[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: RIPK3 is a key molecule for necroptosis, initially characterized by necrotic cell death morphology and the activation of autophagy. Cell death and autophagic signaling are believed to tightly regulate each other. However, the associated recruitment of signaling proteins remains poorly understood. p62/sequestosome-1 is a selective autophagy substrate and a selective receptor for ubiquitinated proteins. In this study, we illustrated that both mouse and human RIPK3 mediate p62 cleavage and that RIPK3 interacts with p62, resulting in complex formation. In addition, RIPK3-dependent p62 cleavage is restricted by the inhibition of caspases, especially caspase-8. Moreover, overexpression of A20, a ubiquitin-editing enzyme and an inhibitor of caspase-8 activity, inhibits RIPK3-dependent p62 cleavage. To further investigate the potential role of RIPK3 in selective autophagy, we analyzed p62–LC3 complex formation, revealing that RIPK3 prevents the localization of LC3 and ubiquitinated proteins to the p62 complex. In addition, RIPK3-dependent p62–LC3 complex disruption is regulated by caspase inhibition. Taken together, these results demonstrated that RIPK3 interacts with p62 and regulates p62–LC3 complex formation. These findings suggested that RIPK3 serves as a negative regulator of selective autophagy and provides new insights into the mechanism by which RIPK3 regulates autophagic signaling.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is involved in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD); however, few reports are available on the association between HLA class I antigens and CD in Japan. In this study, we performed association analysis of HLA class I antigens in CD using 208 Japanese patients and 384 healthy controls. We identified novel positive associations between CD and HLA-A*02:01 (odds ratio (OR)=1.64, P=0.016) and HLA-A*02:07 (OR=2.31, P=0.0067) and confirmed previously reported positive associations between CD and HLA-Cw*14:02 (OR=2.18, P=0.0021) and HLA-B*51:01 (OR=1.70, P=0.033). We also identified novel negative associations between CD and HLA-A*24:02 (OR=0.60, P=0.0047) and HLA-B*07:02 (OR=0.38, P=0.0041). Although the associations were not significant after full Bonferroni correction, we suggested that HLA class I genes have dual functions, susceptibility and resistance in controlling the development of CD.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 6 November 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.61.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Genes and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour.
Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence.
We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids.
The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In September 2003, a double-balloon endoscope (DBE) composed of balloons attached to a scope and an overtube was released in Japan prior to becoming available in other parts of the world. The DBE was developed by Dr. Yamamoto (1), and 5 different types of scopes with different uses have already been marketed. In April 2007, a single-balloon small intestinal endoscope was released with a balloon attached only to the overtube as a subsequent model. This article presents a detailed account of the development of these scopes up to the present time.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Reports have suggested that the two Notch ligands, Dll1 and Dll4, are indispensable to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. However, within the intestinal epithelium, the precise distribution of the cells that express those ligands at the protein level remains largely unknown. Here, we show a series of immunohistochemical analysis through which we successfully identified mice intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that endogenously express Dll1 or Dll4. Results showed that Dll1-positive (Dll1+ve) IECs reside exclusively within the crypt, whereas Dll4-positive (Dll4+ve) IECs can locate both in the crypt and in the villus of the small intestine. Also in the colon, Dll1+ve IECs resided at the lower part of the crypt, whereas Dll4+ve IECs resided at both upper and lower part of the crypt, including the surface epithelium. Both Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs were ATOH1-positive, but Hes1-negative cells, and located adjacent to Hes1-positive cells within the crypts. A sub-population of both Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs appeared to co-express Muc2, but rarely co-expressed other secretory lineage markers. However, as compared to Dll1+ve IECs, Dll4+ve IECs included larger number of Muc2-postive IECs, suggesting that Dll4 is more preferentially expressed by goblet cells. Also, we identified that Dll4 is expressed in the Paneth cells of the small intestine, whereas Dll1 and Dll4 is expressed in the c-kit-positive IECs of the colon, indicating that Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs may contribute to constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. Compared to the normal colon, analysis of DSS-colitis showed that number of Dll1+ve IECs significantly decrease in the elongated crypts of the inflamed colonic mucosa. In sharp contrast, number of Dll4+ve IECs showed a significant increase in those crypts, which was accompanied by the increase in number of Hes1-positive IECs. Those Dll4+ve IECs were mostly found adjacent to the Hes1-positive IECs, suggesting that Dll4 may act as a major Notch ligand in the crypts of the inflamed colonic mucosa. Our results illustrate distinct expression patterns of Dll1 and Dll4 within the intestinal epithelium, and suggest that these two ligands may have different roles in normal and inflamed mucosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a γ-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulate the absorption and secretion of anions, such as HCO3(-) or Cl(-). Bestrophin genes represent a newly identified group of calcium-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Studies have suggested that, among the four human bestrophin-family genes, bestrophin-2 (BEST2) and bestrophin-4 (BEST4) might be expressed within the intestinal tissue. Consistently, a study showed that BEST2 is expressed by human colonic goblet cells. However, their precise expression pattern along the gastrointestinal tract, or the lineage specificity of the cells expressing these genes, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BEST2 and BEST4 are expressed in vivo, each in a distinct, lineage-specific manner, in human IECs. While BEST2 was expressed exclusively in colonic goblet cells, BEST4 was expressed in the absorptive cells of both the small intestine and the colon. In addition, we found that BEST2 expression is significantly down-regulated in the active lesions of ulcerative colitis, where goblet cells were depleted, suggesting that BEST2 expression is restricted to goblet cells under both normal and pathologic conditions. Consistently, the induction of goblet cell differentiation by a Notch inhibitor, LY411575, significantly up-regulated the expression of not BEST4 but BEST2 in MUC2-positive HT-29 cells. Conversely, the induction of absorptive cell differentiation up-regulated the expression of BEST4 in villin-positive Caco-2 cells. In addition, we found that the up- or down-regulation of Notch activity leads to the preferential expression of either BEST4 or BEST2, respectively, in LS174T cells. These results collectively confirmed that BEST2 and BEST4 could be added to the lineage-specific genes of humans IECs due to their abilities to clearly identify goblet cells of colonic origin and a distinct subset of absorptive cells, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Colitogenic memory CD4(+) T cells are important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although memory stem cells with high survival and self-renewal capacity were recently identified in both mice and humans, it is unclear whether a similar subset is present in chronic colitis mice. We sought to identify and purify a long-lived subset of colitogenic memory CD4(+) T cells, which may be targets for treatment of IBD. A long-lived subset of colitogenic memory CD4(+) T cells was purified using a long-term culture system. The characteristics of these cells were assessed. Interleukin (IL)-7 promoted the in vitro survival for >8 weeks of lamina propria (LP) CD4(+) T cells from colitic SCID mice previously injected with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. These cells were in a quiescent state and divided a maximum of 5 times in 4 weeks. LP CD4(+) T cells expressed higher levels of Bcl-2, integrin-α4β7, CXCR3 and CD25 after than before culture, as well as secreting high concentrations of IL-2 and low concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-17 in response to intestinal bacterial antigens. LP CD4(+) T cells from colitic mice cultured with IL-7 for 8 weeks induced more severe colitis than LP CD4(+) T cells cultured for 4 weeks. We developed a novel culture system to purify a long-lived, highly pathogenic memory subset from activated LP CD4(+) T cells. IL-7 promoted long-term in vitro survival of this subset in a quiescent state. This subset will be a novel, effective target for the treatment of IBD.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Immunology letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Although intestinal microbiota are essential for the development of T cell-mediated colitis, it remains undetermined whether they enhance or suppress the chronic extraintestinal inflammation that often complicates inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, we investigate the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of colitis and extraintestinal manifestations in a mouse model in which colitis was induced in SCID mice by adoptive transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. Under specific pathogen-free conditions, these mice developed both colitis and extraintestinal interstitial pneumonia, whereas mice given a mixture of antibiotics did not develop colitis, but, surprisingly, developed Th1/Th17-mediated IP. Irrespective of antibiotic treatment, cotransfer of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppressed the development of pneumonitis and colitis, with all local CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cell-derived cells converted to CD44(high)CD62L(-)IL-7Rα(high) effector-memory T cells. Retransfer of CD4(+) effector-memory T cells from the lungs of antibiotic-treated mice with IP not only induced IP in both antibiotic-treated and -untreated recipients but also induced colitis in the untreated recipients. In summary, we have established a unique model of Th1/Th17-mediated IP in microbiota-free and antibiotic-treated mice. This model may be valuable in investigating the immunological mechanisms underlying extraintestinal disorders in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) plays crucial roles in the differentiation of intestinal epithelium cells. Although we have reported that the Atoh1 protein was degraded in colon cancer by aberrant Wnt signaling, a recent study has indicated that the Atoh1 protein is expressed in mucinous colon cancer (MC) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). However, the roles of the Atoh1 protein in MC are unknown. To mimic MC, a mutated Atoh1 protein was stably expressed in undifferentiated colon cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed the acquisition of not only the differentiated cell form, but also malignant potential by Atoh1 protein stabilization. In particular, Atoh1 enhanced Wnt signaling, resulting in the induction of Lgr5 as a representative stem cell marker with the enrichment of cancer stem cells. Moreover, the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator system with time-lapse live imaging demonstrated cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase by Atoh1 protein stabilization. In conclusion, the Atoh1 protein regulates malignant potential rather than the differentiation phenotype of MC, suggesting the mechanism by which MC and SRCC are more malignant than non-mucinous adenocarcinoma.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications