoracic echocardiography was obtained 2.4 ± 1.7 years postoperatively.
Thirty-day mortality was 5.9%. Overall survival at 5 years was 71.3% ± 6.9%. At 4 years, overall freedom from recurrence of mitral regurgitation grade 3+ or greater was 92.5% ± 3.6%, and freedom from recurrence of mitral regurgitation grade 2+ or greater was 71.0% ± 8.7%. Three patients required a mitral valve-related reoperation for ring dehiscence. New York Heart Association functional class improved from 3.6 ± 0.6 to 1.6 ± 0.6 during follow-up (P < .05). Mean mitral valve pressure gradient was 3.3 ± 1.8 mm Hg across all ring sizes at the time of follow-up.
Mitral valve repair with the 3-dimensional saddle-shaped Edwards GeoForm annuloplasty ring in case of ischemic mitral regurgitation shows a low rate of recurrent regurgitation at 4 years. Clinically relevant mitral stenosis was not detected. The importance of secure anchoring of the device in the mitral annulus has to be emphasized to prevent ring dehiscence.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increasing number of octogenarians are referred for cardiac surgical procedures. In this subset of patients, information on the health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is critical for decision making. However, there is a paucity of prospective data. Thus, we sought to prospectively evaluate the HrQoL in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery.
A prospective HrQoL analysis was performed in 106 elective patients (median age 83.0 ± 2.6 years, range 80-91.8 years, 59.4% male) undergoing cardiac surgery. The standardized SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire was answered preoperatively, and three and 12 months postoperatively. Preoperative data, perioperative outcome, and postoperative morbidity were analyzed.
SF-36 scores for physical functioning (44.3 ± 2.3 vs. 52.0 ± 2.7; p < 0.001), role physical (25.2 ± 3.3 vs. 41.5 ± 4.1; p < 0.001), bodily pain (57.8 ± 3.2 vs. 70.7 ± 2.8; p < 0.01), general health (54.9 ± 1.7 vs. 59.6 ± 1.7; p < 0.001), vitality (41.1 ± 2.1 vs. 50.6 ± 2.1; p < 0.001), and mental health (67.5 ± 2.0 vs. 72.4 ± 1.9; p < 0.05) significantly improved from baseline to three months. Social functioning (75.4 ± 2.6 vs. 76.1 ± 2.5; p = 0.79) and role emotional (56.8 ± 4.5 vs. 58.0 ± 4.6; p = 0.29) improved slightly without reaching statistical significance. Correspondingly, at three months, physical component scores increased significantly compared to baseline (34.3 ± 1.0 vs. 39.4 ± 1.0; p < 0.001). SF-36 scores remained stable between three months and one year. No significant change was seen in the mental component score from baseline to three months (48.6 ± 1.2 vs. 49.8 ± 1.1; p = 0.18).
Physical HrQoL is significantly improved in octogenarians three months after cardiac surgery remaining stable at one year postoperatively when compared to baseline.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Cardiac Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been found to correlate with the severity of aortic valve stenosis and to provide prognostic information in aortic stenosis patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement. There is a paucity of data describing the association between clinical outcomes after TAVI and NT-proBNP levels. We investigated the evolution and prognostic value of NT-proBNP levels after TAVI.
We prospectively collected data on the baseline characteristics, NT-proBNP levels (baseline, post-treatment and discharge) and adverse clinical outcomes of patients undergoing TAVI from 2007 to 2010. Using a univariable and multivariable Cox regression model, pre- and postimplantation NT-proBNP tertile levels were correlated to 30-day and 1-year mortality. A total of 373 patients underwent TAVI with either the Medtronic CoreValve or Edwards SAPIEN prosthesis. The cumulative 30-day and 1-year mortality was 7.3% and 18%, respectively. Rehospitalization for heart failure was observed in 0.8% at 30 days and 7.8% at 1 year. The tertile baseline NT-proBNP levels were identified as ≤1570 ng/L, 1571 to 4690 ng/L and ≥4691 ng/L. In the univariable analysis, baseline (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02; P=.02) and post-treatment NT-proBNP (HR 1.02; 95% CI, 1.002-1.04; P=.04) were predictors for 1-year mortality. In the multivariable analysis, however, only baseline NT-proBNP and atrial fibrillation were identified as predictors for the 1-year mortality (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P=.006 and HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.25-9.5; P=.017, respectively).
NT-proBNP and atrial fibrillation were predictors for 1-year mortality, offer independent prognostic information, and identify patients being at increased risk for mortality. Thus, NT-proBNP reveals more incremental value for patient selection and should be included in the risk stratification of patients undergoing TAVI.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of invasive cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We aimed at evaluating the results of aortic valve-sparing root replacement (AVSRR) in children with aortic root aneurysm (ARA) due to genetic disorders in terms of mortality, reoperation and recurrent aortic valve regurgitation (AVR).
Thirteen patients (mean age 9.7 ± 6.5 years, 10 months-18 years) underwent AVSRR for ARA between 2002 and 2011. Six of the 13 patients had Marfan syndrome, 3 Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), 2 bicuspid aortic valve syndrome and 2 an unspecified connective tissue disorder. AVR was graded as none/trace, mild and severe in 5, 7 and 1 patient, respectively. The mean pre-operative root diameter was 45 ± 10 mm (mean Z-score 10.3 ± 2.0). Remodelling of the aortic root was performed in 4 patients, reimplantation of the aortic valve in 9 and a concomitant cusp repair in 4. The diameter of the prostheses used for root replacement varied from 22 to 30 mm (mean Z-score = 2.3 ± 3). The follow-up was 100% complete with a mean follow-up time of 3.7 years.
There was no operative mortality. One patient with LDS died 2.5 years after the operation due to spontaneous rupture of the descending aorta. Root re-replacement with mechanical conduit was necessary in 1 patient for severe recurrent AVR 8 days after remodelling of the aortic root. At final follow-up, AVR was graded as none/trace and mild in all patients. Eleven patients presented in New York Heart Association functional Class I and 1 in Class II.
In paediatric patients with ARA, valve-sparing root replacement can be performed with low operative risk and excellent mid-term valve durability. Hence, prosthetic valve-related morbidity may be avoided. Due to the large diameters of the aortic root and the ascending aorta, the size of the implanted root prostheses will not limit later growth of the native aorta.
Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to left heart disease is the most common aetiology of tricuspid valve (TV) insufficiency. Valve annuloplasty is the primary treatment for TV insufficiency. Several studies have shown the superiority of annuloplasty with a prosthetic ring over other repair techniques. We reviewed our experience with different surgical techniques for the treatment of acquired TV disease focusing on long-term survival and incidence of reoperation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 717 consecutive patients who underwent TV surgery between 1975 and 2009 with either a ring annuloplasty [Group R: N = 433 (60%)] or a De Vega suture annuloplasty [Group NR: no ring; N = 255 (36%)]. Twenty-nine (4%) patients underwent other types of TV repair. A ring annuloplasty was performed predominantly in the late study period of 2000-09. TV aetiology was functional in 67% (479/717) of the patients. Ninety-one percent of the patients (n = 649) underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and/or mitral/aortic valve surgery. RESULTS: Patients who received a ring annuloplasty were older (67 ± 13 vs. 60 ± 13 years; P < 0.001). Overall 30-day mortality was 13.8% (n = 95) [Group R: n = 55 (12.7%) and Group NR: n = 40 (15.7%)]. Ten-year actuarial survival after TV repair with either the De Vega suture or ring annuloplasty was 39 ± 3 and 46 ± 7%, respectively (P = 0.01). Twenty-eight (4%) patients required a TV reoperation after 5.9 ± 5.1 years. Freedom from TV reoperation 10 years after repair with a De Vega annuloplasty was 87.9 ± 3% compared with 98.4 ± 1% after the ring annuloplasty (P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who require TV surgery either as an isolated or a combined procedure constitute a high-risk group. The long-term survival is poor. Tricuspid valve repair with a ring annuloplasty is associated with improved survival and a lower reoperation rate than that with a suture annuloplasty.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery