[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two chronic dietary studies, conducted years apart, with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in Sprague Dawley rats have been previously reported. Although both included male 300 ppm dietary dose groups, only the later study, conducted in 1990–1992 by Biegel et al., reported an increase in proliferative lesions (hyperplasia and adenoma) of the acinar pancreas. An assessment of the significance of the differences between both studies requires careful consideration of: the diagnostic criteria for proliferative acinar cell lesions of the rat pancreas (for example, the diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell hyperplasia versus adenoma is based on the two-dimensional size of the lesion rather than distinct morphological differences); the basis for those criteria in light of their relevance to biological behavior; and the potential diagnostic variability between individual pathologists for difficult-to-classify lesions. A pathology peer review of male exocrine pancreatic tissues from the earlier study, conducted in 1981–1983 by Butenhoff et al., was undertaken. This review identified an increase in acinar cell hyperplasia but not adenoma or carcinoma in the earlier study. Both studies observed a proliferative response in the acinar pancreas which was more pronounced in the study by Biegel et al. Definitive reasons for the greater incidence of proliferative lesions in the later study were not identified, but some possible explanations are presented herein. The relevance of this finding to human risk assessment, in the face of differences in the biological behavior of human and rat pancreatic proliferative lesions and the proposed mechanism of formation of these lesions, are questionable.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Toxicology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a fully fluorinated eight-carbon fatty acid analog with exceptional stability toward degradation that has been used as an industrial surfactant and has been detected in environmental and biological matrices. Exposures to PFOA in the workplace and in the environment have continuously stimulated investigations into its potential human health hazards. In this article, the results of fifteen unpublished genotoxicity assays conducted with perfluorooctanoate (as either the linear or linear/branched ammonium salt (APFO) or the linear/branched sodium salt) are reported and include: seven mutation assays (three in vitro reverse mutation assays with histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium, two in vitro reverse mutation assays with the tryptophan auxotrophic Escherechia coli WP2uvr strain, one in vitro mitotic recombination (gene conversion) assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4, and an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) HGPRT forward mutation assay); seven studies to assess potential for chromosomal damage (three in vitro CHO chromosomal aberration studies, an in vitro human whole blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration study, and three in vivo mouse micronucleus assays); and an in vitro C3H 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. Although PFOA has not been demonstrated to be metabolized, all in vitro assays were conducted both in the presence of and in the absence of a mammalian hepatic microsomal activation system. These assays were originally described in twelve contract laboratory reports which have been available via the United States Environmental Protection Agency public docket (Administrative Record 226) for over a decade; however, the details of these assays have not been published previously in the open scientific literature. With the exception of limited positive findings at high and cytotoxic concentrations in some assay trials which reflected the likely consequence of cytotoxic disruption of normal cellular processes and not a specific genotoxic effect, the results of the studies presented in this paper and other published results clearly demonstrate the absence of direct mutagenic or genotoxic risk associated with PFOA. This finding is consistent with the physical/chemical characteristics of PFOA and is supported by other published genotoxicity studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggested that perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could activate the estrogen receptor (ER). The present study examined the hypothesis that PFOA can activate ER using an in vivo uterotrophic assay in CD-1 mice and an in vitro reporter assay. Pre-pubertal female CD-1 mice fed an estrogen-free diet from postnatal day (PND)14 through weaning on PND18 were administered 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg PFOA or 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.5 mg/kg) from PND18–20. In contrast to E2, PFOA caused no changes in the relative uterine weight, the expression of ER target genes, or the morphology of the uterus/cervix and/or vagina on PND21. Treatment of a stable human cell line containing an ER-dependent luciferase reporter construct with a broad concentration range of PFOA caused no change in ER-dependent luciferase activity; whereas E2 caused a marked increase of ER-dependent luciferase activity. These data indicate that PFOA does not activate mouse or human ER.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effect of prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) administration on pre- and postnatal development using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-humanized mice to determine if species differences in receptor activity that might influence the developmental effects induced by PFOA. Pregnant mice were treated daily with water or PFOA (3 mg/kg) by oral gavage from gestation day 1 (GD1) until GD17 and then either euthanized on GD18, or allowed to give birth and then euthanized on postnatal day (PND) 20. No changes in average fetal weight, crown to rump length or placental weight were observed on GD18. Expression of mRNA encoding the PPARα target genes acyl CoA oxidase (Acox1) and cytochrome P450 4a10 (Cyp4a10) in maternal and fetal liver was increased on GD18 in wild-type and PPARα-humanized mice but not Pparα-null mice. On PND20, relative liver weight was higher in wild-type mice but not in Pparα-null mice or PPARα-humanized mice. Hepatic expression of Acox1 and Cyp4a10 mRNA was higher in wild-type mice but not in Pparα-null mice or PPARα-humanized mice on PND20. The percentage of mice surviving postnatally was lower in wild-type litters but not in litters from Pparα-null mice or PPARα-humanized mice. No changes in pup weight gain, onset of eye opening, or mammary gland development were found in any genotype. Results from these studies demonstrate that the developmental/postnatal effects resulting from prenatal PFOA exposure in mice is differentially mediated by mouse and human PPARα.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assess the potential chronic toxicity and tumorigenicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO), a 2-year dietary study was conducted with male and female rats fed 30 ppm or 300 ppm (approximately 1.5 and 15 mg/kg). In males fed 300 ppm, mean body weights were lower across most of the test period and survival in these rats was greater than that seen either in the 30 ppm or the control group. Non-neoplastic effects were observed in liver in rats fed 300 ppm and included elevated liver weight, an increase in the incidence of diffuse hepatocellular hypertrophy, portal mononuclear cell infiltration, and mild hepatocellular vacuolation without an increase in hepatocellular necrosis. Mean serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were elevated up to three times the control means, primarily at the 300 ppm dose. A significant increase in Leydig cell tumors of the testes was seen in the males fed 300 ppm, and tumors of the liver and acinar pancreas, which are often observed in rats from chronic exposure to peroxisome proliferating agents, were not observed in this study. All other tumor types were those seen spontaneously in rats of this stock and age and were not associated with feeding of APFO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate toxicity and neoplastic potential from chronic exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a two-year toxicity and cancer bioassay was conducted with potassium PFOS (K⁺ PFOS) in male and female Sprague Dawley rats via dietary exposure at nominal K⁺ PFOS concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2, 5, and 20 μg/g (ppm) diet for up to 104 weeks. Additional groups were fed 20 ppm for the first 52 weeks, after which they were fed control diet through study termination (20 ppm Recovery groups). Scheduled interim sacrifices occurred on Weeks 4, 14, and 53, with terminal sacrifice between Weeks 103 and 106. K⁺ PFOS appeared to be well-tolerated, with some reductions in body weight occurring in treated rats relative to controls over certain study periods. Male rats experienced a statistically significant decreased trend in mortality with significantly increased survival to term at the two highest treatment levels. Decreased serum total cholesterol, especially in males, and increased serum urea nitrogen were consistent clinical chemistry observations that were clearly related to treatment. The principal non-neoplastic effect associated with K⁺ PFOS exposure was in livers of males and females and included hepatocellular hypertrophy, with proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum, vacuolation, and increased eosinophilic granulation of the cytoplasm. Statistically significant increases in hepatocellular adenoma were observed in males (p=0.046) and females (p=0.039) of the 20 ppm treatment group, and all of these tumors were observed in rats surviving to terminal sacrifice. The only hepatocellular carcinoma observed was in a 20 ppm dose group female. There were no treatment-related findings for thyroid tissue in rats fed K⁺ PFOS through study termination; however, male rats in the 20 ppm Recovery group had statistically significantly increased thyroid follicular cell adenoma, which was considered spurious. There was no evidence of kidney or bladder effects. In rats, the dietary dose estimated as the lower 95% confidence limit of the benchmark dose for a 10% increase in hepatic tumors was 8 ppm for both sexes. Recent mechanistic studies suggest a PPARα/CAR/PXR-mediated mode of action for the liver tumors observed in the present two-year study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prior 28-day dietary study in rats with 20 and 100 ppm K⁺ PFOS, activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR were concluded to be etiological factors in K⁺ PFOS-induced hepatomegaly and hepatic tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate persistence/resolution of K⁺ PFOS-induced, liver-related effects in male Sprague Dawley rats following a 7-day dietary exposure to K⁺ PFOS at 20 or 100 ppm. Groups of 10 rats per treatment were observed on recovery Day(s) 1, 28, 56, and 84 following treatment. Changes consistent with hepatic PPARα and CAR/PXR activation noted on recovery Day 1 included: increased liver weight; decreased plasma cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and triglycerides; decreased liver DNA concentration and increased hepatocellular cytosolic CYP450 concentration; increased liver activity of acyl CoA oxidase, CYP4A, CYP2B, and CYP3A; increased liver proliferative index and decreased liver apoptotic index; decreased hepatocellular glycogen-induced vacuoles; increased centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy. Most effects resolved to control levels during recovery. Effects on plasma cholesterol, hepatocellular cytosolic CYP450 concentrations, liver apoptotic index, CYP3A, and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy persisted through the end of the recovery period. Thyroid parameters (histology, apoptosis, and proliferation) were unaffected at all time points. Mean serum PFOS concentrations on recovery Day 1 were 39 and 140 μg/mL (20 ppm and 100 ppm K⁺ PFOS, respectively), decreasing to 4 and 26 μg/mL by recovery Day 84. Thus, hepatic effects in male rats resulting from K⁺ PFOS-induced activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR resolved slowly or were still present after 84-days following a 7-day dietary treatment, consistent with the slow elimination rate of PFOS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the potential role for activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR by potassium PFOS (K⁺ PFOS) with respect to the etiology of hepatic hypertrophy and hepatocellular adenoma in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed K⁺ PFOS (20 or 100 ppm) for either 1, 7, or 28 days. Wyeth 14,643 (Wy 14,643, 50 ppm) and phenobarbital (PB, 500 ppm) were the controls for PPARα and CAR/PXR activation, respectively. Measurements included: plasma ALT, AST, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose; liver protein and DNA content; liver activities of palmitoyl CoA oxidase (ACOX), Cyp4A, CYP2B, and CYP3A; induction of liver CYP4A1, CYP2E1, CYP2B1/2, and CYP3A1 proteins (SDS-PAGE and Western blots); liver and thyroid microscopic histopathology, apoptotic index, and cell proliferation index. Terminal body weight was decreased by K⁺ PFOS (100 ppm) and Wy 14,643. All test-compound treatments increased liver weight. Plasma lipids were decreased by both PFOS and Wy 14,643. After treatment for 1 day, K⁺ PFOS (100 ppm), PB, and Wy 14,643 increased mean hepatic DNA concentration and total hepatic DNA, and total DNA remained elevated after treatment for 7 days and 28 days (PB and Wy 14,643 only). Hepatic P450 concentration was elevated after 7 and 28 days by K⁺ PFOS and by PB. K⁺ PFOS and Wy 14,643 increased liver activities of ACOX and CYP4A as well as increased liver CYP4A1 protein. By 28 days of treatment, K⁺ PFOS and PB increased liver activities of CYP2B and CYP3A as well as increased liver CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A1 proteins, and Wy 14,643 increased CYP2B enzyme activity to a slight extent. All test compounds increased the liver cell proliferative index and decreased the liver apoptotic index. No histological changes of the thyroid were noted; however, PB and WY increased thyroid follicular cell proliferation index (seven-day treatment only), while K⁺ PFOS did not. The thyroid follicular cell apoptotic index did not differ between groups. The hepatomegaly and hepatocellular adenoma observed after dietary exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to K⁺ PFOS likely are due to the increased expression of xenosensor nuclear receptors PPARα and CAR/PXR. Given the markedly lower or absent response of human hepatocytes to the proliferative stimulus from activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR, the hepatocellular proliferative response from activation of these receptors by PFOS observed in rats is not expected to be of human relevance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported positive associations of serum concentrations of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol with serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). However, the strength of the reported associations is inconsistent for exposure-response across three orders of magnitude of serum PFOS and/or PFOA concentrations. These positive associations are unexpected based on toxicological/mechanistic studies, suggesting that the associations may have a biological, rather than a causal, basis. This study tested the hypothesis that PFOS and PFOA distribute into serum lipoprotein fractions such that increases in serum lipoproteins would result in corresponding increases in serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA. Based on observed binding of PFOS and PFOA to isolated β-lipoproteins in physiological saline (96% and 40% bound, respectively) in preliminary experiments using ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS methods, binding to human donor plasma lipoprotein fractions was investigated by two density gradient methods. The majority of PFOS and PFOA recovered masses were found in lipoprotein-depleted plasma. Plasma density gradient fractionation data suggested that maximally 9% of PFOS distributes to lipoprotein-containing fractions, yet only 1% or less of PFOA is so distributed. These data do not support a strong role for plasma lipoprotein fractions in explaining the inconsistent dose-response associations reported in cross-sectional epidemiological studies.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequential 28-day and 90-day oral toxicity studies were performed in male and female rats with ammonium perfluorobutyrate (NH(4)(+)PFBA) at doses up to 150 and 30mg/kg-d, respectively. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate was used as a comparator at a dose of 30mg/kg-d in the 28-day study. Female rats were unaffected by NH(4)(+)PFBA. Effects in males included: increased liver weight, slight to minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy; decreased serum total cholesterol; and reduced serum thyroxin with no change in serum thyrotropin. During recovery, liver weight, histological, and cholesterol effects were resolved. Results of RT-qPCR were consistent with increased transcriptional expression of the xenosensor nuclear receptors PPARα and CAR as well as the thyroid receptor, and decreased expression of Cyp1A1 (Ah receptor-regulated). No observable adverse effect levels (NOAELs) were 6 and >150mg/kg-d for male and female rats in the 28-day study and 6 and >30mg/kg-d in the 90-dat study, respectively.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Reproductive Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been found in biological samples in wildlife and humans. The geometric mean half-life of serum elimination of PFOS in humans has been estimated to be 4.8 years (95% CI, 4.0-5.8). A series of studies was undertaken to establish pharmacokinetic parameters for PFOS in rats, mice, and monkeys after single oral and/or IV administration of K(+)PFOS. Animals were followed for up to 23 weeks, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by WinNonlin® software. Rats and mice appeared to be more effective at eliminating PFOS than monkeys. The serum elimination half-lives in the rodent species were on the order of 1-2 months; whereas, in monkeys, the serum elimination half lives approximated 4 months. Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight for human health risk assessment regarding the potential for accumulation of body burden in humans on repeated exposure to PFOS and PFOS-generating materials.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Reproductive Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) has been found in biological samples from wildlife and humans. The human geometric mean serum PFHxS elimination half-life has been estimated to be 2665days. A series of studies was undertaken to establish pharmacokinetic parameters for PFHxS in rats, mice, and monkeys after single administration with pharmacokinetic parameters determined by WinNonlin(®) software. Rats and mice appeared to be more effective at eliminating PFHxS than monkeys. With the exception of female rats, which had serum PFHxS elimination half-life of approximately 2 days, the serum elimination half-lives in the rodent species and monkeys approximated 1month and 4months, respectively, when followed over extended time periods (10-24weeks). Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight for human health risk assessment regarding the potential for accumulation of PFHxS in humans.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Reproductive Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive correlations of serum PFOS with non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study investigated the mechanism underlying the effect of PFAS surfactants on lipoprotein metabolism. APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice were fed a Western-type diet with PFBS, PFHxS, or PFOS (30, 6, and 3 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 4-6 weeks. Whereas PFBS modestly reduced only plasma triglycerides (TG), PFHxS and PFOS markedly reduced TG, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C. The decrease in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was caused by enhanced lipoprotein lipase-mediated VLDL-TG clearance and by decreased production of VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B. Reduced HDL production, related to decreased apolipoprotein AI synthesis, resulted in decreased HDL. PFHxS and PFOS increased liver weight and hepatic TG content. Hepatic gene expression profiling data indicated that these effects were the combined result of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and pregnane X receptor activation. In conclusion, the potency of PFAS to affect lipoprotein metabolism increased with increasing alkyl chain length. PFHxS and PFOS reduce plasma TG and total cholesterol mainly by impairing lipoprotein production, implying that the reported positive correlations of serum PFOS and non-HDL-C are associative rather than causal.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Toxicological Sciences