- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) predict mortality and hospital admission in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the role of MMP-2 gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility and prognosis of HF remains elusive. In this study, 308 HF outpatients (216 Caucasian- and 92 African-Brazilians) and 333 healthy subjects (256 Caucasian- and 77 African-Brazilians) were genotyped for the -1575G>A (rs243866), -1059G>A (rs17859821), and -790G>T (rs243864) polymorphisms in the MMP-2 gene. Polymorphisms were analyzed individually and in combination (haplotype), and positive associations were adjusted for clinical covariates. Although allele frequencies were similar in HF patients and controls in both ethnic groups, homozygotes for the minor alleles were not found among African-Brazilian patients. After a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 124 patients (40.3%) died (54.8% of them for HF). In Caucasian-Brazilians, the TT genotype of the -790G>T polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of HF-related death as compared with GT genotype (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.512, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.285-0.920). However, this association was lost after adjusting for clinical covariates (HR = 0.703, 95% CI 0.365-1.353). Haplotype analysis revealed similar findings, as patients homozygous for the -1575G/-1059G/-790T haplotype had a lower rate of HF-related death than those with any other haplotype combination (12.9% versus 28.5%, respectively; P = 0.010). Again, this association did not remain after adjusting for clinical covariates (HR = 0.521, 95% CI 0.248-1.093). Our study does not exclude the possibility that polymorphisms in MMP-2 gene, particularly the -790G>T polymorphism, might be related to HF prognosis. However, due to the limitations of the study, our findings need to be confirmed in further larger studies.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Spirituality may influence how patients cope with their illness. Objectives: We assessed whether spirituality may influence adherence to management of outpatients with heart failure. Methods: Cross sectional study enrolling consecutive ambulatory heart failure patients in whom adherence to multidisciplinary treatment was evaluated. Patients were assessed for quality of life, depression, religiosity and spirituality utilizing validated questionnaires. Correlations between adherence and psychosocial variables of interest were obtained. Logistic regression models explored independent predictors of adherence. Results: One hundred and thirty patients (age 60 ± 13 years; 67% male) were interviewed. Adequate adherence score was observed in 38.5% of the patients. Neither depression nor religiosity was correlated to adherence, when assessed separately. Interestingly, spirituality, when assessed by both total score sum (r = 0.26; p = 0.003) and by all specific domains, was positively correlated to adherence. Finally, the combination of spirituality, religiosity and personal beliefs was an independent predictor of adherence when adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics and psychosocial instruments. Conclusion: Spirituality, religiosity and personal beliefs were the only variables consistently associated with compliance to medication in a cohort of outpatients with heart failure. Our data suggest that adequately addressing these aspects on patient's care may lead to an improvement in adherence patterns in the complex heart failure management.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims: Patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have exacerbation of symptoms and fluid retention, and high risk of re-hospitalizations and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of phase angle at hospital admission as a prognostic marker of mortality in patients with ADHF. Methods: Patients hospitalized for ADHF, with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45% and BOSTON criteria ≥8 points were included. The patients were evaluated at hospital admission (first 36 h) and then followed up for assessment of outcomes. Phase angle was measured with tetra polar bioelectrical impedance device. Mortality data was obtained from an average of 24 months after discharge, from the medical records of the hospital and outpatient or telephone contact with patients or family members. The best-discriminatory level of phase angle was selected based on the ROC curve for mortality. Results: Seventy-one patients were included and the majority was male (63%), with a mean age of 61 ± 12 years, ischemic etiology being the most prevalent (48%) and LVEF average of 26 ± 8%. Mortality was 49% at an average of 24 months after hospital discharge. The average phase angle at hospital admission was 5.6 ± 2°, and lower values were associated with higher mortality. Survivors were compared to died patients in the risk factor variables for mortality. In multivariate analysis adjusting for age, LVEF and urea, phase angle <4.8° was independently associated with increased mortality (HR 2.67; p = 0.015). Conclusions: Phase angle seems to be a prognostic marker in patients with ADHF independently of other known risk factors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing number of countries and geographical regions are involved in major clinical trials. ASCEND-HF is the largest trial in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with patients from 5 geographical regions: North America (NA), Latin America (LA), Western Europe (WE), Central Europe (CE) and Asia-Pacific (AP). Data from the 5 geographical areas were compared including baseline characteristics, medications, 30-day outcomes (mortality and mortality or HF hospitalization) and 180-day mortality. Among the 7,141 study patients, 3,243 (45.4%) were from NA (average of 15.2 patients/site), 1,762 (24.7%) from AP (28.4 patients/site), 967 (13.5%) from CE (20.2 patients/site), 665 (9.3%) from LA (17.1 patients/site), and 504 (7.1%) from WE (14.4 patients/site). There were marked differences in comorbidities, clinical profile, medication use, length of stay, 30-day event rates and 180-day mortality by region. Compared with NA, the adjusted risk for death or HF hospitalization at 30-days was significantly lower in CE (odds ratio [OR] 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.33-0.64), WE (OR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35-0.75), and AP (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.79) and numerically lower in LA (OR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.57-1.04) with similar results for 180-day mortality. In conclusion, in ADHF patients, major differences in baseline characteristics, treatments, length of the hospital stay, and 30-day HF rehospitalization rates, and 180-day mortality were found among patients enrolled from different geographical areas.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nanotoxicology aims to study the safety of nanomaterials, especially towards human exposures. Biodegradable polymeric nanocapsules have been indicated as potential drug carriers applicable for treating several pathologies. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential cardiotoxicity of biodegradable lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) containing poly(ε-caprolactone). Nanocapsules were characterized and the acute toxicity evaluation was conducted in Wistar rats. Two control groups (saline and tween/glycerol) were utilized, and three treated groups were chosen for low, intermediate and high doses: 28.7 x 1012 (LNC-1), 57.5 x 1012 (LNC-2) and 115 x 1012 (LNC-3), expressed as number of nanocapsules per milliliter/Kg. Blood pressure measures were performed in non-anesthetized animals by caudal plethysmography. The electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic analyses were carried out after anesthesia by isoflurane in two moments, previously to treatment and after 14 days. Blood was collected 24 hours and 14 days after treatment. Biochemical and histopathological analyses were performed. During the evaluation period, no deaths, weight loss or clinical signs were observed. Post-treatment systolic pressures (24h and 14 days) were significantly increased in comparison to pre-treatment in both control groups and treated groups, suggested as a possible consequence of the infused volume. Serum sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, as well as, hematological parameter were within reference values established for rats. ECG showed no indications of cardiotoxicity. Despite of the echocardiograms, no alterations in the ejection fraction were found as indicators of cardiotoxicity. Cardiac histopathology also demonstrated no alterations. Therefore, the present results on acute evaluation after i.v. administration, by slow infusion, showed potential safety once no cardiotoxic effects by ECG, echocardiographic, arterial pressure, biochemical and histopathological analyses were found.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Pre-clinical and few clinical studies suggest that transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC) improves heart function in dilated cardiomyopathies. Our objective was to determine if intracoronary injection of autologous BMNC improves the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Methods and results: This study was a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial with a follow-up of 12 months. Patients with NIDCM and LVEF <35% were recruited at heart failure ambulatories in specialized hospitals around Brazil. One hundred and sixty subjects were randomized to intracoronary injection of BMNC or placebo (1:1). The primary endpoint was the difference in change of LVEF between BMNC and placebo groups as determined by echocardiography. One hundred and fifteen patients completed the study. Left ventricular ejection fraction decreased from 24.0% (21.6-26.3) to 19.9% (15.4-24.4) in the BMNC group and from 24.3% (22.1-26.5) to 22.1% (17.4-26.8) in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in changes between cell and placebo groups for left ventricular systolic and diastolic volumes and ejection fraction. Mortality rate was 20.37% in placebo and 21.31% in BMNC. Conclusion: Intracoronary injection of autologous BMNC does not improve left ventricular function in patients with NIDCM. Clinical trial registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00333827.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate processes involved in both cardiac remodeling and obesity. We investigated if the expression of selected miRs in patients with heart failure (HF) is influenced by the presence of obesity. In this case-control study, we compared plasma levels of miR-21, -130b, -221, -423-5p, and the -221/-130b ratio in 57 age- and gender-matched subjects: 40 HF patients (20 obese HF and 20 lean HF) and 17 lean healthy controls. Body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. MiRs were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis was performed based on miRs findings to predict their putative targets and investigate their biological function. HF was associated with increased miR-423-5p levels in both lean and obese patients (P<0.05 vs. controls) without differences between HF groups. MiR-130b levels were reduced in obese HF patients compared with HF lean (P=0.036) and controls (P=0.025). MiR-221 levels were non-significantly increased in obese HF patients. MiR-21 levels were not different among the groups. MiR-221/-130b ratio was increased in obese HF patients, and was positively associated with body fat percentage (r=0.43; P=0.002), body mass index (r=0.44; P=0.002), and waist circumference (r=0.40; P=0.020). Computational prediction of target genes followed by functional enrichment analysis indicated a relevant role of miR-130b and miR-221 in modulating the expression of genes associated to cardiovascular and endocrine diseases, and suggested their influence in important signaling mechanisms and in numerous processes related to the circulatory and endocrine systems. In HF patients, the presence of obesity is associated with a differential expression of selected miRs and the miR-221/-130b ratio had significant correlations with adiposity parameters. Computational target prediction analysis identified several interrelated pathways targeted by miR-130b and miR-221 with a known relationship with endocrine and cardiovascular diseases, representing potential mechanisms to be further validated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant N-acetycysteine can turn into a prooxidant molecule in presence of iron ions. Thus, our goal was to test if the association of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and an iron chelator (deferoxamine-DFX) in a rodent model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) improves cardiac function. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a SHAM surgery or AMI. The animals were randomized: vehicle, NAC (25 mg/kg for 28 days), DFX (40 mg/kg for 7 days), or NAC plus DFX (NAC plus DFX, respectively). Animals were killed 28 days after the AMI. Animals treated with NAC/DFX showed an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction at 28 days when compared with vehicle group (45.2 ± 10.9 % vs. 34.7 ± 8.7 %, p = 0.03). Antioxidant effect of NAC/DFX treatment decreased 4-hydroxynonenal when compared to AMI group (p = 0.06). In conclusion, we showed beneficial effect of NAC/DFX association in improving left ventricle function in an experimental AMI.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nutritional factors have a significant influence on the prognosis of patients with heart failure (HF). Objective: The goal of the present study was to assess the food intake of stable patients with HF. Methods: Patients of both genders aged over 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of HF were recruited and matched with healthy individuals for age, sex and BMI. Food records and weighing were used to assess participant nutritional intake. DRIs and NCEP-ATP III recommendations were used to evaluate the adequacy of nutritional intake. Results: Sixty-five percent of the 40 patients in the sample and 48% of the 25 control subjects were men. The mean age in both groups was 54±8 years and mean BMI was categorized as overweight. Carbohydrate, trans fatty acid and sodium intake were higher in the HF group as compared to control subjects (p=0.006, p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective was to assess the effects of abdominal breathing (AB) versus subject's own breathing on femoral venous blood flow (Qfv) and their repercussions on central hemodynamics at rest and during exercise contrasting healthy subjects versus heart failure (HF) patients. We measured esophageal and gastric pressure (PGA), Qfv and parameters of central hemodynamics in eight healthy subjects and nine HF patients, under four conditions: subject's own breathing and AB (∆PGA ≥ 6 cmH2O) at rest and during knee extension exercises (15% of 1 repetition maximum) until exhaustion. Qfv and parameters of central hemodynamics [stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO)] were measured using Doppler ultrasound and impedance cardiography, respectively. At rest, healthy subjects Qfv, SV, and CO were higher during AB than subject's breathing (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.06 ± 0.00 L·min−1, 58.7 ± 3.4 vs. 50.1 ± 4.1 mL and 4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.1 L·min−1, respectively, P ≤ 0.05). ∆SV correlated with ∆PGA during AB (r = 0.89, P ≤ 0.05). This same pattern of findings induced by AB was observed during exercise (SV: 71.1 ± 4.1 vs. 65.5 ± 4.1 mL and CO: 6.3 ± 0.4 vs. 5.2 ± 0.4 L·min−1; P ≤ 0.05); however, Qfv did not reach statistical significance. The HF group tended to increase their Qfv during AB (0.09 ± 0.01 vs. 0.07 ± 0.03 L·min−1, P = 0.09). On the other hand, unlike the healthy subjects, AB did not improve SV or CO neither at rest nor during exercise (P > 0.05). In healthy subjects, abdominal pump modulated venous return improved SV and CO at rest and during exercise. In HF patients, with elevated right atrial and vena caval system pressures, these findings were not observed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction assigned to spironolactone did not achieve a significant reduction in the primary composite outcome (time to cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for management of heart failure) compared with patients receiving placebo. In a post hoc analysis, an ≈4-fold difference was identified in this composite event rate between the 1678 patients randomized from Russia and Georgia compared with the 1767 enrolled from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina (the Americas). -To better understand this regional difference in clinical outcomes, demographic characteristics of these populations and their responses to spironolactone were explored. Patients from Russia/Georgia were younger, had less atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus, but were more likely to have had prior myocardial infarction or a hospitalization for heart failure. Russia/Georgia patients also had lower left ventricular ejection fraction and creatinine but higher diastolic blood pressure (all P<0.001). Hyperkalemia and doubling of creatinine were more likely and hypokalemia was less likely in patients receiving spironolactone in the Americas with no significant treatment effects in Russia/Georgia. All clinical event rates were markedly lower in Russia/Georgia, and there was no detectable impact of spironolactone on any outcomes. In contrast, in the Americas, the rates of the primary outcome, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for heart failure were significantly reduced by spironolactone. -This post hoc analysis demonstrated greater potassium and creatinine changes and possible clinical benefits with spironolactone in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction from the Americas. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00094302.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Although half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal or near-normal ejection fraction and their prognosis differs little from that of patients with a reduced ejection fraction, the pathophysiology of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is still poorly understood, and its management poorly supported by clinical trials. Sodium and fluid restriction is the most common self-care measure prescribed to HF patients for management of congestive episodes. However, its role in the treatment of HF-PEF remains unclear. This trial seeks to compare the effects of a sodium- and fluid-restricted diet versus an unrestricted diet on weight loss, neurohormonal activation, and clinical stability in patients admitted for decompensated HF-PEF. Methods/Design This is a randomized, parallel trial with blinded outcome assessment. The sample will include adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with a diagnosis of HF-PEF admitted for HF decompensation. The patients will be randomized to receive a diet with sodium and fluid intake restricted to 0.8 g/day and 800 mL/day respectively (intervention group) or an unrestricted diet, with 4 g/day sodium and unlimited fluid intake (control group), and followed for 7 days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome shall consist of weight loss at 7 days or discharge. The secondary outcome includes assessment of clinical stability, neurohormonal activation, daily perception of thirst and readmission rate at 30 days. Discussion Assessment of the effects of sodium and fluid restriction on neurohormonal activation and clinical course of HF-PEF can promote a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology and progression of this complex syndrome. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01896908 (date of registration: 8 August 2013).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Home-based interventions for heart failure (HF) patients might be particularly effective in middle-income countries, where social, cultural, and economic constraints limit the effectiveness of HF treatment outside the hospital environment. Methods and results: HELEN-II was a randomized clinical trial conducted in Brazil designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a nurse-based strategy, started after discharge following an acute decompensated HF (ADHF) admission. HELEN-II compares the efficacy of home visits and telephone reinforcement (n = 123) with that of the conventional strategy, which is based on medical follow-up (n = 129). The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of a first visit to the emergency department (≤ 24 h), a hospital readmission (> 24 h), or all-cause death, assessed during the first 6 months of follow-up. Most enrolled subjects were middle-aged (62 ± 13 years) males (63%) in NYHA functional class II-III (84%) with severe LV dysfunction (mean LVEF 29.6 ± 9%). The primary composite endpoint was decreased by 27% in the interventional group (relative risk 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.99; P = 0.049). At the end of follow-up, the rate of use of the standard-of-care HF medications was similar in both groups, except for the higher use of furosemide in the interventional group. Also, HF knowledge and self-care were significantly increased in the interventional group. Conclusions: A post-discharge, nurse-led management strategy significantly decreases the morbidity of ADHF patients in the public health system of a developing middle-income country.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is frequent among patients with heart failure (HF) and diabetes, disorders associated with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. This study aims to search for associations between vitamin D sufficiency and physical function indexes in patients with HF and diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 146 HF patients, 39.7% with diabetes, at a Brazilian tertiary outpatient clinic was performed. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, 6-minute walk test (6 MWT), handgrip strength, physical activity level (IPAQ), and biochemical evaluations including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Classification was done according to vitamin D status (≥30 ng/dL, sufficient) and presence/absence of diabetes in vitamin sufficient, no diabetes (DS-C, n = 25), vitamin sufficient, diabetes (DS-DM, n = 18), vitamin deficient, no diabetes (DD-C, n = 63), and vitamin deficient, diabetes (DD-DM, n = 40). Patients age was 55.4 ± 8 yrs; 70.5% had vitamin D deficiency. Clinical characteristics were similar among groups. Total time expended in physical activity was similar among groups (P = 0.26). DS-C covered higher distances in the 6 MWT (392 ± 60 m) versus DD-DM (309 ± 116 m); P = 0.024. Handgrip strength was similar among groups but tended to lower levels in DD-DM (P = 0.074) even after being adjusted to physical activity (P = 0.069). Vitamin D deficiency can influence physical function in HF diabetic patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate whether changes in hydration status (reflecting fluid retention) would be detected by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and phase angle during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and after clinical stabilization. Methods Patients admitted to ADHF were evaluated at admission, discharge and after clinical stabilization (3 months after discharge) for dyspnea, weight, brain natriuretic peptide, bioelectrical impedance resistance, reactance, and phase angle. Generalized estimating equations and chi-square detected variations among the three time points of evaluation. Results Were included 57 patients: mean age was 61±13 years, 65% were male, LVEF was 25±8%. During hospitalization there were improvements in clinical parameters and increase in resistance/height (from 250±72 to 302±59 Ohms/m, p<0.001), reactance/height (from 24±10 to 31±9 Ohms/m, p<0.001) and phase angle (from 5.3±1.6 to 6±1.6 degrees, p=0.007). From discharge to chronic stability, both clinical and BIVA parameters remained stable. At admission, 61% of patients had significant congestion by BIVA, and they lost more weight and had higher improvement in dyspnea during hospitalization (p<0.05). At discharge, more patients were in the upper half of the graph (characterizing some degree of dehydration), while at chronic stability normal hydration status was more prevalent (p<0.001). Conclusions BIVA and phase angle were able to detect significant changes in hydration status during ADHF, which paralleled the clinical course of recompensation, both acutely and chronically. The classification of congestion by BIVA at admission identified patients with more pronounced changes in weight and dyspnea during compensation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Studies of transgenic mouse models have indicated that deregulation of a single miR can induce pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac failure. The roles of miRs in the genesis of physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), however, are not well understood. To evaluate the global miR expression in an experimental model of exercise-induced LVH. Male Balb/c mice were divided into sedentary (SED) and exercise (EXE) groups. Voluntary exercise was performed on an odometer-monitored metal wheels for 35 days. Various tests were performed after 7 and 35 days of training, including a transthoracic echocardiography, a maximal exercise test, a miR microarray (miRBase v.16) and qRT-PCR analysis. The ratio between the left ventricular weight and body weight was increased by 7% in the EXE group at day 7 (p<0.01) and by 11% at day 35 of training (p<0.001). After 7 days of training, the microarray identified 35 miRs that were differentially expressed between the two groups: 20 were up-regulated and 15 were down-regulated in the EXE group compared with the SED group (p = 0.01). At day 35 of training, 25 miRs were differentially expressed: 15 were up-regulated and 10 were decreased in the EXE animals compared with the SED animals (p<0.01). The qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated an increase in miR-150 levels after 35 days and a decrease in miR-26b, miR-27a and miR-143 after 7 days of voluntary exercise. We have identified new miRs that can modulate physiological cardiac hypertrophy, particularly miR-26b, -150, -27a and -143. Our data also indicate that previously established regulatory gene pathways involved in pathological LVH are not changed in physiological LVH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists improve the prognosis for patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We evaluated the effects of spironolactone in patients with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 3445 patients with symptomatic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or more to receive either spironolactone (15 to 45 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for the management of heart failure. Results: With a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 320 of 1722 patients in the spironolactone group (18.6%) and 351 of 1723 patients in the placebo group (20.4%) (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.04; P=0.14). Of the components of the primary outcome, only hospitalization for heart failure had a significantly lower incidence in the spironolactone group than in the placebo group (206 patients [12.0%] vs. 245 patients [14.2%]; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99, P=0.04). Neither total deaths nor hospitalizations for any reason were significantly reduced by spironolactone. Treatment with spironolactone was associated with increased serum creatinine levels and a doubling of the rate of hyperkalemia (18.7%, vs. 9.1% in the placebo group) but reduced hypokalemia. With frequent monitoring, there were no significant differences in the incidence of serious adverse events, a serum creatinine level of 3.0 mg per deciliter (265 μmol per liter) or higher, or dialysis. Conclusions: In patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction, treatment with spironolactone did not significantly reduce the incidence of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for the management of heart failure. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; TOPCAT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00094302.).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The utilisation of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in heart failure can be affected by many factors and its applicability remains controversial. The present study aimed to verify the adequacy of single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) and multifrequency BIA (MF-BIA) compared to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for evaluating body composition in outpatients with heart failure.Methods In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients with stable heart failure and left ventricle ejection fraction ≤45% were evaluated for fat mass percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass by DEXA and compared with the results obtained by SF-BIA (single frequency of 50 kHz) and MF-BIA (frequencies of 20 and 100 kHz).ResultsMF-BIA and DEXA gave similar mean values for fat mass percentage, fat mass and fat-free mass, whereas values from SF-BIA were significantly different from DEXA. Both SF-BIA and MF-BIA measures of body composition correlated strongly with DEXA (r > 0.8; P < 0.001), except for fat mass assessed by SF-BIA, which showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.760; P < 0.001). MF-BIA also showed a better agreement with DEXA by Bland–Altman analysis in all measurements. However, both types of equipment showed wide limits of agreement and a significant relationship between variance and bias (Pitmans's test P > 0.05), except MF-BIA for fat-free mass.Conclusions Compared with DEXA, MF-BIA showed better accuracy than SF-BIA, although both types of equipment showed wide limits of agreement. The BIA technique should be used with caution, and regression equations might be useful for correcting the observed variations, mainly in extreme values of body composition.
Hospital De Clínicas De Porto AlegrePôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil