Derek K Jones

University of South Wales, Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (98)466.44 Total impact

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    Silvia De Santis · Derek K. Jones · Alard Roebroeck
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    ABSTRACT: Axonal density and diameter are two fundamental properties of brain white matter. Recently, advanced diffusion MRI techniques have made these two parameters accessible in vivo. However, the techniques available to estimate such parameters are still under development. For example, current methods to map axonal diameters capture relative trends over different structures, but consistently over-estimate absolute diameters. Axonal density estimates are more accessible experimentally, but different modelling approaches exist and the impact of the experimental parameters has not been thoroughly quantified, potentially leading to incompatibility of results obtained in different studies using different techniques. Here, we characterise the impact of diffusion time on axonal density and diameters estimates using Monte Carlo simulations and STEAM diffusion MRI at 7T on 9 healthy volunteers. We show that axonal density and diameter estimates strongly depend on diffusion time, with diameters almost invariably overestimated and density both over and underestimated for some commonly used models. Crucially, we also demonstrate that these biases are reduced when the model accounts for diffusion time dependency in the extra-axonal space. For axonal density estimates, both upward and downward bias in different situations are removed by modeling extra-axonal time-dependence, showing increased accuracy in these estimates. For axonal diameter estimates, we report increased accuracy in ground truth simulations and axonal diameter estimates decreased away from high values given by earlier models and towards known values in the human corpus callosum when modeling extra-axonal time-dependence. Axonal diameter feasibility under both advanced and clinical settings is discussed in the light of the proposed advances.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that individual differences in physical activity (PA) may be associated with individual differences in white matter microstructure and with grey matter volume of the hippocampus. Therefore, this study investigated the association between PA and white matter microstructure of pathways connecting to the hippocampus. A total of 33 young, healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and multi-component relaxometry MRI scans (multi-component driven equilibrium pulse observation of T1 and T2) were acquired for each participant. Activity levels (AL) of participants were calculated from 72-h actigraphy recordings. Tractography using the damped Richardson Lucy algorithm was used to reconstruct the fornix and bilateral parahippocampal cinguli (PHC). The mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and the myelin water fraction (MWF), a putative marker of myelination, were determined for each pathway. A positive correlation between both AL and FA and between AL and MWF were hypothesized for the three pathways. There was a selective positive correlation between AL and MWF in the right PHC (r = 0.482, p = 0.007). Thus, our results provide initial in vivo evidence for an association between myelination of the right PHC and PA in young healthy adults. Our results suggest that MWF may not only be more specific, but also more sensitive than FA to detect white matter microstructural alterations. If PA was to induce structural plasticity of the right PHC this may contribute to reverse structural alterations of the right PHC in neuropsychiatric disorder with hippocampal pathologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Brain Structure and Function
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    ABSTRACT: Novel activities and experiences shape the brain's structure and organisation and, hence, our behaviour. However, evidence from structural plasticity studies remains mixed and the neural correlates of learning and practice are still poorly understood. We conducted a robustly designed study into grey matter plasticity following 2 months of working memory training. We generated a priori hypotheses regarding the location of plastic effects across three cognitive control networks (executive, anterior salience and basal ganglia networks), and compared the effects of adaptive training (n = 20) with a well-matched active control group (n = 20) which differed in training complexity and included extensive cognitive assessment before and after the training. Adaptive training relative to control activities resulted in a complex pattern of subtle and localised structural changes: Training was associated with increases in cortical thickness in right-lateralised executive regions, notably the right caudal middle frontal cortex, as well as increases in the volume of the left pallidum. In addition the training group showed reductions of thickness in the right insula, which were correlated with training-induced improvements in backward digit span performance. Unexpectedly, control activities were associated with reductions in thickness in the right pars triangularis. These results suggest that the direction of activity-induced plastic changes depend on the level of training complexity as well as brain location. These observations are consistent with the view that the brain responds dynamically to environmental demands by focusing resources on task relevant networks and eliminating irrelevant processing for the purpose of energy reduction.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterised by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism, which leads to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. Androgens and insulin signalling affect brain function but little is known about brain structure and function in younger adults with PCOS. Objective: To establish whether young women with PCOS display altered white matter microstructure and cognitive function. Patients, interventions and main outcome measures: Eighteen individuals with PCOS (age 31±6 years, BMI 30±6 kg/m(2)) and 18 control subjects (age 31±7 years, BMI 29±6 kg/m(2)), matched for age, IQ and body mass index, underwent anthropometric and metabolic evaluation, diffusion tensor MRI, a technique especially sensitive to brain white matter structure, and cognitive assessment. Cognitive scores and white matter diffusion metrics were compared between groups. White matter microstructure was evaluated across the whole white matter skeleton using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Associations with metabolic indices were also evaluated. Results: PCOS was associated with a widespread reduction in axial diffusivity (diffusion along the main axis of white matter fibers) and increased tissue volume fraction (the proportion of volume filled by white or grey matter rather than cerebrospinal fluid) in the corpus callosum. Cognitive performance was reduced compared with controls (first principal component, t=2.9, P=0.007), reflecting subtle decrements across a broad range of cognitive tests, despite similar education and premorbid intelligence. In PCOS, there was a reversal of the relationship seen in controls between brain microstructure and both androgens and insulin resistance. Conclusions: White matter microstructure is altered, and cognitive performance is compromised, in young adults with PCOS. These alterations in brain structure and function are independent of age, education and body mass index. If reversible, these changes represent a potential target for treatment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: We tested a novel hypothesis, generated from representational accounts of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function, that the major white matter tracts converging on perirhinal cortex (PrC) and hippocampus (HC) would be differentially involved in face and scene perception, respectively. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied in healthy participants alongside an odd-one-out paradigm sensitive to PrC and HC lesions in animals and humans. Microstructure of inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, connecting occipital and ventro-anterior temporal lobe, including PrC) and fornix (the main HC input/output pathway) correlated with accuracy on odd-one-out judgements involving faces and scenes, respectively. Similarly, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in PrC and HC, elicited during oddity judgements, was correlated with face and scene oddity performance, respectively. We also observed associations between ILF and fornix microstructure and category-selective BOLD response in PrC and HC, respectively. These striking three-way associations highlight functionally dissociable, structurally instantiated MTL neurocognitive networks for complex face and scene perception.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · eLife Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Psychotic experiences (PEs) occur in the general population, especially in children and adolescents, and are associated with poor psychosocial outcomes, impaired cognition, and increased risk of transition to psychosis. It is unknown how the presence and persistence of PEs during early adulthood affects cognition and brain function. The current study assessed working memory as well as brain function and structure in 149 individuals, with and without PEs, drawn from a population cohort. Observer-rated PEs were classified as persistent or transient on the basis of longitudinal assessments. Working memory was assessed using the n-back task during fMRI. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was used to characterize frontoparietal network configuration and voxel-based morphometry was utilized to examine gray matter. Those with persistent, but not transient, PEs performed worse on the n-back task, compared with controls, yet showed no significant differences in regional brain activation or brain structure. DCM analyses revealed greater emphasis on frontal connectivity within a frontoparietal network in those with PEs compared with controls. We propose that these findings portray an altered configuration of working memory function in the brain, potentially indicative of an adaptive response to atypical development associated with the manifestation of PEs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Cerebral Cortex
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Huge advances have been made in understanding and addressing confounds in diffusion MRI data to quantify white matter microstructure. However, there has been a lag in applying these advances in clinical research. Some confounds are more pronounced in HD which impedes data quality and interpretability of patient-control differences. This study presents an optimised analysis pipeline and addresses specific confounds in a HD patient cohort. METHOD 15 HD gene-positive and 13 matched control participants were scanned on a 3T MRI system with two diffusion MRI sequences. An optimised post processing pipeline included motion, eddy current and EPI correction, rotation of the B matrix, free water elimination (FWE) and tractography analysis using an algorithm capable of reconstructing crossing fibers. The corpus callosum was examined using both a region-of-interest and a deterministic tractography approach, using both conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based and spherical deconvolution analyses. RESULTS Correcting for CSF contamination significantly altered microstructural metrics and the detection of group differences. Reconstructing the corpus callosum using spherical deconvolution produced a more complete reconstruction with greater sensitivity to group differences, compared to DTI-based tractography. Tissue volume fraction (TVF) was reduced in HD participants and was more sensitive to disease burden compared to DTI metrics. CONCLUSION Addressing confounds in diffusion MR data results in more valid, anatomically faithful white matter tract reconstructions with reduced within-group variance. TVF is recommended as a complementary metric, providing insight into the relationship with clinical symptoms in HD not fully captured by conventional DTI metrics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether in-vivo high-field MRI can detect a disease-modifying effect in tissue macrostructure following a cognitive enrichment regime. Methods: YAC128 transgenic and wild type mice were exposed to cognitive enrichment throughout their lifetime. At 20-months old, mice were scanned with a T2-weighted MRI sequence and a region-of-interest (ROI) approach was used to examine structural changes. Locomotor activity and performance on the rotarod and serial discrimination watermaze task were assessed to measure motor and cognitive function respectively. Results: Mice exposed to cognitive enrichment were more active and able to stay on a rotating rod longer compared to control mice, with comparable rotarod performance between HD enriched mice and wild-type mice. YAC128 mice demonstrated cognitive impairments which were not improved by cognitive enrichment. In-vivo MRI revealed a reduction in the degree of caudate-putamen atrophy in the enriched HD mice. Conclusions: We provide in vivo evidence of a beneficial effect of environmental enrichment on neuropathology and motor function in a HD mouse model. This demonstrates the efficacy of MRI in a model of HD and provides the basis for an in-vivo non-destructive outcome measure necessary for longitudinal study designs to understand the effect of enrichment with disease progression.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Huntington's disease
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    ABSTRACT: Graph theory (GT) is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional and structural networks. However, false positive (FP) connections arise frequently and influence the inferred topology of networks. Thresholding is often used to overcome this problem, but an appropriate threshold often relies on a priori assumptions, which will alter inferred network topologies. Four common network metrics (global efficiency, mean clustering coefficient, mean betweenness and smallworldness) were tested using a model tractography dataset. It was found that all four network metrics were significantly affected even by just one FP. Results also show that thresholding effectively dampens the impact of FPs, but also adds significant bias to network metrics. In a larger number (n=248) of tractography datasets, statistics were computed across random group permutations for a range of thresholds, revealing that statistics for network metrics varied significantly more than for non-network metrics (i.e., number of streamlines and number of edges). Varying degrees of network atrophy were introduced artificially to half the datasets, to test sensitivity to genuine group differences. For some network metrics, this atrophy was detected as significant (p<0.05, determined using permutation testing) only across a limited range of thresholds. We propose a multi-threshold permutation correction (MTPC) method, based on the cluster-enhanced permutation correction approach, to identify sustained significant effects across clusters of thresholds. This approach minimises requirements to determine a single threshold a priori. We demonstrate improved sensitivity of MTPC-corrected metrics to genuine group effects compared to an existing approach and demonstrate the use of MTPC on a previously published network analysis of tractography data derived from a clinical population. In conclusion, we show that there are large biases and instability induced by thresholding, making statistical comparisons of network metrics difficult. However, by testing for effects across multiple thresholds using MTPC, true group differences can be robustly identified. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · NeuroImage
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is often regarded as a "dysconnectivity" disorder and recent work using graph theory has been used to better characterize dysconnectivity of the structural connectome in schizophrenia. However, there are still little data on the topology of connectomes in less severe forms of the condition. Such analysis will identify topological markers of less severe disease states and provide potential predictors of further disease development. Individuals with psychotic experiences (PEs) were identified from a population-based cohort without relying on participants presenting to clinical services. Such individuals have an increased risk of developing clinically significant psychosis. 123 individuals with PEs and 125 controls were scanned with diffusion-weighted MRI. Whole-brain structural connectomes were derived and a range of global and local GT-metrics were computed. Global efficiency and density were significantly reduced in individuals with PEs. Local efficiency was reduced in a number of regions, including critical network hubs. Further analysis of functional subnetworks showed differential impairment of the default mode network. An additional analysis of pair-wise connections showed no evidence of differences in individuals with PEs. These results are consistent with previous findings in schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in critical core hubs suggests the brains of individuals with PEs may be particularly predisposed to dysfunction. The absence of any detectable effects in pair-wise connections illustrates that, at less severe stages of psychosis, white-matter alterations are subtle and only manifest when examining network topology. This study indicates that topology could be a sensitive biomarker for early stages of psychotic illness. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Human Brain Mapping
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    ABSTRACT: Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. © 2015 The Authors. Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Bipolar Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive image-based characterization of white matter should include the ability to quantify myelin and axonal attributes irrespective of the complexity of fibre organization within the voxel. While progress has been made with diffusion MRI-based approaches to measure axonal morphology, to date available myelin metrics simply assign a single scalar value to the voxel, reflecting some form of average of its constituent fibres. Here, a new experimental framework that combines diffusion MRI and relaxometry is introduced. It provides, for the first time, the ability to assign to each unique fibre system within a voxel, a unique value of the longitudinal relaxation time, T1 , which is largely influenced by the myelin content. We demonstrate the method through simulations, in a crossing fibres phantom, in fixed brains and in vivo. The method is capable of recovering unique values of T1 for each fibre population. The ability to extract fibre-specific relaxometry properties will provide enhanced specificity and, therefore, sensitivity to differences in white matter architecture, which will be invaluable in many neuroimaging studies. Further the enhanced specificity should ultimately lead to earlier diagnosis and access to treatment in a range of white matter diseases where axons are affected. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    Miriam Cooper · Anita Thapar · Derek K. Jones
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    ABSTRACT: This analysis examined hypothesised associations between microstructural attributes in specific white matter (WM) tracts selected a priori and measures of clinical variability in adolescents with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Firstly, associations were explored between WM microstructure and ADHD severity in the subgenual cingulum. Secondly, to ensure that tract-specific approaches afforded enhanced rather than differential sensitivity, associations were measured between WM microstructure and autistic traits in the right corticospinal tract based on results of a previously-published voxelwise analysis. 40 right-handed males aged 14-18 years (19 with DSM-IV combined type ADHD and 21 healthy controls) underwent a 60 direction diffusion MRI scan. Clinical ADHD and autism variation were assessed by validated questionnaires. Deterministic tractography based on spherical deconvolution methods was used to map the subgenual cingulum and corticospinal tract. Fractional anisotropy was positively correlated and radial diffusivity was negatively correlated with a) ADHD severity in the left subgenual cingulum and b) autistic traits in the inferior segment of the right corticospinal tract. No case-control differences were found. Results shed light on possible anatomical correlates of ADHD severity and autistic symptoms in pathways which may be involved in the ADHD phenotype. They provide further evidence that tract-specific approaches may a) reveal associations between microstructural metrics and indices of phenotypic variability which would not be detected using voxelwise approaches, and b) provide improved rather than differential sensitivity compared to voxelwise approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical neuroimaging
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    ABSTRACT: The fornix and hippocampus are critical to recollection in the healthy human brain. Fornix degeneration is a feature of aging and Alzheimer's disease. In the presence of fornix damage in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a recognized prodrome of Alzheimer's disease, recall shows greater dependence on other tracts, notably the parahippocampal cingulum (PHC). The current aims were to determine whether this shift is adaptive and to probe its relationship to cholinergic signaling, which is also compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-five human participants with MCI and 20 matched healthy volunteers underwent diffusion MRI, behavioral assessment, and volumetric measurement of the basal forebrain. In a regression model for recall, there was a significant group × fornix interaction, indicating that the association between recall and fornix structure was weaker in patients. The opposite trend was present for the left PHC. To further investigate this pattern, two regression models were generated to account for recall performance: one based on fornix microstructure and the other on both fornix and left PHC. The realignment to PHC was positively correlated with free recall but not non-memory measures, implying a reconfiguration that is beneficial to residual memory. There was a positive relationship between realignment to PHC and basal forebrain gray matter volume despite this region demonstrating atrophy at a group level, i.e., the cognitive realignment to left PHC was most apparent when cholinergic areas were relatively spared. Therefore, cholinergic systems appear to enable adaptation to injury even as they degenerate, which has implications for functional restoration. Copyright © 2015 Ray et al.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Background White matter microstructure alterations of limbic and reward pathways have been reported repeatedly for depressive episodes in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, findings during remission are equivocal. It was the aim of this study to investigate if white matter microstructure changes during the time course of clinical remission. Methods Fifteen depressed patients (11 MDD, 4 BD) underwent diffusion-weighted MRI both during depression, and during remission following successful antidepressive treatment (average time interval between scans=6 months). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was sampled along reconstructions of the supero-lateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB), the cingulum bundle (CB), the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) and the fornix. Repeated measures ANCOVAs controlling for the effect of age were calculated for each tract. Results There was a significant main effect of time (inter-scan interval) for mean-FA for the right CB and for the left PHC. For both pathways there was a significant time×age interaction. In the right CB, FA increased in younger patients, while FA decreased in older patients. In the left PHC, a reverse pattern was seen. FA changes in the right CB correlated positively with symptom reductions. Mean-FA of UF, slMFB and fornix did not change between the two time points. Limitations All patients were medicated, sample size, and lack of control group. Conclusions Right CB and left PHC undergo age-dependent plastic changes during the course of remission and may serve as a state marker in depression. UF, slMFB and FO microstructure remains stable.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosominal dominant neurodegenerative condition that leads to progressive loss of motor and cognitive functions. Early symptoms in HD include subtle executive dysfunction related to white and grey matter loss in cortico-striatal-thalamic loops. There is no cure for HD and hence a significant need for early intervention with the potential to delay the clinical onset of the disease. Objective: The objective of the present pilot study was to devise a novel behavioural intervention involving drumming and rhythm exercises that targets early dysexecutive problems, such as difficulties in sequence and reversal learning, response speed, timing, and dual tasking. Method: One preclinical person and nine people with early to advanced stages of HD were recruited of whom five completed the two months intervention. The effects of rhythm exercise on executive function, basal ganglia volume, and white matter microstructure in the anterior corpus callosum, the anterior thalamic radiation, and the cortico-spinal tract were assessed post- relative to pre-training. Results: After two months training, improvements in executive function and changes in white matter microstructure, notably in the genu of the corpus callosum that connects prefrontal cortices of both hemispheres, were observed. No changes in basal ganglia volume were present. Conclusion: This pilot study provides novel preliminary evidence that carefully targeted behavioural stimulation in HD can result in cognitive enhancement and improvements in callosal white matter microstructure.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Huntington's disease
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    ABSTRACT: Transection of the nonhuman primate fornix has been shown to impair learning of configurations of spatial features and object-in-scene memory. Although damage to the human fornix also results in memory impairment, it is not known whether there is a preferential involvement of this white-matter tract in spatial learning, as implied by animal studies. Diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained from healthy participants who had completed versions of a task in which they made rapid same/different discriminations to two categories of highly visually similar stimuli: (1) virtual reality scene pairs; and (2) face pairs. Diffusion-MRI measures of white-matter microstructure [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] and macrostructure (tissue volume fraction, f) were then extracted from the fornix of each participant, which had been reconstructed using a deterministic tractography protocol. Fornix MD and f measures correlated with scene, but not face, discrimination accuracy in both discrimination tasks. A complementary voxelwise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics suggested the crus of the fornix as a focus for this relationship. These findings extend previous reports of spatial learning impairments after fornix transection in nonhuman primates, critically highlighting the fornix as a source of interindividual variation in scene discrimination in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Background: White matter microstructure alterations of limbic and reward pathways have been reported repeatedly for depressive episodes in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, findings during remission are equivocal. It was the aim of this study to investigate if white matter microstructure changes during the time course of clinical remission. Methods: Fifteen depressed patients (11 MDD, 4 BD) underwent diffusion-weighted MRI both during depression, and during remission following successful antidepressive treatment (average time interval between scans = 6 months). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was sampled along reconstructions of the supero-lateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB), the cingulum bundle (CB), the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) and the fornix. Repeated measures ANCOVAs controlling for the effect of age were calculated for each tract. Results: There was a significant main effect of time (inter-scan interval) for mean-FA for the right CB and for the left PHC. For both pathways there was a significant time × age interaction. In the right CB, FA increased in younger patients, while FA decreased in older patients. In the left PHC, a reverse pattern was seen. FA changes in the right CB correlated positively with symptom reductions. Mean-FA of UF, slMFB and fornix did not change between the two time points. Limitations: All patients were medicated, sample size, and lack of control group. Conclusions: Right CB and left PHC undergo age-dependent plastic changes during the course of remission and may serve as a state marker in depression. UF, slMFB and FO microstructure remains stable.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Alzheimer's and Dementia

Publication Stats

10k Citations
466.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • University of South Wales
      Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2007-2015
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Psychology
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Experimental Psychology
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000-2007
    • King's College London
      • • Department of Clinical Neuroscience
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2006
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Роквилл, Maryland, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Leicester
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom