- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer of the pancreas is a neoplasm which occurs infrequently, although cases are increasing and the death rate is very high death. The incidence of this neoplasm in the United States is around 11 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, equating to around 30,000 new cases per year [1, 2]. In Europe, the incidence is around 5.2–8.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, with a lot of variations among the different nations [3, 4]. The lowest incidences have been recorded in Africa and in Asia, at 2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, although over the last 40 years a large increase in the number of cases in Japan has been noticed, with 19,700 new cases per year (15 per 100,000 inhabitants) [2, 5] (Table 13.1). The growing trend appears to be mainly related to two factors: the rise in average age, which is the main risk factor for all the principal gastroenteric neoplasms, and the spread of tobacco-smoking habits.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of buforin II and rifampin in an experimental rat model of Acinetobacter baumannii sepsis. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. Research laboratory in a university hospital. Adult male Wistar rats. The animals received intraperitoneally 1 mL saline containing 2 x 10 colony forming units of A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (model i) or the multiresistant strain (model ii). Immediately after bacterial challenge, animals received intravenously a single dose of isotonic sodium chloride solution (control groups C1 and C2), 1 mg/kg of buforin II, 10 mg/kg of rifampin, and 1 mg/kg of buforin II plus 10 mg/kg of rifampin, respectively. Lethality, bacterial growth in blood and tissue burden, endotoxin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in plasma. Buforin II showed good antimicrobial activity and achieved a significant reduction of plasma endotoxin and cytokines concentration when compared with control and rifampin-treated groups. Combination among buforin II proved to be the most effective treatment in reducing all variables measured. In an experimental model, buforin II and rifampin might have a potential role in the treatment of severe infections due to A. baumannii.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of distinctin in a neutropenic mouse model of staphylococcal sepsis. Prospective, randomized, and controlled animal study. Research laboratory in a University Hospital. BALB/c male mice. Mice were rendered neutropenic by injecting cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg of body weight/day) on days -4 and -2 preinfection. Infection was induced at time 0 by intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(9) colony forming units of the staphylococcal strain. For each model, all animals were randomized to receive intravenous isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg distinctin, and 10 mg/kg imipenem, 10 mg/kg vancomycin, 10 mg/kg teicoplanin or 10 mg/kg linezolid alone, or combined with 1 mg/kg distinctin. Lethality, bacterial growth in blood and peritoneum, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes. All combined regimen showed lower lethality rates than singly treated-groups. Distinctin plus vancomycin or teicoplanin exerted the lowest lethality rate. All regimens were significantly superior to controls at reducing blood, spleen, peritoneum, liver and mesenteric lymph node complex bacterial burdens, whereas all combined treated groups were higher effective than singly treated groups. Our data indicate that distinctin alone or combined with other antibiotics may be useful in treating severe staphylococcal infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experimental study has been performed to compare the in vitro activity and the in vivo efficacy of magainin II and cecropin A with or without rifampicin against control and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. In vitro experiments included MIC determinations and synergy studies. For in vivo studies, animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and one clinical multiresistant P. aeruginosa strain. Groups of animals received intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution, 10 mg/kg rifampicin, 1 mg/kg magainin II or 1 mg/kg cecropin A. Two groups of animals received a combined treatment with magainin II + rifampicin or cecropin A + rifampicin at the same dosages as the singly treated groups. In addition, a further group was treated with tazobactam/piperacillin (120 mg/kg). Lethality, bacterial growth in blood and peritoneum, and endotoxin and TNF-alpha concentrations in plasma were evaluated. Combinations of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides showed in vitro synergistic interaction. Magainin II and cecropin A exerted strong antimicrobial activity and achieved a significant reduction in plasma endotoxin and TNF-alpha concentrations when compared with control and rifampicin-treated groups. Rifampicin exhibited no anti-P. aeruginosa activity and good substantial impact on endotoxin and TNF-alpha plasma concentrations. Combined treatment groups had significant reductions in bacterial count, positive blood cultures and mortality rates when compared with singly treated and control groups. Our results highlight the potential usefulness of these combinations that provide future therapeutic alternatives in P. aeruginosa infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of tachyplesin III and clarithromycin in two experimental rat models of severe gram-negative bacterial infections. Adult male Wistar rats were given either (i) an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide or (ii) 2 × 1010 CFU of E. coli ATCC 25922. For each model, the animals received isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg tachyplesin III, 50 mg/kg clarithromycin, or 1 mg/kg tachyplesin III combined with 50 mg/kg clarithromycin intraperitoneally. Lethality, bacterial growth in the blood and peritoneum, and the concentrations of endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma were evaluated. All the compounds reduced the lethality of the infections compared to that for the controls. Tachyplesin III exerted a strong antimicrobial activity and achieved a significant reduction of endotoxin and TNF-α concentrations in plasma compared to those of the control and clarithromycin-treated groups. Clarithromycin exhibited no antimicrobial activity but had a good impact on endotoxin and TNF-α plasma concentrations. A combination of tachyplesin III and clarithromycin resulted in significant reductions in bacterial counts and proved to be the most-effective treatment in reducing all variables measured.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experimental study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of BMAP-28 alone and in combination with vancomycin in animal models ureteral stent infection due to Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Study included a control group without bacterial challenge to evaluate the sterility of surgical procedure, a challenged control group that did not receive any antibiotic prophylaxis and for each bacterial strain three challenged groups that received (a) 10 mg/kg vancomycin intraperitoneally, immediately after stent implantation, (b) BMAP-28-coated ureteral stents where 0.2-cm(2) sterile ureteral stents were incubated in 1mg/l BMAP-28 solution for 30 min immediately before implantation and (c) intraperitoneal vancomycin plus BMAP-28-coated ureteral stent at the above concentrations. Experiments were performed in duplicate. Ureteral stents were explanted at day 5 following implantation and biofilm bacteria enumerated. Our data showed that rats that received intraperitoneal vancomycin showed the lowest bacterial numbers. BMAP-28 combined with vancomycin showed efficacies higher than that of each single compound. These results highlight the potential usefulness of this combination in preventing ureteral stent-associated in gram-positive infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quorum sensing is a mechanism through which a bacterial population receives input from neighboring cells and elicits an appropriate response to enable survival within the host. Inhibiting quorum sensing by RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP) has been demonstrated as a very effective mode of prevention and therapy for device-associated staphylococcal infections and was tested here for healing of wounds that are otherwise resistant to conventional antibiotics. Wounds, established through the panniculus carnosus of BALB/c mice, were inoculated with 5 x 10(7) CFU of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Mice were treated with Allevyn, RIP-soaked Allevyn (containing 20 microg RIP), daily intraperitoneal teicoplanin (7 mg/kg of body weight), Allevyn and teicoplanin, and RIP-soaked Allevyn and daily intraperitoneal teicoplanin. The main outcome measures were quantitative bacterial culture and histological examination with assessment of microvessel density and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tissue sections. Treatment with RIP-soaked Allevyn together with teicoplanin injection greatly reduced the bacterial load to 13 CFU/g (control untreated animals had 10(8) CFU/g bacteria). All other treatments were also significantly effective but only reduced the bacterial load to about 10(3) CFU/ml. Histological examination indicated that only treatment with RIP-soaked Allevyn with teicoplanin injection restored epithelial, granulation, and collagen scores, as well as microvessel density and VEGF expression, to the levels found with uninfected mice. In conclusion, we observed that RIP may be useful for the management of infected wounds and that it could represent an exciting and future alternative to the conventional antibiotics, at present considered the gold-standard treatments for methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococci are a major health threat because of increasing resistance to antibiotics. An alternative to antibiotic treatment is preventing virulence by inhibition of bacterial cell-to-cell communication using the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP). In this work, we identified 2',5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose (hamamelitannin) as a nonpeptide analog of RIP by virtual screening of a RIP-based pharmacophore against a database of commercially available small-molecule compounds. Hamamelitannin is a natural product found in the bark of Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel), and it has no effect on staphylococcal growth in vitro; but like RIP, it does inhibit the quorum-sensing regulator RNAIII. In a rat graft model, hamamelitannin prevented device-associated infections in vivo, including infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. These findings suggest that hamamelitannin may be used as a suppressor to staphylococcal infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A promising therapeutic strategy for the management of severe Pseudomonas infection in neutropenic patients may result from the coadministration of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) that help maintain immune competence and antimicrobial peptides, a novel generation of adjunctive therapeutic agents with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. A promising peptide with these properties is LL-37, the only member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides found in humans. BALB/c male mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide on days -4 and -2 preinfection. Septic shock was induced at time 0 by intraperitoneal injection of 2x10 colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 27853. All animals were randomized to receive intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg of LL-37, 20 mg/kg of imipenem, 0.1 mg/kg of granulocyte CSF (G-CSF), 1 mg/kg of LL-37+0.1 mg/kg of G-CSF, or 20 mg/kg of imipenem+0.1 mg/kg of G-CSF. Lethality and bacterial growth in blood, peritoneum, spleen, liver, and kidney were evaluated. All regimens were significantly superior to controls at reducing the mouse lethality rate and bacterial burden in organs. Particularly, the combination between LL-37 and G-CSF was the most effective in protecting neutropenic mice from the onset of sepsis and in vitro significantly reduced the apoptosis of neutrophils. Combination therapy between LL-37 and G-CSF is a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of severe Pseudomonas infection complicated by neutropenia.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of topical temporin A in the management of methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-infected experimental surgical wounds in mice. The wound, cut through the panniculus carnosus of BALB/c mice, was inoculated with 5x10(7) colony-forming units of MRSA. Mice were treated with Allevyn, temporin A-soaked Allevyn, Allevyn and daily intraperitoneal teicoplanin (7mg/kg), temporin A-soaked Allevyn and daily intraperitoneal teicoplanin. Main outcome measurements were: quantitative bacterial culture, histological examination with assessment of micro-vessel density and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tissue sections, and VEGF plasma levels alike. Treatment with temporin-A associated with teicoplanin injection significantly reduced bacterial load to 0.85 x 10(1)+/-0.1 x 10(1)CFU/ml. Histological examination showed that infected mice receiving temporin A-soaked Allevyn (with or without teicoplanin) had a higher degree of granulation tissue formation and collagen deposition compared to the other treated groups. A significant increase in serum VEGF expression was observed in mice receiving temporin A topically and temporin A topically associated with intraperitoneal teicoplanin. In conclusion our results demonstrated that temporin A is effective in the management of infected wounds, by a significant bacterial growth inhibition and acceleration of wound repair process.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of tazobactam/piperacillin (TZP), tachyplesin III and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in an experimental murine neutropenic intraabdominal infection. BALB/c male mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide on days -4 and -2 pre-infection. Septic shock was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Animals received intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution (control group C1), 1mg/kg of tachyplesin III, 120 mg/kg of TZP, 0.1mg/kg of G-CSF, tachyplesin III plus TZP, G-CSF plus TZP and finally tachyplesin III plus G-CSF plus TZP, respectively. Lethality, bacterial growth in blood, peritoneum, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes, endotoxin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations in plasma were evaluated. All compounds reduced the lethality when compared to controls. Endotoxin and cytokine plasma levels were significantly higher in TZP-treated animals compared to tachyplesin III-treated animals. Finally, all drug combinations showed to be the most effective treatment in reducing all variables measured. Interestingly, the strongest results concerning the bacterial growth inhibition, lethality and endotoxemia were obtained when the three compounds were contemporaneously administered. The presence of their positive interaction makes tachyplesin III and G-CSF potentially valuable as an adjuvant for antimicrobial chemotherapy of sepsis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam combined with indolicidin in the prevention of lethality in two rat models of polymicrobial peritonitis. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. Research laboratory in a university hospital. Adult male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide or had intraabdominal sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. For each model, all animals were randomized to receive isotonic sodium chloride solution intraperitoneally, 1 mg/kg indolicidin, 120 mg/kg piperacillin/tazobactam, and 1 mg/kg indolicidin combined with 120 mg/kg piperacillin/tazobactam. Each group included 20 animals. Main outcome measures were: bacterial growth in blood, peritoneum, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes; endotoxin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in plasma; and lethality. All compounds reduced significantly bacterial growth and lethality compared with saline treatment. Treatment with indolicidin resulted in significant decrease in plasma endotoxin and cytokine levels, whereas piperacillin/tazobactam exerted the opposite effect. The combination between indolicidin and piperacillin/tazobactam proved to be the most effective treatment in reducing all variables measured. Indolicidin may have potential therapeutic usefulness alone and when associated with piperacillin/tazobactam in polymicrobial peritonitis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical site infections are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections and, typically, gram-positive pathogens are involved. A mouse model was used to investigate the efficacy of different methods for the treatment of wound infections. A full thickness wound was established on the back subcutaneous tissue of adult male BALB/c mice. A small gauze was placed over each wound and then inoculated with 5 x 10(7) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus. The study included a control group that did not receive any treatment and four contaminated groups treated, respectively, with: (1) drug-free Allevyn (Smith and Nephew Healthcare, Yorkshire, United Kingdom), (2) teicoplanin-soaked Allevyn, (3) drug-free Allevyn and daily intraperitoneal teicoplanin (7 mg/kg) and, finally, (4) teicoplanin-soaked Allevyn and daily intraperitoneal teicoplanin (7 mg/kg). Main outcome measures were quantitative bacterial culture, assessment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plasma levels, histological examination with assessment of microvessel density, and of VEGF expression in tissue sections. Data analysis showed that strong inhibition of bacterial growth was achieved in any group treated with intraperitoneal teicoplanin. However, the highest inhibition of bacterial growth was obtained in the group that received teicoplanin-soaked Allevyn and intraperitoneal teicoplanin. Histological examination showed that each treatment modality was able to reduce the delay in wound repair. The most effective treatment appeared to be the local application of teicoplanin-soaked hydro gel foam. The tissue effects were associated with an increase in neovascularization and VEGF expression by endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the granulation tissue. Bacterial colonies also were reduced, especially when teicoplanin was given parenterally. Soaking a hydro cellular foam with an antistaphylococcal agents, such as teicoplanin, may be useful for the management of infected wounds.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ureteral stents coated with the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP) were implanted in rat bladders and shown to suppress Staphylococcus aureus formation on the stent and in urine and was especially effective when combined with teicoplanin. Coating ureteral stents with RIP thus increases the efficacy of teicoplanin in preventing ureteral stent-associated staphylococcal infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of chronic sacral neuromodulation on Nitric Oxide (NO) metabolism in the rat bladder. 26 female Sprangue-Dawley rats were considered: group I, normal control rats; group II, a sham treatment, in whom catheters for electrical stimulation were placed in the S1 foramen bilaterally and left in place for 21 days, without performing neuromodulation; group III in whom electrical sacral neuromodulation was performed for 21 days. Finally a cystectomy was performed and the bladder biopsy specimens were sent for immunostaining with n-NOS and i-NOS. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis was carried out, and evaluated in urothelial cells, endothelial cells and muscle fibers of the muscularis propria. Differences between the 3 groups were analyzed by Student Newman-Keuls test. We could observe that urothelial and endothelial i-NOS (37.00+/-4.69 and 59.00+/-7.42 respectively) and urothelial n-NOS (36.80+/-7.85) expression are significantly increased in neuromodulated rats, compared to groups 1 and 2 (p<0.005). In conclusion, the increase of i-NOS expression on endothelial cells after sacral neuromodulation could be in some way related to angiogenetic responses in the microvascular structures; the increase of n-NOS and i-NOS expression on urothelial cells can suggest that NO is able to influence the plasticity of bladder response, inducing the release of messengers within the urothelium. This study can therefore improve our understanding of the mechanisms of sacral neuromodulation on chronic bladder dysfunction; further studies will need to better demonstrate the role of angiogenesis in the bladder after sacral neuromodulation and to investigate the effects of neuromodulation in rats with chronically induced bladder dysfunction.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of Tachyplesin III alone or combined with piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) to prevent biofilm formation in vitro and in a rat model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ureteral stent infection. We have observed that in vitro TZP, in presence of Tachyplesin III, showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC)s twofold and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC)s eightfold lower. The in vivo study showed that rats that received intraperitoneal TZP showed the lowest bacterial numbers. Tachyplesin III combined with TZP showed efficacies higher than that of each single compound. Coating ureteral stents with Tachyplesin III is able to inhibit bacterial growth up to 1,000 times.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofilms play an important role in the pathogenesis of several chronic infections and nosocomial infections related to indwelling medical devices. To assess the efficacy of IB-367 and linezolid (LZD) in the treatment of central venous catheter (CVC) infections using the antibiotic-lock technique, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. The in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis biofilms developed on 96-well polystyrene tissue culture plates was performed to determine the activity of the compounds. Efficacy studies were performed in rat models of Gram-positive CVC infection. Silastic catheters were implanted into the superior cava of adult male Wistar rats. Twenty-four hours after implantation, the catheters were pretreated by filling with IB-367. Thirty minutes later, rats were challenged via the CVC with 1.0 x 10(6) CFU (colony forming units) of S aureus strain diffuse Smith and clinical isolate of slime-producing E faecalis. Administration of LZD into the CVC at a concentration equal to the minimum bacteriocidal concentration observed using adherent cells or at a much higher concentration (1024 microg/mL) began 24 hours later. Both for S aureus and E faecalis, the killing activities of LZD against adherent bacteria were at least 4-fold to 8-fold lower than that against freely growing cells. For both strains, in IB-367-pretreated wells, LZD strongly increases its activity. The in vivo studies showed that when CVCs were pretreated with IB-367, Gram-positive biofilm bacterial load was further decreased to 10(1) CFU/mL and bacteremia was not detected. IB-367 has potential as an adjunctive agent to LZD in the treatment of Gram-positive biofilm infections such as CVC infections.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of rifampin and colistin in three experimental rat models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. Research laboratory in a university hospital. Adult male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were given a) an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of P. aeruginosa 10 lipopolysaccharide; b) 2 x 10(10) colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853; and c) 2 x 10(10) colony-forming units of one clinically multiresistant strain of P. aeruginosa. For each model, all animals were randomized to receive intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution, 10 mg/kg rifampin, 1 mg/kg colistin, and 10 mg/kg rifampin plus 1 mg/kg colistin. Lethality, bacterial growth in blood and peritoneum, and endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in plasma were measured. Colistin exerted a strong antimicrobial activity and achieved a significant reduction of plasma endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration compared with control and rifampin-treated groups. Rifampin exhibited no antimicrobial activity with no substantial impact on endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma concentrations. The combination of colistin and rifampin resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial count compared with colistin monotherapy, whereas no significant difference was found in positive hem cultures and mortality rates between the two groups. Colistin and rifampin might have a role in the therapy of multiresistant P. aeruginosa infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococci, common orthopedic pathogens, form antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads loaded with the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP) were implanted in rats and shown to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. RIP release was bimodal, typical of previously-tested antibiotics. These results suggest that RIP-PMMA warrants further evaluation for management of orthopedic infections caused by staphylococci.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal infections are often associated with the use of implantable medical devices. Such infections are difficult to treat because of biofilm resistance to antibiotics and are common causes of morbidity and mortality. Graft infections were established in the back subcutaneous tissue of adult male Wistar rats by implantation of Dacron prostheses followed by topical inoculation with 2x10(7) colony-forming units of bacterial strains. The study included a control group, a contaminated group that did not receive any antibiotic prophylaxis and five contaminated groups that received intraperitoneal vancomycin, Pal-Lys-Lys-NH(2) and Pal-Lys-Lys-soacked graft, and vancomycin plus Pal-Lys-Lys-NH(2) or Pal-Lys-Lys-soacked graft, respectively. The infection was evaluated by using sonication and quantitative agar culture. Moreover, an in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus biofilms was performed to elucidate the same activity. When tested alone, vancomycin and lipopeptides showed comparable efficacies. All combinations showed efficacies significantly higher than that of each single compound. Vancomycin combined to Pal-Lys-Lys-NH(2) exerted the strongest anti-staphylococcal efficacies. The in vitro studies showed, that MIC and MBC values for vancomycin were lower in presence of lipopeptides. They reduce the bacterial load and to enhance the effect of vancomycin in the prevention of vascular graft staphylococcal infections.
Tel Aviv UniversityTell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
Università Politecnica delle Marche
Ancona, The Marches, Italy
- Chair of General Surgery
Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo"Urbino, The Marches, Italy