[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies focusing on HIV-1-infected women have suggested the existence of sex-related differences in natural history, antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and tolerability. This article analyzes three pivotal trials of the protease inhibitor (PI) fosamprenavir (FPV) with a view to providing a better understanding of potential sex differences in efficacy and safety.
A post hoc, descriptive analysis was performed on data from 700 subjects (26% women) in three trials of FPV to evaluate sex differences with regard to efficacy, rates of discontinuation, and treatment-related adverse events.
No major sex differences were found. Men and women had similarly good antiviral responses, with greater than 60% of treatment-naïve subjects achieving virologic suppression (<400 copies/mL) at 48 weeks. PI-experienced women in CONTEXT receiving once-daily FPV/r experienced the highest rates of discontinuations due to virologic failure (29% in women vs. 8% in men). Women generally had slightly lower rates of liver enzyme elevations and fewer abnormalities of total cholesterol and triglycerides.
The absence of major sex differences provides reassurance, but the small number of women in these trials limited the ability to draw conclusions. Future trials should be specifically powered to detect sex differences in safety and efficacy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · HIV Clinical Trials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the SOLO study (APV30002), once-daily antiretroviral treatment with the protease inhibitor fosamprenavir (FPV) 1,400 mg boosted by ritonavir (r) 200 mg plus abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) was found to be noninferior to nelfinavir plus ABC/3TC over 48 weeks in treatment-naive patients with HIV -1 infection.
This interim report presents antiviral efficacy and tolerability data from 211 patients who received FPV/r QD for at least 48 weeks in SOLO and continued this treatment in the follow-on study (APV30005) for up to 120 weeks.
APV30005 is an international, multicenter, uncontrolled, open-label, follow-on study conducted to provide continued access to FPV in patients with HIV-1 infection who had participated in previous FPV studies, including SOLO, and to obtain longer-term data on the antiviral response and tolerability of an FPV-containing regimen. Patients who had completed at least 48 weeks of FPV/r therapy in the SOLO study were eligible to enter the follow-on study and continue receiving FPV/r 1,400/200 QD, with study visits every 12 weeks. Their background regimens were chosen at the investigators' discretion and could be changed at any time. Antiviral response end points included plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 and <50 copies/mL, median plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, median and absolute changes from baseline in the CD4 cell count, and the frequency of HIV disease progression. Genotype and phenotype analyses were performed for patients meeting the criterion for virologic failure (defined as plasma HIV -1 RNA >1,000 copies/mL on 2 consecutive occasions on or after week 12). Tolerability was assessed in terms of adverse-event reports evaluated by the primary investigator and changes in laboratory values. Assessments were conducted at 12-week intervals during the follow-on study. Data from the baseline visit (day 1 of SOLO) were compared with data from the follow-on study through March 31, 2004, when all patients had completed at least 120 weeks of therapy with FPV/r QD. Because this was a rollover study, no significance testing was performed and all reported results are descriptive.
The demographic and baseline characteristics of the patients who received FPV/r QD in this follow on study (N = 211) were similar to those of the 322 patients randomized to receive FPV/r QD in the SOLO study. Their median age was 36 years, 72% were male, 49% were white, and 39% were black. The median baseline plasma HIV 1 RNA level was 4.82 log(10) copies/ mL, and the median baseline CD4+ cell count was 168 cells/mm(3). The median duration of exposure to FPV/r QD from SOLO baseline through the cutoff date was 996 days (142 weeks), ranging from 372 to 1,226 days (53-175 weeks). At week 120, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 and <50 copies/mL were achieved and maintained in 75% (159) and 66% (139) of patients, respectively, when missing data and discontinuations were counted as failures. The median CD4+ cell count at week 120 was 451 cells/mm(3), a median change from baseline of 292 cells/mm(3). In 14 patients with no baseline resistance who met the criterion for virologic failure, no viral protease resistance mutations were detected. Extended treatment was generally well tolerated. The most frequently reported drug-related grade 2-4 adverse events were diarrhea (22 [10%]), nausea (17 [8%]), drug hypersensitivity (14 [7%], all cases attributed to ABC, which was a study drug in SOLO), and increased triglycerides (14 [7%]). The nature of adverse events reported after 48 weeks of therapy was comparable to that reported before week 48. Adverse events occurred at a similar or lower frequency between weeks 48 and 120 compared with before week 48. Similarly, laboratory abnormalities seen by week 120 were comparable to those seen by week 48, although they were less frequent.
Extended treatment (120 weeks) with FPV/r QD in these antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-1-infected patients was associated with sustained antiviral response and immunologic improvement. Adverse events had generally developed by 48 weeks of therapy and did not occur at a higher frequency through 120 weeks of treatment.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Clinical Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the magnitude and durability of the antiviral response to fosamprenavir (FPV) plus ritonavir (RTV) once-daily (FPV/r QD) with nelfinavir twice-daily (NFV BID), each administered with abacavir and lamivudine twice-daily.
An international, phase III, randomized, open-label study in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-infected adults.
Patients with advanced HIV disease received FPV/r QD (n = 322) or NFV BID (n = 327). At week 48, 69% of patients in the FPV/r QD group and 68% in the NFV BID group had plasma HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) < 400 copies/ml, whereas 55% of patients in the FPV/r QD group and 53% in the NFV BID group had vRNA < 50 copies/ml (intent to treat, rebound/discontinuation = failure). More patients in the NFV BID group (17%) experienced virological failure than in the FPV/r QD group (7%). Efficacy of FPV/r QD was maintained in patients with CD4+ cell counts < 50 x 10 cells/l or vRNA >/= 100 000 copies/ml at entry. At week 48, median CD4+ cell counts were increased to 203 x 10 cells/l (FPV/r QD group) and 207 x 10 cells/l (NFV BID group). Both regimens were generally well tolerated. Diarrhea was more common on NFV BID than on FPV/r QD (16 versus 9%; P = 0.008). Fasting lipid profile results were generally favorable in both treatment arms. FPV/r QD maintained plasma amprenavir (APV) trough concentrations above the mean phenotypic drug-susceptibility (IC50) for wild-type virus for APV.
As a first choice protease inhibitor with a low daily pill burden, FPV/r QD was well tolerated and provided potent, durable antiviral suppression.