[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population.
708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups.
Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose.
Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of microparticles (MPs) circulate in the blood of patients with atherosclerotic diseases where they can serve as potential biomarkers of vascular injury and cardiovascular outcome. We used virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating MPs and the coronary plaque composition in patients with stable angina. We included 35 patients with stable angina (22 men, age 64 ± 9 years) and a de novo target lesion. Preintervention gray-scale and VH-IVUS analysis was performed across the target lesion. Volumetric analysis was performed over a 10-mm-long segment centered at the minimum luminal site. Blood samples were obtained from the femoral artery before coronary angioplasty. MPs were measured using a solid-phase capture assay from a commercial kit. We divided participants into either a low MPs group or high MPs group based on the median value of MPs. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. The plaque burden and remodeling index were similar between the groups. The presence of VH-IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma was not different between the groups. The percentage of the necrotic core (NC) was significantly higher in the high MPs group than in the low MPs group, both in planar (17.0 ± 8.8% vs. 24.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.012) and volumetric analyses (17.0 ± 4.8% vs. 22.1 ± 4.3%, p = 0.002). Circulating MPs were positively correlated with the percentage of the NC area at the minimal luminal site (r = 0.491, p = 0.003) and the percentage of the NC volume (r = 0.496, p = 0.002). Elevated levels of circulating MPs were associated with the amount of NC in the target lesion in those with stable angina, suggesting a potential role of circulating MPs as a biomarker for detecting unstable plaque in patients with stable angina.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated.
Subjects and methods:
A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque.
The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029).
Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Korean Circulation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Left ventricular (LV) filling pressure affects atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence. We investigated the relationship between diastolic dysfunction and AF recurrence after cardioversion, and whether LV filling pressure was predictive of AF recurrence. Materials and Methods: Sixty-six patients (mean 58 ± 12 years) with newly diagnosed persistent AF were retrospectively enrolled. We excluded patients with left atrial (LA) diameters larger than 50 mm, thereby isolating the effect of LV filling pressure. We evaluated the differences between the patients with (group 1) and without AF recurrence (group 2). Results: Group 1 showed increased LA volume index (LAVI) and E/e’ compared to group 2 (p<0.05). During a mean follow-up period of 25 ± 19 months, AF recurrence after cardioversion was 60.6% (40/66). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of E/e’ for AF recurrence was 0.780 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.657–0.903], and the optimal cut-off value of the E/e’ was 9.15 with 75.0% of sensitivity and 73.1% of specificity. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the cumulative recurrencefree survival rate was significantly lower in patients with higher LV filling pressure (E/e'>9.15) compared with patients with lower LV filling pressure (E/e'≤9.15) (log rank p=0.008). Cox regression analysis revealed that E/e' [hazards ratio (HR): 1.100, 95% CI: 1.017–1.190] and LAVI (HR: 1.042, 95% CI: 1.002–1.084) were independent predictors for AF recurrence after cardioversion. Conclusion: LV filling pressure predicts the risk of AF recurrence in persistent AF patients after cardioversion.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data comparing the clinical benefits of medical treatment with those of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in an elderly population with angina pectoris are limited. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of elective PCI versus optimal medical treatment (OMT) in elderly patients (between 75 and 84 years old) with angina pectoris.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and worsens their prognosis. Vulnerability to changes in loading is an important factor in the development of AF and is strongly influenced by ventricular stiffness and ventriculo-arterial interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of AF development in patients with HF. Methods We studied 349 patients with stable HF. The following parameters of ventricular stiffness and ventriculo-arterial interaction were derived from echo-Doppler measurements: left ventricular (LV) diastolic elastance (Ed), effective arterial elastance (Ea), LV end-systolic elastance (Ees) and ventricular–vascular coupling index (VVI). Results AF occurred in 57 (16.3 %) patients over a median follow up of 30.3 months. Echo-Doppler–derived parameters of ventricular stiffness and ventriculo-arterial interaction were closely associated with HF severity. Ed was independently associated with AF after adjustment for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and left atrial volume index (hazard ratio [HR] 5.49, p = 0.018). Ea and VVI were also associated with new-onset AF (HR 1.66, p = 0.027, and HR 1.06, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Echo-Doppler indexes of ventricular stiffness are closely associated with HF severity. LV diastolic elastance (Ed) is the strongest predictor of new-onset AF in HF patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cardiovascular Ultrasound
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Most trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not made use of second-generation drug-eluting stents.
We conducted a randomized noninferiority trial at 27 centers in East Asia. We planned to randomly assign 1776 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents or to CABG. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization at 2 years after randomization. Event rates during longer-term follow-up were also compared between groups.
After the enrollment of 880 patients (438 patients randomly assigned to the PCI group and 442 randomly assigned to the CABG group), the study was terminated early owing to slow enrollment. At 2 years, the primary end point had occurred in 11.0% of the patients in the PCI group and in 7.9% of those in the CABG group (absolute risk difference, 3.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.8 to 6.9; P=0.32 for noninferiority). At longer-term follow-up (median, 4.6 years), the primary end point had occurred in 15.3% of the patients in the PCI group and in 10.6% of those in the CABG group (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.13; P=0.04). No significant differences were seen between the two groups in the occurrence of a composite safety end point of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. However, the rates of any repeat revascularization and spontaneous myocardial infarction were significantly higher after PCI than after CABG.
Among patients with multivessel coronary artery disease, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events was higher among those who had undergone PCI with the use of everolimus-eluting stents than among those who had undergone CABG. (Funded by CardioVascular Research Foundation and others; BEST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00997828.).
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
In addition to type 2 diabetes, an elevated Lp(a) level is known to be a surrogate biomarker of cardiovascular disease. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Lp(a) levels are lower in type 2 diabetic patients than in non-diabetic subjects. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the prognostic value of elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).
A total of 1494 diabetic patients with CAD (62.3% men, mean age: 63.5 ± 10.3 years) were enrolled. CAD was diagnosed using invasive coronary angiography, and laboratory values for lipid parameters, including Lp(a), were obtained on the day of coronary angiography. The patients were divided into tertile groups according to the individual Lp(a) level. The baseline characteristics, coronary angiographic findings, duration of follow-up and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) were recorded.
Over a mean follow-up period of 4.4 ± 2.6 years, there were 59 MACEs (35 cardiac deaths and 24 cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction), for an event rate of 3.9%. A survival probability plot according to the Lp(a) tertile revealed that an elevated Lp(a) level was associated with a worse prognosis (p = 0.008), after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and the extent of CAD. Furthermore, the addition of an elevated Lp(a) level to the reference model improved the integrated discrimination improvement (0.0216, p ＜ 0.001), continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (0.5721, p = 0.012) and NRI (0.1549, p = 0.004) values.
In terms of the prognosis, elevated Lp(a) is associated with worse outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic CAD. Furthermore, an elevated Lp(a) level has incremental prognostic value in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic CAD.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of neointimal response after the implantation of a second-generation drug-eluting stent, zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES-ER, Endeavor Resolute) or everolimus-eluting stent (EES, Xience V), using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in diabetic patients.
In all, 154 diabetic patients with de-novo coronary lesions were randomized to be implanted with a ZES-ER or EES, and the angiographic follow-up at 9 months combined with a complete IVUS study was available for 96 patients with 101 lesions.
Baseline demographic and lesion parameters were similar in both groups at index percutaneous coronary intervention. On follow-up angiography, in-stent late lumen loss and minimal lumen diameter were not different between the two groups. On IVUS study, neointimal hyperplasia volume [median (interquartile range): ZES-ER vs. EES; 2.25 mm (0.57-6.25) vs. 1.59 mm (0.45-8.37), P=0.615] and in-stent percentage of volume obstruction [median (interquartile range): ZES-ER vs. EES; 1.16% (0.33-3.61) vs. 0.77% (0.29-4.01), P=0.615] showed similar results between the two groups.
In diabetic patients, the second-generation drug-eluting stents, ZES-ER and EES, were comparable in inhibiting neointimal proliferation.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The three-dimensional (3D) dynamic change of mitral geometry during preload manipulation has not been fully investigated. We investigated how preload manipulation affected the mitral apparatus geometry in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients using 3D echocardiography.Methods and ResultsTwenty five HCM patients, thirteen with obstructive HCM (HOCM) and twelve with nonobstructive HCM (HNCM), and six healthy controls were studied. Subjects underwent 3D echocardiography during rest, leg raising, the Valsalva maneuver, and the Valsalva maneuver after nitroglycerin intake (NTG-Valsalva). Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) pressure gradients, mitral annular area, annular circumference, and the tenting volume of the mitral leaflets were measured. Standardized annular area significantly decreased during the NTG-Valsalva maneuver in all 3 groups (▵2.23 mm2/m2 in control, P = 0.031; ▵0.46 mm2/m2 in HNCM, P = 0.012; ▵1.3 mm2/m2 in HOCM, P = 0.013). Standardized annular area decrease during the Valsalva maneuver alone was more prominent in HNCM patients (▵0.57 mm2/m2, P = 0.009) than HOCM patients (▵0.3 mm2/m2, P = 0.094). Standardized mitral tenting volume during the NTG-Valsalva maneuver significantly decreased only in HOCM patients (▵1.18 mm3/m2, P = 0.046).Conclusion
Decreased mitral annular area and changes in leaflets tenting volume during preload reduction might affect the development of LVOT obstruction. Our data suggest the importance of preserving the saddle-shaped of the mitral annulus in management of HCM with LVOT obstruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) binds to low-density lipoprotein. The levels of Lp-PLA2 reflect the plaque burden, and are upregulated in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the diagnostic value of Lp-PLA2 levels and found that it might be a potential biomarker for ACS.
Materials and Methods
We classified 226 study participants into three groups: patients without significant stenosis (control group), patients with significant stenosis with stable angina (SA group), and patients with ACS (ACS group).
Lp-PLA2 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly greater in the ACS group than in the SA group (p=0.044 and p=0.029, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that Lp-PLA2 levels are significantly associated with ACS (odds ratio=1.047, p=0.013). The addition of Lp-PLA2 to the ACS model significantly increased the global χ2 value over traditional risk factors (28.14 to 35.602, p=0.006). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Lp-PLA2 was 0.624 (p=0.004). The addition of Lp-PLA2 level to serum hs-CRP concentration yielded an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.0368 (p=0.0093, standard error: 0.0142) and improved the ability to diagnose ACS.
Lp-PLA2 levels are related to plaque stability and might be a diagnostic biomarker for ACS.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dynamic left ventricular (LV) outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (DLVOTO) is not infrequently observed in older individuals without overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We sought to investigate associated geometric changes and then evaluate their clinical characteristics.
A total of 168 patients with DLVOTO, which was defined as a trans-LVOT peak pressure gradient (PG) higher than 30 mmHg at rest or provoked by Valsalva maneuver (latent LVOTO) without fixed stenosis, were studied. Patients with classical HCM, acute myocardial infarction, stress induced cardiomyopathy or unstable hemodynamics which potentially induce transient-DLVOTO were excluded.
Their mean age was 71 ± 11 years and 98 (58%) patients were women. Patients were classified as pure sigmoid septum (n = 14) if they have basal septal bulging but diastolic thickness less than 15 mm, sigmoid septum with basal septal hypertrophy for a thickness ≥15 mm (n = 85), prominent papillary muscle (PM) (n = 20) defined by visually large PMs which occluded the LV cavity during systole or 1/2 LVESD, or as having a small LV cavity with concentric remodelling or hypertrophy (n = 49). The prominent PM group was younger, had a higher S’ and lower E/e’ than other groups. In all groups, a higher peak trans-LVOT PG was related (p < 0.10) to higher E/e’, systolic blood pressure, relative wall thickness, and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. In multivariate analysis, resting trans-LVOT PG correlated to pulmonary arterial pressure (ß = 0.226, p = 0.019) after adjustment for systolic blood pressure, relative wall thickness, and E/e’.
DLVOTO develops from various reasons, and patients with prominent PMs have distinct characteristics. We suggest to use DLVOTO-relieving medication might reduce pulmonary pressure in this group of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemia may be present even when there is no significant stenosis of the epicardial coronary artery, or after coronary angioplasty for significant coronary artery disease. This phenomenon is related to disturbance of the coronary microcirculation or vasomotor tone. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of clinical and RBC hemorheological factors, such as RBC deformability and aggregation, on myocardial perfusion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) when compared to patients without DM, presenting with stable angina or acute coronary syndrome. Myocardial perfusion was graded using the myocardial blush grade (MBG) which describes the relative "blush" or intensity of the radio-opacity of myocardial tissue observed after an epicardial coronary injection of contrast medium during coronary angiography. MBG was counted before any medical or mechanical intervention, and in the myocardial territory without anatomical flow limitation (<50% of luminal narrowing on coronary angiogram), in order to remove the direct influence of anatomical stenosis. Myocardial perfusion in this region was associated with diabetes, renal function, LV diastolic function, inflammatory biomarkers such as hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR, but not with the clinical presentation. Among the hemorheological parameters, reduced myocardial perfusion was linked to increased RBC aggregation, but not to variation in RBC deformability. In conclusion, myocardial perfusion was affected by diabetes, left ventricular diastolic function, and inflammatory activity indicated by clinical parameters, and by the hemorheological factor RBC aggregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been used as an alternative to coronary angiography for the assessment of coronary artery disease in the patient of the intermediate risk group. However, coronary calcium is a known limiting factor for MDCT evaluation. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of 64-channel MDCT with each coronary artery calcium score (CACS) by compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging.
A total of 54 symptomatic patients with intermediate-risk (10 females, mean age 59.9±6.9 years, Framingham point scores 9-20) with 162 sites who had a culprit lesion on 64-channel MDCT before performing coronary angiography with IVUS were enrolled. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups depending on CACS: 0, 1-99, 100-399, and >400. Lesion length, external elastic membrane (EEM) cross sectional area (CSA), minimal luminal area, and plaque area were measured and compared between IVUS and MDCT.
The correlation coefficients for the measurements of the EEM CSA, lumen CSA, and plaque area were r=0.514, r=0.837, and r=0.578, respectively. Furthermore, there were close correlation of plaque area between four subgroups of CACS (r=0.671, r=0.623, r=0.562, r=0.571, respectively).
Despite the increase in CACS, the geometric analysis of coronary arteries using with 64-channel MDCT was comparable with IVUS in symptomatic patient of the intermediate risk group.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Yonsei medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known as an important adjunct to office blood pressure (OBP) measurements in clinical practice. But little is known about the relationship between HBP and subclinical target organ damage (TOD) other than left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). So we investigated the relationship of HBP measurements with subclinical TOD in untreated hypertensive patients.
We measured ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), HBP and OBP of 93 untreated hypertensive patients (men: 60 and women: 33, mean age, 49±13 years). The ABP was recorded for 24 hours, HBP was measured for one week, and OBP was measured at least in two visits. All BP measurements were taken using automatic BP measuring device. The parameters indicating subclinical TOD were the left-ventricular mass index (LVMI) by transthoracic echocardiography, urinary albumin excretion rate (AER), brachial ankle pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).
The LVMI was significantly correlated with systolic HBP and 24 hours systolic ABP, but not with OBP. The AER, PWV and IMT were also significantly correlated with systolic HBP and 24 hours systolic ABP. In a binary logistic regression analysis, systolic HBP, 24 hours systolic and diastolic ABP were the predictors of LVMI, AER and PWV (all p<0.05).
Our data suggest that HBP is as good as ABP monitoring and superior to OBP measurements in regard to their association with subclinical TOD. Therefore, HBP measurements give valuable information on the subclinical TOD in hypertensive patients in addition to ABP monitoring.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology