[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in preventing catheter-related infections during external ventricular drainage (EVD), we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized prospective studies (NPSs) related to antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters were included. The primary outcome was the rate of cerebrospinal fluid infection (CFI). The secondary outcomes included the rate of time-dependent CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. We further performed subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, and microbial spectrum analysis. Four RCTs and four NPSs were included. The overall rate of CFIs was 3.6% in the antimicrobial-impregnated catheter group and 13.7% in the standard catheter group. The pooled data demonstrated that antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were superior to standard catheters in lowering the rate of CFIs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12 to 0.52, P <0.05). In survival analysis, the 20-day infection rate was significantly reduced with the use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.95, P <0.05). Furthermore, a significantly decreased rate of catheter bacterial colonization was noticed for antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.64, P <0.05). In subgroup analyses, although significant results remained for RCTs and NPSs, a subgroup difference was revealed (P <0.05). Compared with standard catheters, a significantly lower rate of CFIs was noticed for clindamycin/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.73, P <0.05) and for minocycline/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.21, P <0.05). However, no statistical significance was found when compared with silver-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.69, P = 0.18). In microbial spectrum analysis, antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were shown to have a lower rate of Gram-positive bacterial infection, particularly the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. In conclusion, the use of antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters could be beneficial for the prevention of CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. Although antibiotic-coated catheters seem to be effective, no sufficient evidence supports the efficacy of silver-impregnated catheters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In an effort to avoid the damage and inconvenience associated with transcranial approaches, we developed an endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle approach for decompression of the superior orbital fissure (SOF). METHODS: The endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle route was performed in ten cadaveric heads. We measured important anatomic landmarks, and angles radiographically. This approach was initially attempted in one patient with traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome (tSOFS). RESULTS: A maxillary antrostomy was carried out with a buccal sulcus incision. The sinus ostium and the course of infraorbital nerve were used as endoscopic anatomic landmarks. Then the inferior orbital fissure was drilled out, followed by separating the Müller's muscle. The periorbita were peeled off from the lateral wall, followed by the endoscope going along the periorbital space, until the lateral aspect of the SOF could be visualized. Decompression was successfully performed in all specimens. The initial clinical application justified this approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and satisfactory recovery. CONCLUSION: This approach offers sufficient endoscopic visualization and reliable decompression of SOF. It avoids the need for brain retraction, temporalis muscle manipulation, or any external incision, and appears to be able to deliver satisfying aesthetic results as well as favourable functional recovery.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In traumatic brain injury (TBI), the appropriate timing and route of feeding, and the efficacy of immune-enhancing formulae have not been well established. We performed this meta-analysis aiming to compare the effects of different nutritional support modalities on clinical outcomes of TBI patients.
We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library until October, 2012. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized prospective studies (NPSs) that compared the effects of different routes, timings, or formulae of feeding on outcomes in TBI patients were selected. The primary outcomes included mortality and poor outcome. The secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay, the length of ventilation days, and the rate of infectious or feeding-related complications.
13 RCTs and 3 NPSs were included. The pooled data demonstrated that, compared with delayed feeding, early feeding was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.50), poor outcome (RR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91), and infectious complications (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99). Compared with enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition showed a slight trend of reduction in the rate of mortality (RR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.34-1.09), poor outcome (RR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51-1.04), and infectious complications (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.66-1.22), whereas without statistical significances. The immune-enhancing formula was associated with a significant reduction in infection rate compared with the standard formula (RR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.82). Small-bowel feeding was found to be with a decreasing rate of pneumonia compared with nasogastric feeding (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.76).
After TBI, early initiation of nutrition is recommended. It appears that parenteral nutrition is superior to enteral nutrition in improving outcomes. Our results lend support to the use of small-bowel feeding and immune-enhancing formulae in reducing infectious complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forest plot shows the effect of non-nasogastric and nasogastric enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with TBI. (A) Forest plot illustrates the effect on pneumonia. (B) Forest plot shows the effect on mortality. (C) Forest plot shows the effect on ventilator days. (D) Forest plot shows the effect on length of stay in the intensive care unit. Pneumo, pneumonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forest plot shows the effect of early nutrition and delayed nutrition on feeding compliations. (A) Forest plot illustrates the effect on diarrhea. (B) Forest plot illustrates the effect on feeding intolerance. I, intolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm is the most important potentially treatable cause of mortality and morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Clazosentan, a selective endothelinreceptor antagonist, has been suggested to help reduce the incidence of vasospasm in patients with aSAH. However, the results were controversial in previous trials. This meta-analysis attempts to assess the effect of clazosentan in patients with aSAH.
We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception until June, 2012. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to the effect of clazosentan in aSAH were included. The primary outcomes included the incidence of angiographic vasospasm, new cerebral infarction (NCI), delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND), and vasospasm-related morbidity/mortality (M/M); the second outcomes included the occurrence of rescue therapy, all-cause-mortality, and poor outcome. 4 RCTs were included with a total of 2156 patients. The risk of angiographic vasospasm (relative risk [RR] = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.71), DIND (RR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.92), and vasospasm-related M/M (RR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.96) were statistically significantly reduced in the clazosentan group. Patients treated with clazosentan had a reduced occurrence of rescue therapy (RR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.79). However, no statistically significant effects were observed in NCI (RR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.04), mortality (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.49), and poor outcome (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.30).
Our pooling data supports that clazosentan is probably effective in preventing the occurrence of angiographic vasospasm, vasospasm-related DIND, vasospasm related M/M, and rescue therapy. However, no evidence lends significant supports to the benefits of clazosentan in decreasing the occurrence of NCI, mortality or improving the functional outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embolization therapy has been used as the initial treatment for spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) only for certain patients or in certain medical institutions due to its minimal invasiveness, but the recurrence of embolization remains a clinical challenge. The recurrent patient usually exhibits a gradual onset of symptoms and progressive deterioration of neurological function. Developing paraplegia several hours after embolization is commonly seen in patients with venous thrombosis-related complications, for which anticoagulation therapy is often administered. This article reports on a SDAVF patient who had weakness of both lower extremities before embolization and developed complete paraplegia several hours after embolization therapy, later confirmed by angiography as fistula recurrence. The symptoms were relieved gradually after second embolization. The pathophysiology of this patient is also discussed.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a cell cycle-associated protein, and altered TPX2 expression has been found in various malignancies. However, the contribution of TPX2 expression to astrocytoma progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate TPX2 expression in human astrocytoma samples and cell lines. TPX2 protein expression was detected in the nucleus of astrocytoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of TPX2 were higher in high-grade astrocytoma tissues and cell lines than that in low-grade astrocytoma tissues and normal cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from 52 patients with astrocytoma showed that TPX2 over-expression was significantly associated with decreased patient survival. In addition, down-regulation of the TPX2 gene by RNA interference inhibited proliferation of U87 cells. TPX2 gene silencing also increased early-stage apoptosis in U87 cells. Western blotting and real-time PCR showed changes in the protein and mRNA expression of Aurora A, Ran, p53, c-Myc and cyclin B1 in U87 cells that had been transfected with pSUPER/TPX2/siRNA. These data suggest that TPX2 expression is associated with the progression of malignant astrocytoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilic pseudotumor is a rare complication of haemophilia occurring in 1-2% of patients and is more frequently located is in the long bones of the lower extremities and in the pelvis. We present the first case of an intracranial haemophilic pseudotumor in a patient with factor VIII deficiency.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · British Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 3D-RA on the treatment of SCVMs.
Twelve patients with SCVM were retrospectively reviewed for details of 2D and 3D-RA findings. Pretherapeutic 2D and 3D-RA angiograms were compared with respect to 4 critical categories of parameters: (1) the exact anatomic location, size, and extent; (2) the definitive diagnosis; (3) the precise angioarchitectural configuration; and (4) the contribution to further intervention.
Overall, 2D and 3D-RA were equally effective in demonstrating the exact anatomic location, size, and extent, and establishing the definitive diagnosis of SCVM in all 12 cases. 3-Dimensional rotational angiography demonstrated precise angioarchitectural configuration in 8 (8/12) cases, facilitated treatment in 6 (6/12) cases, and modified therapeutic strategies in 2 (2/12) cases via information not available from 2D-DSA images. Both 2D and 3D-RA contributed equally to the therapeutic intervention in 4 (4/12) patients. No complications occurred as a result of 3D-RA.
3-Dimensional rotational angiography may enhance our ability to treat SCVMs with complex angioarchitecture and is an ideal addition to conventional 2D angiography in the management of these vascular lesions.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Surgical Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UbcH10 is one of the key regulators of cell cycle progression through the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint pathway. Recently, aberrantly high UbcH10 expression has been demonstrated in a variety of malignancies. However, its role in astrocytic carcinogenesis is not well defined. This study investigated the splice pattern of the UbcH10 gene and its expression status in astrocytomas of different grades. Consequently, UbcH10 splice variant 1 (GenBank accession nos. NM_007019) was detected in astrocytomas and normal brain tissues by RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Expression levels of UbcH10 mRNA were elevated in high- versus low-grade astrocytomas (64.33+/-60.98 vs 8.36+/-8.15, respectively; p=0.000) or normal controls (64.33+/-60.98 vs 1.00+/-1.57, respectively; p=0.000), as determined by quantitative real time PCR analysis. Similarly, immunohistochemistry study showed increased UbcH10 labelling index in high-grade astrocytomas versus low-grade tumors (10.53+/-5.79% vs 4.23+/-2.85%, respectively; p=0.000) or normal controls (10.53+/-5.79% vs 0.0+/-0.0%, respectively; p=0.000) and, a positive correlation between UbcH10 immunoreactivity and Ki-67 immunostaining was also noted (Spearman r=0.63, p<0.001). These data suggest that overexpression of UbcH10 may serve as one important molecular mechanism that underlies the astrocytic carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal arteriovenous anastamoses between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. These fistulas may be classified by cause (spontaneous or traumatic), flow velocity (high or low), or pathogenesis (direct or indirect). The most commonly adopted classification is that described by Barrow based on arterial supply. Traumatic CCFs are almost always direct shunts between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the cavernous sinus. General features of CCFs, which may be apparent with any lesion, including bruit, headache, loss of vision, altered mental status and neurological deficits. Some fistulae may present primarily with hemorrhage before any evaluation can be performed. However, hemiparesis has been rarely observed. Only a literature review of Murata et al reported a case of hemiparesis caused by posttraumatic CCF, in which the fistula resulted in venous hypertension and subsequent brainstem congestion. While in our case, cerebral infarction was caused by total steal of the blood flow. The patient recovered after occlusion of the fistula with a detachable balloon.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Chinese Journal of Traumatology (English Edition)