- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that the short arm of chromosome 6 is a likely site to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements of MDS/ANLL following radio/chemotherapy. We report here two cases of t(3;6)(p14;p22). One patient is a 55 years old male with a previous history of occupational exposure who developed, an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia after a preleukemic phase. Chromosome analysis showed a t(3;6)(p14;p22), associated with del (5)(q14q31), –7, with variations and a trend to hypoploidy. The second patient is a 33 years old man, with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with Hydroxyurea (HU), HU + $aL-IFN and $aL-IFN alone. The first cytogenetic study before treatment, showed a t(9;22)(q34;q11). In the following months the patient had simultaneously t(9;22)(q34;q11) + t(3;6)(p14;p22) in a minority and thereafter in all the mitoses, with progressive deterioration, megakaryocyte abnormalities, but no blast crisis. Our patients are compared with the only 5 other published cases with t(3;6)(p14;p22), who shared some common features, namely a past history of chemo/radiotherapy or exposure to chemical mutagens and an association with other, so-called “secondary” chromosome aberrations, on segments 3p, 5q, 7q, 12p and 17p. We suggest that this uncommon translocation t(3;6) is nonrandom. It is worth noting that band 6p21 is the site of pim 1 oncogen, and that a fragile site is located on band 3p14.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The t(8;16)(p11;p13) is a rare translocation involved in de novo and therapy-related myelomonocytic and monocytic acute leukemia. It fuses two genes encoding histone acetyltransferases (HATs), MYST3 located at 8p11 to CREBBP located at 16p13. Variant translocations involve other HAT-encoding genes such as EP300, MYST4, NCOA2 or NCOA3. MYST3-linked acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) share specific clinical and biological features and a poor prognosis. Because of its rarity, the molecular biology of MYST3-linked AMLs remains poorly understood. We have established the genome and gene expression profiles of a multicentric series of 61 M4/M5 AMLs including 18 MYST3-linked AMLs by using array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) (n=52) and DNA microarrays (n=44), respectively. We show that M4/5 AMLs have a variety of rare genomic alterations. One alteration, a gain of the MYB locus, was found recurrently and only in the MYST3-linked AMLs (7/18 vs 0/34). MYST3-AMLs have also a specific a gene expression profile, which includes overexpression of MYB, CD4 and HOXA genes. These features, reminiscent of T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), suggest the targeting of a common T-myeloid progenitor.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The t(1; 19)(q23;p13) translocation occurs commonly in B-lineage ALL. Previous reports have demonstrated a predominance of cases with expression of cytoplasmic Igμ (Cμ+), an FAB L1/L2 phenotype, a poor prognosis and expression of a fusion transcript involving the E2A and PBX1 genes in Cμ+ but not in Cμ- cases. Of 38 patients with karyotypically proven t(1;19) (q23;p13) leukaemias, we extensively analysed 18 patients with acute leukaemia including 16 B-lineage ALLs, one T-ALL and one AML M4. The AML was associated with a classic E2A-PBX1 fusion transcript and may represent the human counterpart of the AMLs induced by E2A-PBX1 retroviral infection of murine marrow progenitors. The T-ALL was E2A-PBX1 negative and neither the E2A nor the LYL-1 genes, both situated at chromosome 19 p13, were rearranged. Of the 16 B-lineage ALLs, four had cytological features resembling an ‘L3-like’phenotype classically associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, two at diagnosis and relapse and two exclusively at relapse. E2A-PBX1 fusion transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in all 13 Cμ+ patients and in 2/3 Cμ- cases. The ‘L3-like’phenotype did not correlate with a particular stage of maturation arrest (one sIg+, one Cμ+, one Cμ-) or type of E2A-PBX1 transcript, but was associated in all cases with a trisomy 8. Translocation, rearrangement, amplification or over-expression of the c-myc gene was not observed in these cases, demonstrating that the apparent association with trisomy 8 is not due to deregulation of this gene. We therefore show that the E2A-PBX1 transcript. although occurring predominantly in Cμ+ pre-B ALL, also occurs in Cμ- early pre-B ALL, sIg+ B-ALL and even in AML. These results suggest that the stage of maturation arrest, and indirectly the prognosis, are not soiely due to the type of fusion transcript associated with the t(1;19).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with MYST histone acetyltransferase 3 (MYST3) rearrangement were collected in a retrospective study from 14 centres in France and Belgium. The mean age at diagnosis was 59.4 years and 67% of the patients were females. Most cases (77%) were secondary to solid cancer (57%), haematological malignancy (35%) or both (8%), and appeared 25 months after the primary disease. Clinically, cutaneous localization and disseminated intravascular coagulation were present in 30 and 40% of the cases, respectively. AMLs were myelomonocytic (7%) or monocytic (93%), with erythrophagocytosis (75%) and cytoplasmic vacuoles (75%). Immunophenotype showed no particularity compared with monocytic leukaemia without MYST3 abnormality. Twenty-eight cases carried t(8;16)(p11;p13) with MYST3-CREBBP fusion, one case carried a variant t(8;22)(p11;q13) and one case carried a t(8;19)(p11;q13). Type I (MYST3 exon 16-CREBBP exon 3) was the most frequent MYST3-CREBBP fusion transcript (65%). MYST3 rearrangement was associated with a poor prognosis, as 50% of patients deceased during the first 10 months. All those particular clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, molecular and prognostic characteristics of AML with MYST3 rearrangement may have allowed an individualization into the World Health Organization classification.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ETV6/GOT1 fusion, resulting from t(10;12) (q24;p13), has been recently described in a myelodysplastic syndrome. We reported a second case of t(10;12)-positive myelodysplastic syndrome in whom fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed the non-random translocation but molecular biology analyses revealed a ETV6/GOT1 chimera varying from the first case described.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic abnormalities found in four cases of T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) are described. An isochromosome 8q was found in three patients and a t(8;8) in one. In the four cases, karyotypes were complex and showed a high degree of instability. In addition, we reviewed 27 published cases of cytogenetically studied T-PLL. On the whole, the most frequently recurring anomalies in T-PLL are 14q lesions with nonrandom breakpoints, inversion (14)(q11q32) or tandem translocations (14;14) (not seen in any of our cases) and trisomy for 8q, mainly due to i(8q), found in more than 40% of patients each. Similar structural anomalies were found almost as frequently among the 23 cytogenetically studied cases of so-called T-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (T-CLL) reported prior to 1989. It is now accepted that the T-cell counterpart of B-CLL either does not exist or is exceedingly rare and thus previously reported cases of T-CLL sharing the chromosomal characteristics of T-PLL may well have been misdiagnosed examples of T-PLL. Isochromosomes 8q are exceptionally found in other types of haematological malignancies. However, i(8q) could not be shown to be the primary lesion in any case in T-PLL and the role of trisomy for 8q, as well of the associated monosomy 8p, is entirely unknown.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ETV6 gene has been reported to be fused to a multitude of partner genes in various hematologic malignancies with 12p13 aberrations. Cytogenetic analysis of six cases of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed a novel recurrent t(8;12)(q13;p13), suggesting involvement of ETV6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to confirm the involvement of ETV6 in the t(8;12)(q13;p13) and reverse transcription-PCR was used to identify the ETV6 partner gene. Detailed immunologic characterization was done, and owing to their lineage promiscuity, the leukemic blast cells were analyzed for NOTCH1 mutations. We have identified a novel recurrent t(8;12)(q13;p13), which results in a fusion between the transcriptional repressor ETV6 (TEL) and the transcriptional coactivator NCOA2 (TIF2) in six cases of childhood leukemia expressing both T-lymphoid and myeloid antigens. The ETV6-NCOA2 transcript encodes a chimeric protein that consists of the pointed protein interaction motif of ETV6 that is fused to the COOH terminus of NCOA2, including the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) interaction and the AD2 activation domains. The absence of the reciprocal NCOA2-ETV6 transcript in one of the cases suggests that the ETV6-NCOA2 chimeric protein and not the reciprocal NCOA2-ETV6 is responsible for leukemogenesis. In addition, ETV6-NCOA2 leukemia shows a high frequency of heterozygous activating NOTCH1 mutations, which disrupt the heterodimerization or the PEST domains. The ETV6-NCOA2 fusion may define a novel subgroup of acute leukemia with T-lymphoid and myeloid features, which is associated with a high prevalence of NOTCH1 mutations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycythemia vera (PV) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by an excessive erythrocyte production. At diagnosis, a normal karyotype is found in < or =80% of cases, but an abnormal karyotype frequently develops with evolution. Trisomy 9 and gains on 9p are some of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities, together with trisomy 8 and del(20q) in both PV and idiopathic myelofibrosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man whose disease was classified as an acute myeloid transformation of PV. Cytogenetic and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detected several chromosomal abnormalities that included an amplification of 9p. Complementary FISH analysis established amplification of the 9p22 approximately p24.3 region including several known genes: MLLT3 (alias AF9), JMJD2C (alias GASC1), JAK2, and SMARCA2 (alias BRM). JAK2(V617F) mutation status was quantitatively assessed by allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although crossing points analysis showed JAK2(V617F) mutated alleles at 52%, it is still impossible to describe conclusively the mutational status of the amplified JAK2 gene within the sole homogeneously staining region, because total genomic DNA was extracted for the analysis and not only DNA from cells with the homogeneously staining region. Gains on 9p being among the most common anomalies in PV, amplification of a gene or genes on this region may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis or evolution of PV.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association of a t(9;22)(q34;q11), BCR/ABL-positive, with a dic(19;21)(p13;p13) has been described in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, raising the question of whether this association is recurrent. Described here are two cases, one of myeloproliferative disease and one of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, both presenting a masked t(9;22) and t(19;21). Chromosomal rearrangements were ascertained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using locus-specific probes, multicolor FISH, and bacterial artificial chromosome array. These additional observations suggest a nonrandom association.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective cytogenetic study of acute myeloid leukemias (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) was conducted by the Groupe Francophone de Cytogénétique Hématologique (GFCH) to evaluate the structural abnormalities of chromosome 5 associated with other chromosomal abnormalities, in particular of chromosome 7, in these pathologies. In all, 110 cases of AML/MDS were recruited based on the presence of chromosome 5 abnormalities under conventional cytogenetics and supplemented by a systematic fluorescence in situ hybridization study of chromosomes 5 and 7. The abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q) were deletions of various sizes and sometimes cryptic. The 5q abnormalities were associated with translocations in 54% of cases and were simple deletions in 46%. In 68% of cases, 5q deletions were associated with chromosome 7 abnormalities, and 90% of these presented a complex karyotype. Of the 110 patients, 28 had a hematopoietic disorder secondary to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. Among 82 patients with de novo AML/MDS, 63 were older than 60 years. Chromosomal abnormalities often associated hypodiploidy and chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities in complex karyotypes, features resembling those of secondary hemopathies. Systematic investigation of the exposure to mutagens and oncogenes is thus essential to specify the factors potentially involved in MDS/AML with 5q abnormalities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) transcription factors play pivotal roles in proliferation and differentiation, including suppression of myeloid leukemogenesis. Mutations of CEBPA are found in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in some cases of familial AML. Here, using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular cloning, we show that 5 CEBP gene family members are targeted by recurrent IGH chromosomal translocations in BCP-ALL. Ten patients with t(8;14)(q11;q32) involved CEBPD on chromosome 8, and 9 patients with t(14;19)(q32;q13) involved CEBPA, while a further patient involved CEBPG, located 71 kb telomeric of CEBPA in chromosome band 19q13; 4 patients with inv(14)(q11q32)/t(14;14)(q11;q32) involved CEBPE and 3 patients with t(14;20)(q32;q13) involved CEBPB. In 16 patients the translocation breakpoints were cloned using long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction (LDI-PCR). With the exception of CEBPD breakpoints, which were scattered within a 43-kb region centromeric of CEBPD, translocation breakpoints were clustered immediately 5' or 3' of the involved CEBP gene. Except in 1 patient with t(14;14)(q11;q32), the involved CEBP genes retained germ-line sequences. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR showed overexpression of the translocated CEBP gene. Our findings implicate the CEBP gene family as novel oncogenes in BCP-ALL, and suggest opposing functions of CEBP dysregulation in myeloid and lymphoid leukemogenesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 13q14 deletion is the most frequent abnormality in chronic lymphocytic leukemias/small lymphocytic lymphomas, and this early rearrangement is observed from the start of the disease. The systematic use of a panel of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may not reveal some probes (targeting chromosomes 11q, 13q, 17p, and chromosome 12) structural abnormalities. In this series, we analyzed metaphases by conventional cytogenetics, followed by interphase and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. We were able to observe 17 cases of 13q translocations with deletions in eight of them. Three distinct regions were involved by translocations in association with or without deletions: a region centromeric to RB1 (13q11 approximately 13), a zone telomeric to D13D25 (13q21 approximately 31), and a 13q14 region deliniated by RB1 and D13S25. In this area, the deletion was variable: RB1 alone (one case), D13S319 approximately D13S25 (five cases), and from RB1 to D13S25 (two cases). The very high frequency of 13q14 loss suggests that these deletions are of pathogenetic importance, but, the importance of the translocations remains to be determined.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cytological, immunophenotypical and cytogenetical study of 136 chronic B-cell proliferations (93 CLL, 43 B-cell lymphomas) was led in order to precise diagnosis and to characterize and appreciate chromosomal rearrangements. In this series, mainly selected on blood lymphocytosis criteria, B-CLL were twice more frequent than small B-cell lymphomas. Probes used revealed cryptic abnormalities, which remained unknown by conventional cytogenetics (CC). The frequency of clonal abnormalities (CC and FISH) was 74.8% for this series, with 74.4% for lymphomas and 75.3% for CLL, mainly of Binet stage A (69 A, 13 B, 1 C, 10 unspecified). Proportion was 88.4% in A stages and 84.6% in B stages. In CLL, 13q14 cryptic deletions and translocations were widely majority, 14q32 translocations and trisomy 12 being predominant in lymphoma series. Interphase FISH study of non-clonal metaphasic abnormalities with locus-specific probes often revealed unrecognised clones.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we and others described a new chromosomal rearrangement, that is, inv(7)(p15q34) and t(7;7)(p15;q34) involving the T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta) (7q34) and the HOXA gene locus (7p15) in 5% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients leading to transcriptional activation of especially HOXA10. To further address the clinical, immunophenotypical and molecular genetic findings of this chromosomal aberration, we studied 330 additional T-ALLs. This revealed TCRbeta-HOXA rearrangements in five additional patients, which brings the total to 14 cases in 424 patients (3.3%). Real-time quantitative PCR analysis for HOXA10 gene expression was performed in 170 T-ALL patients and detected HOXA10 overexpression in 25.2% of cases including all the cases with a TCRbeta-HOXA rearrangement (8.2%). In contrast, expression of the short HOXA10 transcript, HOXA10b, was almost exclusively found in the TCRbeta-HOXA rearranged cases, suggesting a specific role for the HOXA10b short transcript in TCRbeta-HOXA-mediated oncogenesis. Other molecular and/or cytogenetic aberrations frequently found in subtypes of T-ALL (SIL-TAL1, CALM-AF10, HOX11, HOX11L2) were not detected in the TCRbeta-HOXA rearranged cases except for deletion 9p21 and NOTCH1 activating mutations, which were present in 64 and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, this study defines TCRbeta-HOXA rearranged T-ALLs as a distinct cytogenetic subgroup by clinical, immunophenotypical and molecular genetic characteristics.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The t(5;14)(q35;q32) chromosomal translocation is specifically observed in up to 20% of childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). It affects the BCL11B/CTIP2 locus on chromosome 14 and the RANBP17-TLX3/HOX11L2 region on chromosome 5. It leads to ectopic activation of TLX3/HOX11L2. To investigate the reasons of the association between t(5;14) and T-ALL, we isolated the translocation breakpoints in 8 t(5;14) patients. Sequence analyses did not involve recombinase activity in the genesis of the translocation. We used DNAse1 hypersensitive experiments to locate transcriptional regulatory elements downstream of BCL11B. By transient transfection experiments, 2 of the 6 regions demonstrated cis-activation properties in T cells and were also effective on the TLX3 promoter. Our data indicate that the basis of the specific association between t(5;14) and T-ALL lies on the juxtaposition of TLX3 to long-range cis-activating regions active during T-cell differentiation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subtle variation in the expression or function of a small group of transcription factors can drive leukemogenesis. The CEBPA protein is known to regulate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation during early hematopoietic development and myeloid differentiation. In human myeloid leukemia, CEBPA is frequently inactivated by mutation and indirect and posttranslational mechanisms, in keeping with tumor suppressor properties. We report that CEBPA is activated by juxtaposition to the immunoglobulin gene enhancer upon its rearrangement with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring t(14;19)(q32;q13). Overexpression of apparently normal CEBPA RNA or protein was observed in 6 patients. These data indicate that CEBPA may exhibit oncogenic as well as tumor suppressor properties in human leukemogenesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a series of 43 consecutive therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) or acute myeloid leukemias (t-AML) observed for 6 years. This series consisted of 26 women and 17 men, ages ranging from 9 to 85 years. These cases were classified into three groups according to the primary diagnosis. Conventional cytogenetic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)/ multiplex FISH (M-FISH) methods were used to analyze cytogenetic characteristics of secondary MDS/AML. The features of chromosomal abnormalities were linked to the nature of the therapy and protocols used. A considerable proportion of recurrent balanced translocations characterized t-AML secondary to therapy. FISH techniques showed that conventional cytogenetics often underestimated associated translocations; some deletions were in fact derivative chromosomes associated with deletions. After treatment for lymphomas and chronic myeloproliferative diseases, there were more complex unbalanced abnormalities than the control group. Compared to other series, recurrent translocations appeared to be more numerous (25%), probably reflecting an evolution of therapeutic modalities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to develop acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), characterized by expression of truncated GATA1 transcription factor protein (GATA1s) due to somatic mutation. The treatment outcome for DS-AMKL is more favorable than for AMKL in non-DS patients. To gain insight into gene expression differences in AMKL, we compared 24 DS and 39 non-DS AMKL samples. We found that non-DS-AMKL samples cluster in two groups, characterized by differences in expression of HOX/TALE family members. Both of these groups are distinct from DS-AMKL, independent of chromosome 21 gene expression. To explore alterations of the GATA1 transcriptome, we used cross-species comparison with genes regulated by GATA1 expression in murine erythroid precursors. Genes repressed after GATA1 induction in the murine system, most notably GATA-2, MYC, and KIT, show increased expression in DS-AMKL, suggesting that GATA1s fail to repress this class of genes. Only a subset of genes that are up-regulated upon GATA1 induction in the murine system show increased expression in DS-AMKL, including GATA1 and BACH1, a probable negative regulator of megakaryocytic differentiation located on chromosome 21. Surprisingly, expression of the chromosome 21 gene RUNX1, a known regulator of megakaryopoiesis, was not elevated in DS-AMKL. Our results identify relevant signatures for distinct AMKL entities and provide insight into gene expression changes associated with these related leukemias. • Down syndrome • GATA1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assignment with chromosome banding techniques of the breakpoints of the recurrent translocation t(3;5) which leads to NPM1/MLF1 gene fusion in myeloid malignancies has not been unequivocal. In order to assess whether this is due to uncertainty in interpretation of the observed banding pattern or whether it reflects true genomic heterogeneity, we decided to analyze the breakpoint positions using fluorescence in situ (FISH) techniques in eight patients with myeloid malignancies and rearrangements of chromosomes 3 and 5. In three patients, colocalization of the NPM1 and MLF1 spanning BACs was demonstrated and NPM1/MLF1 fusion shown by PCR in one while in the remaining cases breakpoints were located outside the NPM1 and MLF1 loci. Interestingly, loss of a copy of the NPM1 gene was found in three of these latter patients. This findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of NPM1 may play a role in subtypes of myelodysplasias and leukemias.
CHRU de StrasbourgStrasburg, Alsace, France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de PoitiersPoitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France