[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of adult onset GH deficiency (GH-D) is poorly documented. Epidemiological data are now required to estimate the financial cost of GH treatment in adults. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of GH-D, from a cohort of 1652 adult patients with hypothalamo-pituitary diseases.
The hormonal status of all patients presenting with pituitary diseaseand observed during the year 1994 in 15 endocrine units was retrospectively analyzed, irrespective of the date of disease onset, of the nature and date of pituitary investigations, and whether or not they included specific testing of the GH axis. Of the whole population of 1652 patients, a selected group (RG2) was chosen after exclusion of patients with active acromegaly (n=1414).
GH stimulation tests had been performed in 549 patients of the RG2 group and a documented GH-D was found in 301. A relationship between the value of the GH peak and the number of pituitary deficits was evaluated. For instance, it was shown that 93% of patients with three deficits had GH-D. These results constituted the basis for estimating the number of GH-D in the group of untested patients. The number of GH-D deduced from the number of established GH-D (n=301) and from the number of GH-D hypothesized from other pituitary deficits (n=406) was 707 cases. Prevalence and annual incidence were calculated from data recorded in a referral center with a well-defined catchment area, Marseilles (Bouches du Rhône department). We projected a prevalence of 2638 for France and an annual incidence of 12 GH-D per million of the adult population.
Preview · Article · Jan 2000 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion molecules, such as Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), play an important role during the autoimmune process of Graves' disease (GD). So the objective of the study was to evaluate the time-course of the soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) in GD. Concentrations of sICAM-1, thyroid hormones and TSAb (thyroid-stimulating antibodies) were determined in sera from 30 healthy controls, 41 untreated GD patients and after 3, 6, 12, 18 months of carbimazole therapy (no.=30), at relapse (no.=11) or 2 years after the end of therapy when remission (no.=13). Mean sICAM-1 concentration was significantly higher in untreated GD patients than in controls (mean+/-SD: 371+/-108 ng/ml vs 243+/-47 ng/ml, p<0.0001) until 6 months of therapy (289+/-102 ng/ml; NS). The number of positive patients (sICAM-1 levels>mean of the controls+2 SD) declined from 56% (23/41) at the time of the diagnosis to 10% (3/29) at 18 months. At relapse, mean sICAM-1 level significantly increased compared to that at 18 months of therapy (288+/-65 vs 236+/-59 ng/ml, p=0.005). At remission mean sICAM-1 level was significantly lower than in relapse patients (240+/-48 ng/ml, p=0.04); no patient displayed sICAM-1 positive values. In conclusion, sICAM-1 concentrations were increased in sera of newly diagnosed GD patients, declined significantly during carbimazole therapy and could again be increased at relapse. sICAM-1 could reflect an ongoing immune process and help to affirm the presence of an autoimmunity notably in some cases of TSAb negative patients. However its precise interest in clinical practice remains to be determined in further studies.
No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and levels of islet-cell antibodies (ICA) decrease in the years following diabetes onset but may persist, particularly in patients with concomitant autoimmune disease. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the frequencies, associations and levels of the major anti-beta-cell antibodies in long-standing diabetic patients (median duration: 14 years; range 5-47 years) with and without autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) in order to consider the specific antipancreatic immunologic features associated with endocrine autoimmunity. Both ICA and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody (GAD-A) frequencies were increased in diabetic patients with ATD (38 vs 23%, p = 0.03 and 70 vs 21%, p < 10(-4) respectively). Although IA2-A frequency tended to be higher in diabetic patients with ATD, no significant difference was seen (37 vs 26%, p = 0.14). GAD median level was significantly higher in the diabetic group with ATD (15 vs 5 units, p < 10(-4)). IA2-A and ICA median levels were similar in both groups. Regardless of the combined analysis performed (ICA/GAD-A, ICA/IA2-A or GAD-A/IA2-A), the prevalence of combined antibody positivity was higher in diabetic patients with than without ATD. In both diabetic populations, ICA and GA-DA were significantly associated (p < 10(-4), and their levels were correlated (r = 0.42, p < 10(-4) and r = 0.584, p < 10(-4) respectively). No significant correlation was seen between IA2-A levels and either ICA or GAD-A titres. It is concluded that Type 1 diabetes mellitus with ATD is characterised by increased persistent humoral islet-related reactivity, particularly directed towards GAD.
No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Diabetes & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although antithyroid drugs (ATD) are widely used in the treatment of Graves' disease, management protocols, especially treatment duration, remain a subject of debate. The rate of relapse after short-term regimens of less than 6 months with ATD at decreasing doses is higher than after longer treatments from 12 to 24 months. As no prospective study has provided data on even longer protocols exceeding 2 years, we conducted a prospective trial to determine potential benefits of a 42-month treatment compared with an 18-month treatment.
The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to compare relapse rates achieved two years after treatment withdrawal in patients who received carbimazole at decreasing doses for 18 months (n = 62) vs 42 months (n = 72). In addition to clinical relapse rate, the percentage of patients who normalized antithyroperoxidase (TPO) antibody and anti-TSH receptor stimulating antibody (TSAb) levels and early iodine uptake at the end of treatment were assessed as outcome criteria.
The relapse rate two years after discontinuation of treatment did not differ significantly in patients treated for 18 months from those treated for 42 months (36% vs 29%, NS). At the end of treatment, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the percentage of anti-TPO positive patients (53% vs 46%, NS) or early iodine uptake (27% vs 21%, NS). Although the percentage of patients with TSAb was significantly lower in the 42-month treatment group (18% vs 42%, P = 0.004) at treatment withdrawal, the percentage of TSAb-positive patients did not significantly decrease between 18 and 42 months in this group (27% vs 18%, NS).
Treatment duration greater than 18 months did not improve remission rate determined 2 years after treatment withdrawal or immunological variables or early iodine uptake measured at the time of discontinuation of treatment. These findings would indicate that, when a defined duration treatment is planned, prolonging treatment beyond 18 months does not provide any additional benefit.
No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to compare statistical and clinical methods for the evaluation of five self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) meters.
Two successive capillary blood glucose measurements were performed, and a simultaneous laboratory venous glucose measurement was used as the reference value. Accuracy was studied by comparing each of the two successive meter values with the reference value by 1) a Spearman's correlation test, 2) a Wilcoxon's paired test, 3) the percentage of values within the 10% interval of the reference value according to the American Diabetes Association consensus statement, and 4) the error grid analysis.
The first two methods did not discriminate between the SMBG systems: r was >0.92 for the five meters, and a significant difference between the meter and reference values was found for all but one meter. The two other methods allowed classification of the devices into three groups according to their accuracy: good (two meters), acceptable (two meters), and unacceptable (one meter). These two methods gave consistent results and both had a good reproducibility, because the classification was similar for the two successive measurements.
Both the Spearman's and Wilcoxon's paired tests, although commonly used, are inappropriate to evaluate SMBG systems. The percentage of SMBG values within the +/-10% interval and the error grid analysis are more accurate, because they consistently classified the five glucose meters tested in our study with a high degree of reproducibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new case of primary adrenal lymphoma with latent adrenal insufficiency and long-term remission after hydrocortisone replacement therapy. We have analyzed 29 other cases described in the literature. This disease with poor prognosis can be revealed by an incidentally discovered, frequently bilateral, adrenal mass. Adrenal insufficiency may be latent and the diagnostic procedure should include both cortisol and ACTH determination with an additional ACTH stimulation test if appropriate. Early adrenal substitution can improve patient survival.
No preview · Article · May 1998 · Annales d Endocrinologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of clinical diabetes and humoral markers of anti-pancreatic autoimmunity in a homogeneous population of 600 Caucasian patients with recently diagnosed Graves' disease (GD), in order to characterize the specific features of this group of endocrine patients among subjects at risk of diabetes. Ten were already diabetic at GD diagnosis. Among the 590 non-diabetic patients, 29 had islet cell antibodies (ICA), including 15 with low titre ICA and only 1 ICA-positive subject with a familial history of diabetes. Twenty-four patients had insulin autoantibodies, including three in association with ICA. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/64 kDa antibodies were found in 16 of the 150 tested sera, including 13 of the 29 ICA-positive sera. Four ICA-positive patients displayed 37/40 kDa antibodies, including three in association with GAD/64 kDa antibodies. During follow-up, one of the ICA-positive patients developed insulin-dependent diabetes, 14 years after the GD diagnosis. To summarize, this anti-pancreatic autoimmunity study was focused on a large but specific and homogeneous group of subjects at risk for diabetes: recently diagnosed GD patients. This population was characterized by a high prevalence of GAD/64 kDa antibodies but also by a low frequency of evolution towards diabetes and the slowness of the process which could be due to the fact that only a minority of subjects possessed a sufficient combination of anti-pancreatic markers at the same time.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1997 · European Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies, using a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay method in a large cohort of 254 first-degree relatives of Type 1 diabetic patients with or without other autoimmune endocrinopathy, and to evaluate the predictive value of thyroid antibodies for impaired thyroid function in these groups. TPO and Tg antibodies were found at similar frequencies (12%) in the 254 relatives, and both antibodies were present in 23 cases (9%). Seven subjects displayed subclinical thyroid dysfunction without an abnormal free T4 level. Among first-degree relatives of probands with Type 1 diabetes alone, TPO or Tg antibodies were found in 8 subjects (6%), including 6 with both antibodies. The prevalence of TPO antibodies was significantly greater among relatives of TPO-positive than TPO-negative probands (p < 0.01). In relatives of diabetic patients with other endocrinopathy, frequencies of TPO (20%), Tg (19%) and a combination of both antibodies (15%) were significantly higher than in relatives of Type 1 diabetic patients without endocrinopathy (p < 0.001). TSH levels were abnormal in only one relative of the group without endocrinopathy but occurred in 6 relatives of the proband with overt endocrinopathy-associated diabetes (p < 0.02) in marked association with TPO antibodies (p < 10(-4). It is concluded that relatives of probands with overt endocrine autoimmune disease-associated diabetes, unlike those of probands with diabetes alone, showed increased prevalence of thyroid antibodies and thyroid dysfunction. These results argue for a different risk of thyroid autoimmunity and clinical disease in families of diabetic patients without or with overt endocrine disease. A screening of thyroid autoimmunity is highly recommended for the latter group.
No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Diabetes & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequency of 37/40 kD antibodies and their association with other pancreatic humoral markers were studied in 109 recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 116 subjects with islet-cell antibodies (ICA) at various risk for this disease (64 relatives of Type 1 diabetic patients, 23 schoolchildren with no family history of diabetes, and 29 patients with Graves' disease). At the time of diagnosis, 37/40 kD antibodies were detected in 45% of Type 1a and 77% of Type 1b diabetic patients (p = 0.03). Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and/or 37/40 kD were present with the same frequency as ICA (86%). The frequency of 37/40 kD antibodies was not significantly different between the 3 groups at risk, in contrast with GAD antibodies which were found at a lower frequency in schoolchildren (p < 0.02). Frequencies of other pancreatic markers (ICA cross-reactive with mouse pancreas and insulin autoantibodies) and the combination of ICA with at least two other markers were significantly higher in relatives than in the other groups at risk (p < 0.02). Out of 116 ICA-positive non-diabetic subjects, 10 developed diabetes. All 10 displayed 37/40kD and/or GAD antibodies during the prediabetic phase. In 8 of these 10 patients, ICA was combined with at least two other markers, whereas this association was detected in only 17 of the remaining 106 subjects who did not progress to diabetes (p < 10(-4). Thus, 37/40 kD antibodies were found in about half of Type 1 diabetic patients, and with a higher-frequency in Type 1b than 1a. In ICA-positive non-diabetic subjects, our date confirm that a combination of multiple antibodies, including GAD antibodies and 37/40 kD antibodies, can enhance the predictive value for diabetes. Comparison of ICA-positive relatives of diabetic patients, schoolchildren and patients with Graves' disease revealed distinct frequencies and combinations of markers of diabetes. This might reflect different patterns of progression among these 3 groups.
No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Diabetes & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) cell performance in 61 diabetic patients free of infection (40 Type 1, 21 Type 2), using tests that explore all the functional steps of PMN: (1) adherence: expression of adhesion molecules, CD 11a, CD 11b, CD 11c; nylon fiber adherence test; (2) chemotaxis under agarose towards the bacterial oligopeptide FMLP and complement fractions, used as attracting agents; (3) phagocytosis of opsonized latex microbeads; (4) bactericidal activity: chemiluminescence assessment of the oxidative killing potential before and after stimulation by opsonized zymosan and PMA; nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Results were analysed according to potentially influential factors: metabolic control (HbA1C, glycaemia), age of patient, type of diabetes, disease duration, and existence of vascular complications. PMN chemotaxis was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and associated with spontaneous adherence and increased expression of adhesion molecules (CD 11b, CD 11c). The increased response to chemiluminescence reflects spontaneous activation of PMN cells and increased free radical production; after stimulation, response was lower than in controls. The type of diabetes, the age of patients, HbA1C level and disease duration did not affect the responses. Chemotaxis and chemiluminescence were further reduced in patients with vascular complications and hyperglycaemia. We conclude that all steps of PMN functioning are altered in diabetic patients, which may increase the risk of vascular complications and infectious episodes.
No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Diabetic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the genetic susceptibility linked to the HLA Class II region genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in isolated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1a-IDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with another autoimmune endocrinopathy (1b-IDDM). HLA genes DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 were studied at the genomic level, as well as genes TAP1 and TAP2. One hundred and seventy-nine 1a-IDDM diabetic patients were compared with 83 1b-IDDM patients. While it appeared that common genetic traits characterize diabetes regardless of the subtype (1a or 1b), certain features differentiate the two forms of IDDM. Extending the analysis of risk haplotypes DRB1*03 and DRB1*04 to TAP genes elicited a difference between 1a-IDDM and 1b-IDDM patients. Haplo-type DRB1*03 was thus characterized in 1a-IDDM patients by a lower frequency of alleles TAP1-B (13.5%) and TAP2-B (16.2%), not found in 1b-IDDM patients (33.3% for each allele). Likewise, haplotype DRB1*04 is characterized in 1b-IDDM patients by a lower frequency of alleles TAP1-C (4.0%) and TAP2-B (8.0%) than in 1a-IDDM patients (22.2% and 25.9%, respectively). In total, this study showed that extending the characterization of HLA Class II haplotypes to TAP genes discriminates between the forms of diabetes restricted to a specific pancreatic affection and those reflecting a wider autoimmune disorder affecting several organs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was first to characterise clinical, genetic and immunological features of 125 insulin-dependent diabetic 1b patients with associated endocrine autoimmune disease. In the second part of this work, we analysed predictive values of markers of diabetes in Graves' disease patients or thyroid autoimmune disease in type 1 diabetic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 51 cases of thyroid medullary cancer followed up over several years, we report some reflections, possibly useful to clinicians. The pheochromocytoma which can be associated with medullary cancer can be discovered several years after thyroid surgery. Thus these patients have to be closely followed-up for that association to be diagnosed. Calcitonin usually remains elevated after thyroidectomy, which leads to a series of difficult investigations looking at possible metastases; besides the current examinations, two tests appear to be more relevant: scintigraphy using an immunoconjugate of anti-ACE and anti-DTPA monoclonal antibodies and radiolabelled DTPA dimer, and stepped assessments of calcitonin after venous catheterisation. The knowledge in genetics has considerably increased over the recent years. Subsequently, the familial surveys commonly carried out to detect medullary cancer should include, at least for certain kindreds, and in addition to blood calcitonin measurements, the detection of RET gene mutation. The association of medullary cancer and Hirschsprung's disease is not fortuitous: it has been reported in several families, both diseases being linked to RET gene mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the occurrence of autoimmune hypoglycemia in a patient suffering from rheumatoid polyarthritis treated by tiopronin. These hypoglycemias took place early (1 month only) after tiopronin was begun and were associated with increased total insulinemia and C peptide. The autoimmune origin is affirmed by the presence of anti-insulin antibodies and discordance between normal or slightly increased values of free insulin and total insulinemia. The role of tiopronin in hypoglycemia was suggested by the disappearance of signs 2 months after withdrawal of this treatment. Roughly 220 cases of autoimmune hypoglycemia have been reported, mostly in Japan. Tiopronin was accused in 5 cases. The presence of a sulfhydril group in this molecule may promote the emergence of antiinsulin antibodies. The autoimmune hypoglycemia risk factors and physiopathologic hypothesis are reviewed.