[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heidegger's two modes of thinking, calculative and meditative, were used as the thematic basis for this qualitative study of physicians from seven countries (Canada, China, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, & Thailand). Focus groups were conducted in each country with 69 physicians who cared for the elderly. Results suggest that physicians perceived ethical issues primarily through the lens of calculative thinking (76%) with emphasis on economic concerns. Meditative responses represented 24% of the statements and were mostly generated by Canadian physicians whose patients typically were not faced with economic barriers to treatment due to Canada's universal health care system.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a variety of national organizations such as the Canadian Pain Society, the American Pain Society and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations have advanced the idea that pain should be assessed on a routine basis, there is little evidence that systematic pain assessment information is used routinely by clinicians even when it is readily available.
To determine whether systematic pain assessment information alters medical practitioners' clinical practices.
A population of seniors with complex medical problems who were evaluated by case coordinators was studied. Case coordinators were assigned to either an experimental or control patient assessment condition. Control condition patients were assessed as usual. In the experimental condition, a psychometrically valid pain assessment battery as well as the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form (because depression and chronic pain are frequently comorbid) were integrated into the routine case coordination assessment. A summary of the results of the depression and pain assessments was subsequently sent to physicians via mail and fax. Patients were also given copies of the assessment summaries and were asked to discuss these with their physicians. Physicians' medication prescriptions were monitored over time through the database of the provincial ministry of health.
At the end of the study, no significant differences between experimental and control patients were found with respect to medications prescribed or patient self-reports of pain. Nonetheless, there was a significant relationship between Geriatric Depression Scale -- Short Form scores and pain medications prescribed for patients in the experimental condition. Moreover, indexes of overall pain intensity did not change significantly over time.
The findings do not support the idea that the availability of systematic pain assessment information leads to change in clinician's medication practices. As such, educational interventions and public policy initiatives are needed to ensure that treatment providers do not only gather but also use pain assessment information.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Pain research & management: the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la societe canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although psychosocial treatments for pain have been found to be effective in reducing self-reported pain, physician visits, and in improving mood, the research has largely focused on younger persons. As such, there is a paucity of related studies involving older adults.
We implemented and evaluated a 10-session psychosocial (i.e. cognitive behavioural orientation) pain management program that was specifically designed for older adults. The intervention was delivered either in the participants' homes or in bookable rooms in seniors' residence buildings. Ninety-five community dwelling seniors with at least one chronic pain condition were assigned to either a treatment or a wait-list control condition. An assessment battery was administered to treatment participants immediately before the program started, immediately post-treatment, and 3-months post-treatment. Comparable data were obtained from control group participants, although 3-month follow-up data were not available for the control group. Outcome variables included pain intensity, coping strategy usage, pain beliefs/appraisals, and perceived life stressors.
Although decreases in pain intensity were observed in both the treatment and wait-list control groups, the intervention was found to result in fewer maladaptive beliefs about pain and greater use of relaxation, which is considered to be an adaptive coping strategy.
Although some treatment benefits were identified (e.g. change in pain-related beliefs), future research should test the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural treatment program tailored for seniors with participants who are experiencing higher pain intensities than those reported by our sample (i.e. those who experience a higher level of pain at baseline may represent a more suitable sample for assessing the effectiveness of our intervention in reducing pain intensity).
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the content of Canadian hospital mission statements using thematic content analysis. The mission statements that we studied varied in terms of both content and length. Although there was some content related to goals designed to ensure organizational visibility, survival, and competitiveness, the domain of values predominated over our entire coding structure. The primary value-related theme that emerged concerned the importance of patient care.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Health care management review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The literature suggests that pain in the elderly, especially among seniors with dementia, is under-assessed and under-treated. This qualitative study solicited the perspectives of seniors, front-line nursing staff, nursing-home administrators, and informal caregivers of seniors with dementia on the current status of pain assessment and management. The views of these participants complement the research findings reported in the literature. While some of their explanations and potential solutions concerning under-treatment of pain in seniors echo views that have been presented in the literature, the participants also pointed to factors and avenues that have been given less formal consideration (e.g., systemic barriers to effective assessment and treatment of pain). They also highlighted the need for pain-control strategies beyond medication. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Preview · Article · Jul 2005 · The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmières
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated the utility of the Pain Behavior Measurement (PBM) system as a pain index. PBM involves the recording of sighing, rubbing, grimacing, guarding and bracing. A modification of this system has been proposed, focusing on the occurrence of joint flexing, rubbing, unloading the joint, guarding and rigidity, specifically for patients with knee pain. The aim of the present study was to compare the original PBM to the modified version in a sample of knee replacement patients to assess the utility of the more specialized approach. It was expected that the more discomforting physiotherapy activities (knee bending and quadriceps exercises) would result in more pain behaviours than intermediate activities (walking and standing), which, in turn, would result in more pain behaviours than reclining. The extent to which each system reflected this expected pattern was examined.
Ninety-three seniors were observed while completing a series of structured post-knee surgery physiotherapy activities (knee bending, standing, walking, reclining and a quadriceps exercise).
Analyses of self-reported levels of pain were consistent with the expected pattern of pain levels in relation to the physiotherapy activities. Specific pain behaviours within each system (eg, grimacing, rigidity) occurred in a manner consistent with the expected pattern, while other behaviours (e.g., rubbing the affected area) did not.
Although there was no clear advantage for the modified system over the PBM, an optimal approach may involve combining specific behaviours from each system.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Pain research & management: the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la societe canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur