Steven R. Childers

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (179)772.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Prairie voles are unusual mammals in that, like humans, they are capable of forming socially monogamous pair bonds, display biparental care, and engage in alloparental behaviors. Both mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in behaviors that either establish and maintain, or result from pair bond formation in these animals. Mu and kappa opioid receptors both utilize inhibitory G-proteins as signal transduction mechanisms, however the efficacy by which these receptor subtypes stimulate G-protein signaling across the prairie vole neuraxis is not known. Utilizing [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography, we characterized the efficacy of G-protein stimulation in coronal sections throughout male and female prairie vole brain by DAMGO and U50,488H, selective mu and kappa opioid agonists, respectively. DAMGO stimulation was highest in forebrain, similar to that found with other rodent species. U-50,488H produced greater stimulation in prairie voles than is typically seen in mice and rats, particularly in select forebrain areas. DAMGO produced higher stimulation in the core versus the shell of the nucleus accumbens in females, while the distribution of U-50,488H stimulation was the opposite. There were no gender differences for U50,488H stimulation of G-protein activity across the regions examined, while DAMGO stimulation was greater in sections from females compared to those from males for nucleus accumbens core, entopeduncular nucleus, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the kappa opioid system may be more sensitive to manipulation in prairie voles compared to mice and rats, and that female prairie voles may be more sensitive to mu agonists in select brain regions than males.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Cocaine abuse in HIV patients accelerates the progression and severity of neuropathology, motor impairment and cognitive dysfunction compared to non-drug using HIV patients. Cocaine and HIV interact with the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the effect of their interaction on DAT binding remains understudied. The present study compared the dose-response functions for intravenous self-administration of cocaine and heroin between male HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) and Fischer 344 rats. The cocaine and heroin dose-response functions exhibit an inverted U-shape for both HIV-1 Tg and F344 rats. For cocaine, the number of infusions for each dose on the ascending limb was greater for HIV-1 Tg versus F344 rats. No significant changes in the heroin dose-response function were observed in HIV-1 Tg animals. Following the conclusion of self-administration experiments, DAT binding was assessed in striatal membranes. Saturation binding of the cocaine analog [(125)I] 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) in rat striatal membranes resulted in binding curves that were best fit to a two-site binding model, allowing for calculation of dissociation constant (Kd) and binding density (Bmax) values that correspond to high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Control HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a significantly greater affinity (i.e., decrease in Kd value) in the low-affinity DAT binding site compared to control F344 rats. Furthermore, cocaine self-administration in HIV-1 Tg rats increased low-affinity Kd (i.e., decreased affinity) compared to levels observed in control F344 rats. Cocaine also increased low-affinity Bmax in HIV-1 Tg rats as compared to controls, indicating an increase in the number of low-affinity DAT binding sites. F344 rats did not exhibit any change in high- or low-affinity Kd or Bmax values following cocaine or heroin self-administration. The increase in DAT affinity in cocaine HIV-1 Tg rats is consistent with the leftward shift of the ascending limb of the cocaine dose-response curve observed in HIV-1 Tg vs. F344 rats, and has major implications for the function of cocaine binding to DAT in HIV patients. The absence of HIV-related changes in heroin intake are likely due to less dopaminergic involvement in the mediation of heroin reward, further emphasizing the preferential influence of HIV on dopamine-related behaviors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The GABAB receptor is a therapeutic target for CNS and neuropathic disorders; however, few preclinical studies have explored effects of chronic stimulation. This study evaluated acute and chronic baclofen treatments on GABAB-activated G-proteins and signaling protein phosphorylation as indicators of GABAB signaling capacity. Brain sections from rats acutely administered baclofen (5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed no significant differences from controls in GABAB-stimulated GTPγS binding in any brain region, but displayed significantly greater phosphorylation/activation of focal adhesion kinase (pFAKTyr397) in mesocorticolimbic regions (caudate putamen, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus) and elevated phosphorylated/activated glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (pGSK3βTyr216) in the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, septum, and globus pallidus. In rats administered chronic baclofen (5 mg/kg, t.i.d. for five days), GABAB-stimulated GTPγS binding was significantly diminished in the prefrontal cortex, septum, amygdala, and parabrachial nucleus compared to controls. This effect was specific to GABAB receptors: there was no effect of chronic baclofen treatment on adenosine A1-stimulated GTPγS binding in any region. Chronically-treated rats also exhibited increases in pFAKTyr397 and pGSK3βTyr216 compared to controls, and displayed wide-spread elevations in phosphorylated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (pDARPP-32Thr34) compared to acutely-treated or control rats. We postulate that those neuroadaptive effects of GABAB stimulation mediated by G-proteins and their sequelae correlate with tolerance to several of baclofen's effects, whereas sustained signaling via kinase cascades points to cross-talk between GABAB receptors and alternative mechanisms that are resistant to desensitization. Both desensitized and sustained signaling pathways should be considered in the development of pharmacotherapies targeting the GABA system.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Concurrent use of cocaine and heroin (speedball) has been shown to exert synergistic effects on dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), as observed by significant increases in extracellular dopamine levels and compensatory elevations in the maximal reuptake rate (Vmax ) of dopamine. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether chronic self-administration of cocaine, heroin or a combination of cocaine:heroin led to compensatory changes in the abundance and/or affinity of high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Saturation binding of the cocaine analog [(125) I] 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125) I]RTI-55) in rat NAc membranes resulted in binding curves that were best fit to two-site binding models, allowing calculation of dissociation constant (Kd ) and binding density (Bmax ) values corresponding to high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding curves clearly demonstrate the presence of high- and low- affinity binding sites in the NAc, with low-affinity sites comprising 85 to 94% of the binding sites. DAT binding analyses revealed that self-administration of cocaine and a cocaine:heroin combination increased the affinity of the low-affinity site for the cocaine congener RTI-55 compared to saline. These results indicate that the alterations observed following chronic speedball self-administration are likely due to the cocaine component alone; thus further studies are necessary to elaborate upon the synergistic effect of cocaine:heroin combinations on the dopamine system in the NAc. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Synapse
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    ABSTRACT: The iboga alkaloids are a class of small molecules defined structurally on the basis of a common ibogamine skeleton, some of which modify opioid withdrawal and drug self-administration in humans and preclinical models. These compounds may represent an innovative approach to neurobiological investigation and development of addiction pharmacotherapy. In particular, the use of the prototypic iboga alkaloid ibogaine for opioid detoxification in humans raises the question of whether its effect is mediated by an opioid agonist action, or if it represents alternative and possibly novel mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to independently replicate and extend evidence regarding the activation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-related G proteins by iboga alkaloids.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Although biochemical and physiological evidence suggests a strong interaction between striatal CB(1) cannabinoid (CB(1) R) and D(2) dopamine (D(2) R) receptors, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We targeted medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the indirect pathway using shRNA to knockdown either CB(1) R or D(2) R. Chronic reduction in either receptor resulted in deficits in gene and protein expression for the alternative receptor and concomitantly increased expression of the cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a), suggesting a novel role for CRIP1a in dopaminergic systems. Both CB(1) R and D(2) R knockdown reduced striatal dopaminergic-stimulated [(35) S]GTPγS binding, and D(2) R knockdown reduced pallidal WIN55212-2-stimulated [(35) S]GTPγS binding. Decreased D(2) R and CB(1) R activity was associated with decreased striatal phosphoERK. A decrease in mRNA for opioid peptide precursors pDYN and pENK accompanied knockdown of CB(1) Rs or D(2) Rs, and over-expression of CRIP1a. Down-regulation in opioid peptide mRNAs was followed in time by increased DOR1 but not MOR expression, leading to increased DPDPE-stimulated [(35) S]GTPγS binding in the striatum. We conclude that mechanisms intrinsic to striatal MSNs or extrinsic via the indirect pathway adjust for changes in CB(1) R or D(2) R levels by modifying the expression and signaling capabilities of the alternative receptor as well as CRIP1a and the opioid system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2013) 10.1111/jnc.12139.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral flexibility, the ability to modify responses due to changing task demands, is detrimentally affected by aging with a shift towards increased cognitive rigidity. The neurobiological basis of this cognitive deficit is not clear although striatal cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated. To investigate the possible association between striatal acetylcholine signaling with age-related changes in behavioral flexibility, young, middle-aged, and aged F344 X Brown Norway F1 rats were assessed using an attentional set-shifting task that includes two tests of behavioral flexibility: reversal learning and an extra-dimensional shift. Rats were also assessed in the Morris water maze to compare potential fronto-striatal-dependent deficits with hippocampal-dependent deficits. Behaviorally characterized rats were then assessed for acetylcholine muscarinic signaling within the striatum using oxotremorine-M-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding and [(3)H]AFDX-384 receptor binding autoradiography. The results showed that by old age, cognitive deficits were pronounced across cognitive domains, suggesting deterioration of both hippocampal and fronto-striatal regions. A significant decline in oxotremorine-M-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding was limited to the dorsomedial striatum of aged rats when compared to young and middle-aged rats. There was no effect of age on striatal [(3)H]AFDX-384 receptor binding. These results suggest that a decrease in M2/M4 muscarinic receptor coupling is involved in the age-associated decline in behavioral flexibility.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: This review evaluates the cellular mechanisms of constitutive activity of the cannabinoid (CB) receptors, its reversal by inverse agonists, and discusses the pitfalls and problems in the interpretation of the research data. The notion is presented that endogenously produced anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) serve as autocrine or paracrine stimulators of the CB receptors, giving the appearance of constitutive activity. It is proposed that one cannot interpret inverse agonist studies without inference to the receptors' environment vis-à-vis the endocannabinoid agonists which themselves are highly lipophilic compounds with a preference for membranes. The endocannabinoid tone is governed by a combination of synthetic pathways and inactivation involving transport and degradation. The synthesis and degradation of 2-AG is well characterized, and 2-AG has been strongly implicated in retrograde signalling in neurons. Data implicating endocannabinoids in paracrine regulation have been described. Endocannabinoid ligands can traverse the cell's interior and potentially be stored on fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Molecular modelling predicts that the endocannabinoids derived from membrane phospholipids can laterally diffuse to enter the CB receptor from the lipid bilayer. Considering that endocannabinoid signalling to CB receptors is a much more likely scenario than is receptor activation in the absence of agonist ligands, researchers are advised to refrain from assuming constitutive activity except for experimental models known to be devoid of endocannabinoid ligands.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · British Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain alters opioid self-administration in rats. The brain regions altered in the presence of neuropathic pain mediating these differences have not been identified, but likely involve ascending pain pathways interacting with the limbic system. The amygdala is a brain region that integrates noxious stimulation with limbic activity. μ-Opioid receptors were blocked in the amygdala using the irreversible antagonist, β-funaltrexamine, and the antiallodynic and reinforcing effects of heroin were determined in spinal nerve-ligated rats. In addition, the effect of β-funaltrexamine was determined on heroin self-administration in sham-operated rats. β-Funaltrexamine decreased functional activity of μ-opioid receptors by 60 ± 5% (mean ± SD). Irreversible inhibition of μ-opioid receptors in the amygdala significantly attenuated the ability of doses of heroin up to 100 μg/kg to reverse hypersensitivity after spinal nerve ligation. Heroin intake by self-administration in spinal nerve-ligated rats was increased from 5.0 ± 0.3 to 9.9 ± 2.1 infusions/h after administration of 2.5 nmol of β-funaltrexamine in the lateral amygdala, while having no effect in sham-operated animals (5.8 ± 1.6 before, 6.7 ± 0.9 after). The antiallodynic effects of 60 μg/kg heroin were decreased up to 4 days, but self-administration was affected for up to 14 days. μ-Opioid receptors in the lateral amygdala partially meditate heroin's antiallodynic effects and self-administration after peripheral nerve injury. The lack of effect of β-funaltrexamine on heroin self-administration in sham-operated subjects suggests that opioids maintain self-administration through a distinct mechanism in the presence of pain.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Anesthesiology
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: A novel entry to tropane analogs of cocaine was developed on the basis of the reaction of rhodium-stabilized vinylcarbenoids with pyrroles. These analogs were tested in binding to dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) transporters in membranes from rat striatum and frontal cortex. In all the analogs, the aryl group at the 3-position was directly bound to the tropane ring (as in WIN-35,428), and methyl or ethyl ketone moieties were present at the 2-position instead of the typical ester group. The series of analogs containing a 2-naphthyl group at the 3-position were most potent, with Ki values < 1 nM in binding to both dopamine and 5-HT transporters. Although the unsubstituted 2-naphthyl analog was nonselective at dopamine and 5-HT transport sites, other compounds were selective for either site. In general, compounds with relatively small substituents on the aromatic moiety (such as p-methyl or p-fluoro) were relatively selective for the dopamine transporters, while a p-isopropylphenyl derivative was selective for the 5-HT transport sites. This latter compound represents the first N-methyltropane derivative specific for 5-HT transporters. Resolution of two of the most significant analogs was achieved by HPLC on a chiral stationary phase; the active enantiomer of a 2-naphthyl analog exhibited Ki values of < 0.1 nM at both dopamine and 5-HT transporter sites.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
  • Huw M. L. Davies · Pingda Ren · Norman X. Kong · Tammy Sexton · Steven R. Childers
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · ChemInform
  • Huw M. L. Davies · Pingda Ren · Norman Kong · Tammy Sexton · Steven R. Childers
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · ChemInform
  • James R Manning · Tammy Sexton · Steven R Childers · Huw M L Davies
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    ABSTRACT: A series of enantiomerically pure 1-naphthyl and 4-indolyl arylalkylamines were prepared and evaluated for their binding affinities to the monoamine transporters. The two series of enantiomers displayed considerable differences in binding selectivity between the monoamine transporters, leading to the design of (S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-(1H-indol-4-yl)-N-methylbutan-1-amine as a potent inhibitor for the dopamine and serotonin transporters.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to reveal the relationship between cocaine-induced dopamine uptake changes and patterns of cocaine self-administration observed under a fixed-ratio schedule. Cocaine was intravenously infused into anesthetized rats, according to inter-infusion intervals obtained from self-administering animals, and dopamine uptake changes (apparent K(m)) were assessed in the nucleus accumbens using voltammetry. The data demonstrate that cocaine-induced dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibition accounts for the accumbal dopamine fluctuations, which are associated with the cyclic regularity of cocaine intake observed during self-administration. Specifically, the inter-infusion intervals that are maintained during cocaine self-administration correlate with the maintenance of a rapidly changing level of dopamine uptake inhibition, which appears to be tightly regulated. Furthermore, this maintained level of dopamine uptake inhibition was found to shift upward using intervals from animals that had shown an escalation in the rate of cocaine self-administration. Although no significant change in the apparent K(m) was revealed in animals that exhibited an escalation in the rate of cocaine intake, an increased dopamine uptake rate was found suggesting an upregulation of DAT number in response to a history of high cocaine intake. This is the first demonstration of the tight correlation that exists between the level of dopamine uptake inhibition and rates of cocaine self-administration. Moreover, a new mathematical model was created that quantitatively describes the changes in cocaine-induced dopamine uptake and correctly predicts the level of dopamine uptake inhibition. This model permits a computational interpretation of cocaine-induced dopamine uptake changes during cocaine self-administration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the phenylisothiocyanate tropane analog 2-beta-propanoyl-3-beta-(2-naphthyl)-8-[4-isothiocyanato)benzyl]nortropane (HD-205) binds covalently to dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively) in rat brain membranes (Biochem Pharmacol 74:336-344, 2007). The present study evaluated the irreversible effects of HD-205 in vivo in rats after intracranial injection. Rats were implanted with unilateral cannulae in rat striatum, and HD-205 (0.001-3 nmol) was administered by intrastriatal injection. In vitro autoradiography of DAT binding with [125I]2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (RTI-55) on brain sections obtained 24 h after injection showed a highly localized blockade of binding in striatum, with maximal blockade of binding by 1 to 3 nmol HD-205. Similar blockade of SERT binding (using [3H]-citalopram) was observed in the same area. No blockade of DAT or SERT binding was observed after intrastriatal injections of the reversible analog 2-beta-propanoyl-3-beta-(2-naphthyl)-8-benzyl nortropane (HD-206), and HD-205 treatment had no effect on D(2)- and mu-opioid-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate binding in sections from the same animals. In a time course study, rats administered with 1 nmol HD-205 showed recovery of 50% DAT binding after 3 to 4 days postinjection, and full recovery after 6 weeks. Rats implanted with bilateral cannulae were tested for cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Two days after intrastriatal injection of 1 nmol of HD-205, systemic (20 mg/kg i.p.) cocaine-induced locomotor activity was not affected; however, locomotor activity induced by intrastriatal administration of cocaine (6 nmol) was eliminated. This strategy of site-specific chemical blockade of transporters could serve as a valuable tool to evaluate the neuroanatomical basis of DAT-mediated cocaine effects.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Irreversible tropane analogs have been useful in identifying binding sites of cocaine on biogenic amine transporters, including transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET). The present study characterizes the properties of the novel phenylisothiocyanate tropane HD-205, synthesized from the highly potent 2-napthyl tropane analog WF-23. In radioligand binding studies in brain membranes, direct IC(50) values of HD-205 were 4.1, 14 and 280nM at DAT, SERT and NET, respectively. Wash-resistant binding was characterized by preincubation of HD-205 with brain membranes, followed by extensive washing before performing transporter radioligand binding. Results for HD-205 showed wash-resistant IC(50) values of 191, 230 and 840nM at DAT, SERT and NET, respectively. Saturation binding studies with [(125)I]RTI-55 in membranes pretreated with 100nM HD-205 showed that HD-205 significantly decreased the B(max) but not K(D) of DAT and SERT binding. To further characterize its irreversible binding, an iodinated analog of HD-205, HD-244, was prepared from a trimethylsilyl precursor. The direct IC(50) of HD-244 at DAT was 20nM. [(125)I]HD-244 was synthesized with chloramine-T, purified on HPLC, reacted with rat striatal membranes, and proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. Results showed several non-specific labeled bands, but only a single specific band of radioactivity co-migrating with an immunoreactive DAT band at approx. 80 kilodaltons was detected, suggesting that [(125)I]HD-244 covalently labeled DAT protein in striatal membranes. These results demonstrate that phenylisothiocyanate analogs of WF-23 can be used as potential ligands to map distinct binding sites of cocaine analogs at DAT.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Biochemical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Cholinesterase inhibitors which reach the central nervous system produce pain relief but are poorly tolerated because of gastrointestinal side effects. Here, the authors tested whether donepezil, a central nervous system penetrant cholinesterase inhibitor with a low incidence of gastrointestinal side effects, would relieve hypersensitivity in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Male rats were anesthetized, and the L5 and L6 spinal nerves were ligated unilaterally. Hypersensitivity was measured by withdrawal threshold to von Frey filament application to the hind paw after oral donepezil, and antagonists administered centrally and peripherally. Efficacy of chronic oral donepezil to relieve hypersensitivity was tested, and activation of G proteins by M(2) muscarinic receptors was determined by carbachol-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine triphosphate (gamma)S autoradiography in brain and spinal cord. Spinal nerve ligation resulted in hypersensitivity that was more severe ipsilateral than contralateral to surgery. Oral donepezil reduced hypersensitivity bilaterally in a dose-dependent manner for 2 h, and this effect was blocked by spinal but not supraspinal or peripheral muscarinic receptor antagonism. Oral donepezil maintained efficacy over 2 weeks of twice daily administration, and this treatment did not lead to desensitization of muscarinic receptor-coupled G proteins in brain or spinal cord. Donepezil, a well-tolerated cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer dementia, reduces hypersensitivity in this rat model of neuropathic pain by actions on muscarinic receptors in the spinal cord. Lack of tolerance to this effect, in contrast to rapid tolerance to direct receptor agonists, suggests that cholinesterase inhibition may be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Anesthesiology
  • Thomas J Martin · William R Kahn · Royu Xiao · Steven R Childers
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    ABSTRACT: Methadone maintenance therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for heroin addiction since the 1970s. Recent studies indicate that methadone is of greater relative intrinsic efficacy than the active metabolites of heroin at mu-opioid receptors and that the extent of mu-opioid receptor desensitization is dependent upon agonist efficacy. Regional differences have been found for mu-opioid receptor desensitization with chronic heroin self-administration, and a similar paradigm was employed to compare regional differences between the effects of heroin and methadone. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin i.v., and the dose available was increased incrementally to a terminal value of 6 mg/kg for each infusion. Half of these rats were allowed to continue to self-administer heroin, while dependence was maintained in the others by hourly infusions of 3 mg/kg of methadone. A separate group of animals was kept on a low dose of heroin. Activation of G-proteins by the high efficacy agonist DAMGO was decreased to a greater extent in animals treated chronically with methadone compared with those allowed to self-administer heroin in amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and subicular nucleus. Activation of G-proteins by the partial agonist endomorphin was decreased in striatum, thalamus, and amygdala in rats from all drug treatment groups, but to a greater extent in the striatum in methadone treated rats compared with the heroin groups. Elucidating the mechanisms by which methadone induces differential desensitization of mu-opioid receptors across brain regions compared with heroin could provide insights to improve the pharmacotherapy of heroin addiction.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Synapse

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Publication Stats

9k Citations
772.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      • • Center for Neurobiology of Addiction Treatment (CNAT)
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1991-2015
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2010
    • State University of New York College at Buffalo
      • Department of Chemistry
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 2001-2010
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Chemistry
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1985
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1980
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1977-1980
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States