[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A urinary metabolomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was employed to investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutic effects of a Baixiangdan capsule on rats undergoing electric-induced stress for five days. Multivariate analysis techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were applied to observe the temporal changes in the metabolic state of the electric-stressed rats visually, as well as the recovering tendency of the rats treated with the Baixiangdan capsule. Artificial intelligence technology (artificial neural networks and neurofuzzy logic) was used to identify potential biomarkers, and the results showed a high overlap with the PLS-DA model. A total of 14 potential biomarkers representing the major cause-effect relationships between the variations in the endogenous metabolites and the dynamic pathological processes associated with the stress induced by the electric stimulation were identified, including amino acid metabolites, such as 2-aminoadipic acid, hippuric acid, spermine, 4-hydroxyglutamate and l-phenylalanine, in addition to prostaglandin F3a and melatonin. The results indicated that the pathways corresponding to l-phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, proline metabolism, pantothenic acid, and coenzyme A synthesis were disturbed in the electric-stressed rats, and that the application of the Baixiangdan capsule may regulate the aforementioned metabolic pathways back to their initial states. The application of artificial intelligence technologies provided powerful and promising tools to model complex metabolomic data and to discover hidden knowledge regarding the potential biomarkers associated with the development of disease, which are also suitable for other complex biological data sets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fuzhuan brick tea has received increasing attention in recent years owing to its benefits for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic syndrome. For exploring the ameliorative mechanism, the liver proteomes from three groups of rats fed either a normal control diet (NCD), a high fat diet (HFD), or a HFD supplemented with high-dose FTE (HFD+HFTE) were comprehensively compared by quantitative proteomics using 2DE-LC-MS/MS. This is the first study of the effects of tea aqueous extract on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. The results showed that 57 proteins displayed more than 1.5-fold differences in at least one of two comparisons of HFD versus NCD and HFD versus HFD+HFTE due to HFD feeding and FTE treatment, respectively. Of them, over 75% of proteins exhibited a similar tendency of expression in the two comparisons, meaning FTE was able to correct HFD effects on rat livers. By function analyses, an extensive list of proteins were involved in sugar and lipid metabolism. Compared with HFD-fed rats, the reduced lipogenesis and enhanced β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain in HFD+HFTE-fed rats, which mainly contributed to ameliorate hepatic fat accumulation and associated NAFLD. Additionally, some putative drug targets were also revealed such as COX2, PGAM1, ACACB, FAS and ECHS1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zheng is the basic theory and essence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in diagnosing diseases. However, there are no biological evidences to support TCM Zheng differentiation. In this study we elucidated the biological alteration of cirrhosis with TCM "Liver-Kidney Yin Deficiency (YX)" or "Dampness-Heat Internal Smoldering (SR)" Zheng and the potential of urine metabonomics in TCM Zheng differentiation. Differential metabolites contributing to the intergroup variation between healthy controls and liver cirrhosis patients were investigated, respectively, and mainly participated in energy metabolism, gut microbiota metabolism, oxidative stress, and bile acid metabolism. Three metabolites, aconitate, citrate, and 2-pentendioate, altered significantly in YX Zheng only, representing the abnormal energy metabolism. Contrarily, hippurate and 4-pyridinecarboxylate altered significantly in SR Zheng only, representing the abnormalities of gut microbiota metabolism. Moreover, there were significant differences between two TCM Zhengs in three metabolites, glycoursodeoxycholate, cortolone-3-glucuronide, and L-aspartyl-4-phosphate, among all differential metabolites. Metabonomic profiling, as a powerful approach, provides support to the understanding of biological mechanisms of TCM Zheng stratification. The altered urinary metabolites constitute a panel of reliable biological evidence for TCM Zheng differentiation in patients with posthepatitis B cirrhosis and may be used for the potential biomarkers of TCM Zheng stratification.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC0-∞ (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic "herb pair" has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid quantitative analytical method for three components of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos solution (Lonicera Japonica Thumb.) extracted by water was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and the partial least-squares (PLS) method. The NIR spectra of 81 samples collected from a production line were obtained. The concentrations of secologanic acid, chlorogenic acid and galuteolin were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection as the reference method. Several pretreatment methods for the NIR spectra were used during PLS calibration. The most appropriate latent variable number of the PLS factor was selected based on the standard error of cross-validation (SECV). The performance of the final PLS models was evaluated according to SECV, standard error of prediction (SEP) and determination coefficient (R2). The compounds secologanic acid, chlorogenic acid and galuteolin had SEP values of 0.030, 0.061 and 1.668 μg/mL, respectively and R2 values over 0.85. This work shows that NIR spectroscopy is a rapid and convenient method for the analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos solution extracted by water. The proposed method can help in the application of process analytical technology in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly in traditional Chinese medicine injections.
Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid near-infrared reflection (NIR) spectroscopy analysis method was developed for discrimination of the dried rhizome part of Acorus calamus L. and Acorus tatarinowii Schott, two kinds of traditional Chinese herbs that are sometimes mixed or used interchangeably, and the simultaneous determination of their main components β-asarone and α-asarone. The NIR spectra of 25 Acorus calamus L. samples and 25 Acorus tatarinowii Schott samples were collected in integrating-sphere diffused reflection mode and pre-processed with different methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) were applied to discriminate Acorus calamus L. from Acorus tatarinowii Schott, and the latter method proved better, more visual and effective. The quantitative models of β-asarone and α-asarone were developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR) as multivariate regression method with optimum spectral pre-processing method, wavenumber range and latent variables (LV) numbers, and the results from ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis were taken as reference values. The correlation coefficients of the quantitative models of β-asarone and α-asarone are all above 0.98 while the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) are all below 0.6%, indicating that the models we established have good predictive ability. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy could be used to solve analogous problems for the safety of clinical medication, and can also be applied in the medical industry for the quality control of Acorus calamus L. and Acorus tatarinowii Schott.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Analytical methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most significant microvascular complications associated with diabetes. Until now, there is no effective treatment and the gene mechanism of diabetic nephropathy is still unclear. Tangshen formula is a traditional Chinese medicine, and has been shown to have good clinical efficacy in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes of gene expression profiling and explore the molecular mechanism using a db/db mice model treated by Tangshen formula. After administration for 12 weeks, a microarray was applied to detect the gene expression of db/db mice kidney tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the differential gene expression and carry out a JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway study. Treatment with Tangshen formula reduced the levels of serum glucose and urinary albumin in db/db mice, and the effects of Tangshen formula on db/db mice were significantly different from the positive control (Losartan potassium tablets) on microarray data. It also showed that the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway played an important role in the treatment process. The expressions of JAK1, JAK2, and STAT3 were upregulated, and STAT4 was downregulated in Tangshen formula-treated db/db mice. SOCS1, 3, and 7 were all activated, while negative feedback regulated other related genes in the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway. Our study suggested that Tangshen formula has beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy treatment via regulating the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway. This study will help to provide evidence-based recommendations for Tangshen formula clinical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluidic patterning is a convenient and versatile tool for the patterning of materials, cells and microstructures on surface and in microchannels. However, its performance is usually limited by transverse diffusion between fluid streams. It would blur the boundary and deteriorate the precision of patterns. In this paper, we adopted geometric confinement to generate biphasic parallel flow that is constituted of oil and water. Since there is minimum transverse diffusion in biphasic parallel flow, the performance of fluid patterning is expected to be improved. The results show that the metal (Silver and Chromium) patterns have distinct boundary and well-controlled geometry in comparison with that by conventional laminar flow patterning. Furthermore, the high biocompatibility of oil phase (perfluorodecalin, PFD) enables the precise patterning of viable bacteria inside microchannels. Our work demonstrated a new route of using biphasic parallel flow to patterning, which would serve wide applications in prototyping and research settings.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Biomedical Microdevices
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method of high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for simultaneous determination of five Amadori compounds in tobacco has been developed. The separation was performed on an XBridge Amide column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 microm) by gradient elution using methanol and water as mobile phases. The linearity of this method was good with the correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9895-0.9989. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were from 3.51 microg/L to 14.86 microg/L, and the limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) were from 10.18 microg/L to 44.58 microg/L. The recoveries varied from 92.6% to 123.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.4%. The established method is rapid, accurate, robust and convenient, and it could be applied to the measurement of the five Amadori compounds in tobacco and cigarettes.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lotus nelumbo (LN) (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is an aquatic crop that is widely distributed throughout Asia and India, and various parts of this plant are edible and medicinal. It is noteworthy that different organs of this plant are used in traditional herbal medicine or folk recipes to cure different diseases and to relieve their corresponding symptoms. The compounds that are contained in each organ, which are named based on their chemical compositions, have led to their respective usages. In this work, a strategy was used to identify the difference ingredients and screen for Nuclear-factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibitors with anti-inflammatory ability in LN. Seventeen main difference ingredients were compared and identified from 64 samples of 4 different organs by ultra-performance liquid chromatography that was coupled with quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) with principal component analysis (PCA). A luciferase reporter assay system combined with the UPLC/Q-TOF-MS information was applied to screen biologically active substances. Ten NF-κB inhibitors from Lotus plumule (LP) extracts, most of which were isoquinoline alkaloids or flavone C-glycosides, were screened. Heat map results showed that eight of these compounds were abundant in the LP. In conclusion, the LP extracts were considered to have the best anti-inflammatory ability of the four LN organs, and the chemical material basis (CMB) of this biological activity was successfully validated by multivariate statistical analysis and biological research methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) has been linked to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that carbonyl stress induces the formation of amino-carbonyl cross-links and sharply increases the content of β-sheet-rich structures, which is the seed of insoluble aggregates formation, and tea catechin (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) can reverse this process in vitro and in vivo. In this study, methylated derivative (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3"Me) was hypothesized to neutralize carbonyl stress mediating the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein (IUP) aggregates, and reduce the early development of diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate (200 mg/kg/d) twice and administering EGCG3"Me by gavage for 15 d. Reagent case and western blot results showed that, in diabetic kidneys, the carbonyl proteins in the serum increased; and in insoluble protein fraction, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins, IUP aggregates and p62 accumulated; FT-IR study demonstrated that the lipid content, anti-parallel β-sheet structure and aggregates increased. EGCG3"Me treatment could effectively reverse this process, even better than the negative control treatment.
EGCG3"Me exhibiting anti-β-sheet-rich IUP aggregate properties, maybe represents a new strategy to impede the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 'Ershiwuwei Shanhu' pill (ESP), a classical and famous prescription of traditional Tibetan medicine, has a long history of empirical clinical use for the treatment of cerebrovascular and neurological diseases, but the absence of scientific evidence for its effect restricted its clinical application and further development.
The methodology of plasma pharmacochemistry was adopted to analyze the potentially bioactive components in ESP extracts. A method based on UPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS was established to identify herb components in ESP extracts and analyze the absorbed components of ESP and their metabolites in rat plasma, brain, heart, liver and kidney samples after oral administration of ESP extracts.
A total of 61 herb components were detected and identified in ESP extracts, while 35 absorbed components -including 19 prototype compounds and 16 metabolites- were discovered as potentially bioactive components in rat plasma and tissues by comparative analysis of the UV and MS chromatograms of ESP extracts, blank biosamples and dosed biosamples.
The potentially bioactive components of ESP extracts identified from rat plasma and tissues provide useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of action of ESP.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-component fingerprinting and quantitation of the glucosinolates and nucleosides in samples of Radix Isatidis have been carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS). Five nucleosides together with one glucosinolate were identified by comparing retention times, ultraviolet spectra, mass spectra and/or empirical molecular formulae of reference compounds. Quantitation of these six compounds was carried out simultaneously by HPLC on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column using gradient elution with methanol and water and detection at 254 nm. All calibration curves were linear (r>0.9994) within test ranges. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.33 ng and 2.50 ng on column, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation) for all analytes was <2.19% with recoveries in the range 99.6%–101.8% at three concentration levels. The validated method was successfully applied to fingerprinting and assay of 25 batches of Radix Isatidis sourced from different geographical regions of China. The method is simple and reliable and has potential value in the quality control of Radix Isatidis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main constituents in an aqueous extract of Tricholoma matsutake (Tm) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TOF-MS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/Trap-MSn). The main factors in the extraction process which affect the yields of nutrients were optimized by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment design. In total, 12 constituents were identified from the aqueous extract of Tm, including tyrosine, cytidine, uridine, eritadenine, phenylalanine, nicotinamide, inosine, guanosine, tryptophan, adenosine, 5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadenosine and riboflavin. The optimized extraction conditions were: the ratio of water to sample was 10 : 1 (v/w), Tm was extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 10 min, followed by water bath heating at 60 °C for 1 h. Among these extraction factors, the heating temperature is significant based on analysis of variance (ANOVA). The yields of nutrients were affected dramatically at high temperature leading to the loss of nutrients, especially for nucleosides and some amino acids.
This study provides a basis for industrialized production of health products extracted from Tricholoma matsutake and other mushrooms.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Food Science