[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Although the proportion of people reporting problems paying medical bills has declined in the aftermath of the Great Recession, it is unclear if this decline has been caused by self-rationing of care, particularly among disadvantaged groups. We examined African American-White differences in problems paying medical bills prevalence along with factors which may account for observed differences.
We used cross-sectional data from 2007 (N = 13,064) and 2010 (N = 11,873) waves of the nationally representative, Health Tracking Household Survey. Logistic regression analyses, accounting for complex survey design and weights, were performed to compute population-based estimates.
Overall, the prevalence of problems paying medical bills was 18.3 % in 2007 and 19.8 % in 2010. African Americans more frequently reported having problems paying medical bills than Whites. Among African Americans, problems paying medical bills decreased from 30 % in 2007 to 25 % in 2010, which was largely explained by fewer problems reported by those in poor/fair health. Problems paying medical bills significantly declined from 44 % in 2007 to 33 % in 2010 for African Americans in poor/fair health, but remained almost constant for those in good health and very good/excellent health.
Our findings suggest that African Americans in poor health may be rationing or forgoing necessary care as a result of the recession, which could increase existing health disparities and future health spending. Efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities may depend on the extent to which the lingering effects of the Great Recession are mitigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Effective web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATIs) have been underutilized by smokers; moreover, despite practice guideline recommendations, clinical teams do not routinely refer smokers to WATIs. Our goal was to test a clinical practice innovation, an ePortal designed to change practice and patient behavior. Our hypotheses were that the integrated system would result in increased smoker referrals, with an automated follow-up system resulting in more smoker registrations and finally augmentations of the WATI would result in more smokers quitting at 6 months. Methods: Practice ePortal Implementation Trial: Practices (n = 174) were randomized to an online practice ePortal with an "e-referral tool" to the WATI (e-referred smokers received automated email reminders from the practice) and with practice feedback reports with patient tracking and practice-to-patient secure messaging versus comparison (a paper "referral prescription"). Implementation success was measured by the number of smokers referred and smokers registering. Results: Practice ePortal Trial results: A total of 4789 smokers were referred. The mean smokers referred per practice was not statistically different by group (ePortal 24.89 (SD 22.29) versus comparison 30.15 (SD 25.45), p = 0.15). The e-referral portal implementation program resulted in nearly triple the rate of smoker registration (31 % of all smokers referred registered online) versus comparison (11 %, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Among all smokers referred, the e-referral resulted in nearly threefold greater registrants (31 %) than paper (11 %). The practice ePortal smokers received multiple reminders (increasing registration opportunities), and the practices could track patient progress. The result was more smokers registering and, thus, more cessation opportunities. Combining the proactive referral and the WATI resulted in higher rates of smoking cessation. Trial Registration: Web-delivered Provider Intervention for Tobacco Control (QUIT-PRIMO) - a randomized controlled trial: NCT00797628.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Implementation Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African American women are one of the least active demographic groups in the US, with only 36% meeting the national physical activity recommendations in comparison to 46% of White women. Physical activity begins to decline in African American women in adolescence and continues to decline into young adulthood. Yet, few interventions have been developed to promote physical activity in African American women during this critical period of life. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a culturally-relevant Internet-enhanced physical activity pilot intervention for overweight/obese African American college females and to examine psychosocial and behavioral characteristics associated with intervention adherence and completion.
A 6-month single group pre-posttest design was used. Participants (n = 27) accessed a culturally-relevant Social Cognitive Theory-based physical activity promotion website while engaging in a minimum of four moderate-intensity physical activity sessions each week. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention was assessed by participant retention and a consumer satisfaction survey completed by participants.
Fifty-six percent of participants (n = 15) completed the intervention. Study completers were more physically active at baseline (P = 0.05) and had greater social support for exercise from family members (P = 0.04). Sixty percent of study completers (n = 9) reported the website as "enjoyable" or "very enjoyable" to use and 60% (n = 9) reported increased motivation from participation in the physical activity program. Moreover, 87% (n = 13) reported they would recommend the website to a friend.
Results provide some preliminary support for the acceptability and feasibility of an Internet-enhanced physical activity program for overweight/obese African American women, while highlighting important limitations of the approach. Successful promotion of physical activity in college aged African American women as they emerge into adulthood may result in the development of life-long healthy physical activity patterns which may ultimately reduce physical activity-related health disparities in this high risk underserved population. Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore the use of Internet-based programs to promote physical activity in this population.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-income, African-American smokers are less likely to have resources to aid in quitting smoking. Narrative communication may provide an enhancement to traditional smoking cessation interventions like NRT, medications, or behavioral treatments for this audience. After extensive pilot testing of stories and personal experiences with smoking cessation from African-Americans from a low-income community, we conducted a randomized control trial using stories to augment routine inpatient treatment among African-Americans at an urban Southern hospital (N = 300).
Differences in smoking cessation outcomes between the intervention (stories DVD + routine clinical treatment) and control (routine clinical treatment) arms were compared using self-report and carbon monoxide measurement at 6-months. Compared to control, individuals who viewed the intervention stories DVD reported greater intentions to quit. Although continuous quitting marginally favored the intervention, our main result did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.16).
Narrative communication via storytelling to promote smoking cessation among African-Americans in the South is one method to communicate smoking cessation. Results suggest this may not be sufficient as a stand-alone augmentation of routine clinical treatment for continuous smoking cessation. Smoking cessation efforts need to continually assess different means of communicating to smokers about quitting.
Clinical Trials Registration: The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT00101491. This trial was registered January 10, 2005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To produce a physician and scientific workforce that advances high-quality research and culturally competent care, academic medical centers (AMCs) must assess their capacity for diversity and inclusion and leverage opportunities for improvement. The Diversity Engagement Survey (DES) is presented as a diagnostic and benchmarking tool.
The 22-item DES consists of eight factors that connect engagement theory to inclusion and diversity constructs. It was piloted at 1 AMC and then administered at 13 additional U.S. AMCs in 2011-2012. Face and content validity were assessed through a review panel. Cronbach alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to establish construct validity. Cluster analysis was conducted to establish ability of the DES to distinguish between institutions' degrees of engagement and inclusion. Criterion validity was established using observed differences in scores for demographic groups as suggested by the literature.
The sample included 13,694 respondents across 14 AMCs. Cronbach alphas for the engagement and inclusion factors (range: 0.68-0.85), CFA fit indices, and item correlations with latent constructs indicated an acceptable model fit and that items measured the intended concepts. Cluster analysis of DES scores distinguished institutions with higher, middle, and lower degrees of engagement and inclusion by their respondents. Consistent with the literature, black, Hispanic/Latino, female, and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) respondents reported lower degrees of engagement than their counterparts.
The DES is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment, evaluation, and external benchmarking of institutional engagement and inclusion.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine a wide range of study designs and outcomes to estimate the extent to which interventions in outpatient perinatal care settings are associated with an increase in the uptake of depression care.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Scopus (EMBASE) were searched for studies published between 1999 and 2014 that evaluated mental health care use after screening for depression in perinatal care settings.
METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were: 1) English language; 2) pregnant and postpartum women who screened positive for depression; 3) exposure (validated depression screening in outpatient perinatal care setting); and, 4) outcome (mental health care use). Searches yielded 392 articles, 42 met criteria for full-text review, and 17 met inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black scale.
TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Articles were independently reviewed by two abstractors and consensus reached. Study design, intervention components, and mental health care use were defined and categorized. Seventeen articles representing a range of study designs, including one randomized controlled trial and one cluster randomized controlled trial, were included. The average quality rating was 61% (31.0-90.0%). When no intervention was in place, an average of 22% (13.8-33.0%) of women who screened positive for depression had at least one mental health visit. The average rate of mental health care use was associated with a doubling of this rate with patient engagement strategies (44%, 29.0-90.0%), on-site assessments (49%, 25.2-90.0%), and perinatal care provider training (54%, 1.0-90.0%). High rates of mental health care use (81%, 72.0-90.0%) were associated with implementation of additional interventions, including resource provision to women, perinatal care provider training, on-site assessment, and access to mental health consultation for perinatal care providers.
CONCLUSION: Screening alone was associated with 22% mental health care use among women who screened positive for depression; however, implementation of additional interventions was associated with a two to fourfold increased use of mental health care. Although definitive studies are still needed, screening done in conjunction with interventions that target patient, health care provider, and practice-level barriers is associated with increased improved rates of depression detection, assessment, referral, and treatment in perinatal care settings.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the low prevention and treatment rates for those at risk of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP), we evaluated the influence of a direct-to-patient, Internet-based educational video intervention using "storytelling" on rates of antiosteoporosis medication use among chronic glucocorticoid users who were members of an online pharmacy refill service.
We identified members who refilled ≥ 5 mg/day of prednisone (or equivalent) for 90 contiguous days and had no GIOP therapy for ≥ 12 months. Using patient stories, we developed an online video addressing risk factors and treatment options, and delivered it to members refilling a glucocorticoid prescription. The intervention consisted of two 45-day "Video ON" periods, during which the video automatically appeared at the time of refill, and two 45-day "Video OFF" periods, during which there was no video. Members could also "self-initiate" watching the video by going to the video link. We used an interrupted time series design to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention on GIOP prescription therapies over 6 months.
Among 3017 members (64.8%) exposed to the intervention, 59% had measurable video viewing time, of which 3% "self-initiated" the video. The GIOP prescription rate in the "Video ON" group was 2.9% versus 2.7% for the "Video OFF" group. There was a nonsignificant trend toward greater GIOP prescription in members who self-initiated the video versus automated viewing (5.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.1).
Among adults at high risk of GIOP, prescription rates were not significantly affected by an online educational video presented at the time of glucocorticoid refill. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01378689.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current approaches to quantifying total posthospital complications and readmissions following surgical procedures are limited because the United States does not have a single health care payer. Patients seek posthospital care in varied locations, yet hospitals can only quantify those returning to the same facility. Seeking information directly from patients about health care utilization following hospital discharge holds promise to provide data that is missing for surgeons and health care systems.
Because total joint replacement (TJR) is the most common and costly elective surgical hospitalization, we examined the concordance between patients' self-report of potential short-term complications and their readmissions and our review of medical records in the initial hospital and surrounding facilities.
Patients undergoing primary total hip or knee replacement from July 1, 2011, through December 3, 2012, at a large site participating in a national cohort of TJR patients were identified. Patients completed a six-month postoperative survey regarding emergency department (ED), day surgery (DS), or inpatient care for possible medical or mechanical post-TJR complications. We reviewed inpatient and outpatient medical records from all regional facilities and examined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative predictive values for patient self-report and medical records.
There were 413 patients who had 431 surgeries and completed the six-month questionnaire. Patients reported 40 medical encounters (9 percent) including ED, DS or inpatient care, of which 20 percent occurred at hospitals different from the initial surgery. Review of medical records revealed 9 additional medical encounters that patients had not mentioned including five hospitalizations following surgery and four ED visits. Overall patient self-report of ED, DS, and inpatient care for possible complications was both sensitive (82 percent) and specific (100 percent). The positive predictive value was 100 percent and negative predictive value 98 percent.
Patient self-report of posthospital events was accurate. Substantial numbers of patients required care at outlying hospitals (not where the TJR occurred).
Methods that directly engage patients can augment current posthospital utilization surveillance to assure complete data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Issues:In 2005, India launched three reformative healthcare policies and programs to improve Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and expand health coverage in rural areas. However, they lack strong support of evidence based findings and have failed to significantly reduce health disparities.
Description:RAHI, led by two medical students from U.S.A., is a joint effort between a charitable Indian tertiary-care hospital and an American academic institution aiming to strengthen the public healthcare system of rural western India through community-based participatory research and advocacy. Leveraging the commitment of founding institutions through funding and in-kind support, RAHI developed an international collaborative platform for faculty and students to work together and with the community to investigate the underlying causes of health disparities and develop innovative solutions. Solutions are likely to succeed when community is engaged in the research process. RAHI’s focus is guided by findings from community health needs assessment (CHNA) through a cross-sectional survey of female community members and discussions with local health ministry and key stakeholders. RAHI’s current research identifies predictors and underlying causes of poor MCH. A community-based trauma outcomes registry and surveillance program will begin in August 2014. Other key areas as identified by CHNA include type-2-diabetes-mellitus and tobacco utilization among adolescents.
Conclusion:The ongoing participation of community, students, and faculty, paired with the engagement of public officials and community stakeholders provides an innovative platform for launching evidence-based, community interventions within existing public health infrastructure. RAHI serves as a model of international and inter-institutional partnership to promote health equity in underserved populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Efforts by the Indian government to improve maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes have failed to have significant impact, calling for a more evidence-based approach. This study stems from an Indo-US collaboration led by two U.S. medical students designed to address critical gaps in knowledge about the underlying causes of adverse MCH outcomes.
Methods: The pilot longitudinal study will enroll 150 pregnant women between the ages of 18-45 and spans from first trimester of a pregnancy to six months post-partum and includes eight visits at a tertiary healthcare center in rural Western India. Participants receive clinical evaluations, ultrasound imaging studies, and serum biomarker measurements. Trained research coordinators manage their visits and conduct standardized interview surveys in the local language.
Results: Currently, 86 participants are enrolled, with enrollment projected to conclude in May 2014. To date, 53 participants reported a previous pregnancy, with only half (51.6%) resulting in a live childbirth. Of the participants, 76.7% were anemic (Hgb < 12g/dL) and 41.1% were Vitamin B12 deficient (< 120 pmol/L). Only one of the 17 participants who have completed their third trimester visit was aware of the government MCH program.
Conclusions: Preliminary evidence reveals important insight into the nutritional, psychosocial, and clinical problems affecting pregnancy in rural Western India. Additionally, our findings suggest lack of patient engagement in large government-operated MCH programs. Findings from the full data set will guide future interventions to be developed by ongoing cohorts of medical students in collaboration with academic partners and the existing local public health infrastructure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To assess the following among women hospitalized antenatally due to high-risk pregnancies: (1) rates of depression symptoms and anxiety symptoms; (2) changes in depression symptoms and anxiety symptoms; and, (3) rates of mental health treatment.
Sixty-two participants hospitalized for high-risk obstetrical complications completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) weekly until delivery or discharge, and once postpartum.
Average length of total hospital stay was 8.3 ± 7.6 days for women who completed an initial admission survey (n = 62) and 16.3 ± 8.9 (n = 34), 25.4 ± 10.2 (n = 17) and 35 ± 10.9 days (n = 9) for those who completed 2, 3 and 4 surveys, respectively. EPDS was ≥ 10 in 27% (n = 17) and GAD-7 was ≥ 10 in 13% (n = 8) of participants at initial survey. Mean anxiety (4.2 ± 6.5 vs. 5.2 ± 5.1, p = 0.011) and depression (4.4 ± 5.6 vs. 6.9 ± 4.8, p = 0.011) scores were lower postpartum compared to initial survey. Past mental health diagnosis predicted depression symptoms (OR = 4.54; 95% CI 1.91-7.17) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 3.04-8.86) at initial survey; however, 21% (n = 10) with no diagnostic history had EPDS ≥ 10. Five percent (n = 3) received mental health treatment during pregnancy.
Hospitalized high-risk obstetrical patients may commonly experience depression symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms and not receive treatment. A history of mental health treatment or diagnosis was associated with depression symptoms or anxiety symptoms in pregnancy. Of women with an EPDS ≥ 10, > 50% did not report a past mental health diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · General Hospital Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to evaluate screening questions for estimating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) risk knowledge.
Cross-sectional data from a telephone interview of NSAID users 50 years or older from 39 physician practices in Alabama were used. Patient-reported awareness of prescription NSAID risk and health literacy were the independent variables, and a cumulative index score of objectively tested knowledge of 4 prominent NSAID risks was the dependent variable. General linearized latent and mixed model ordered logistic regression was used to estimate associations among the independent variables, covariates, and objectively tested NSAID risk knowledge. Population-averaged probabilities for levels of objectively tested NSAID risk knowledge were subsequently estimated.
Subjective awareness of any prescription NSAID risk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55-3.74), adequate health literacy (AOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.04-2.83), and physician counseling about 1 or more NSAID risks (AOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.61) were significantly and positively associated with NSAID risk knowledge. The probability of correctly answering at least 1 of the 4 NSAID risk knowledge questions was 70% in the absence of any subjective risk awareness and in less than adequate health literacy. Whereas the probability of correctly answering at least 1 of the 4 NSAID risk knowledge questions increased to 86% in the presence of subjective awareness of any prescription NSAID risk and adequate health literacy.
Screening questions for subjective NSAID risk awareness and health literacy are predictive of objectively tested NSAID knowledge and can be used to triage patients as well as subsequently initiate and direct a conversation about NSAID risk.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Patient Safety
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research team has designed and implemented 2 culturally relevant, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) interventions for overweight/obese African-American female college students. Presumably, these are the only prospectively designed, culturally relevant interventions using the Internet to promote PA among African-American women. Due to the limited research on this topic, the experiences associated the design and implementation of these studies were syntesized and 5 key lessons learned from this research were formulated. Findings provide insight for researchers to consider when developing Internet-based PA promotion interventions for African-American women. Lessons learned included: 1) Elicit and incorporate feedback from the target population throughout development of an Internet-based PA promotion tool; 2) Incorporate new and emerging technologies into Internet-enhanced PA programs; 3) Maintain frequent participant contact and provide frequent incentives to promote participant engagement; 4) Supplement Internet-based efforts with face-to-face interactions; 5) Include diverse images of African-American women and culturally relevant PA-related information in Internet-based PA promotion materials.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite national guidelines recommending bone mineral density screening with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in women aged 65 years and older, many women do not receive initial screening.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of health system and patient-level interventions designed to increase appropriate DXA testing and osteoporosis treatment through (1) an invitation to self-refer for DXA (self-referral); (2) self-referral plus patient educational materials; and (3) usual care (UC, physician referral).
RESEARCH DESIGN: Parallel, group-randomized, controlled trials performed at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) and Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPG). SUBJECTS: Women aged 65 years and older without a DXA in past 5 years.
MEASURES: DXA completion rates 90 days after intervention mailing and osteoporosis medication receipt 180 days after initial intervention mailing.
RESULTS: From > 12,000 eligible women, those randomized to self-referral were significantly more likely to receive a DXA than UC (13.0%-24.1% self-referral vs. 4.9%-5.9% UC, P < 0.05). DXA rates did not significantly increase with patient educational materials. Osteoporosis was detected in a greater proportion of self-referral women compared with UC (P < 0.001). The number needed to receive an invitation to result in a DXA in KPNW and KPG regions was approximately 5 and 12, respectively. New osteoporosis prescription rates were low (0.8%-3.4%) but significantly greater among self-referral versus UC in KPNW.
CONCLUSIONS: DXA rates significantly improved with a mailed invitation to schedule a scan without physician referral. Providing women the opportunity to self-refer may be an effective, low-cost strategy to increase access for recommended osteoporosis screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: As the number of primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) performed in the United States increases, policymakers have questioned whether the indications and timing of TKA have evolved so that surgery is offered earlier.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We analyzed data from a US national TKA cohort to evaluate variation in surgeon selection criteria for elective unilateral TKA based on preoperative patient-reported pain and function scores.
METHODS: Preoperative SF-36 (Physical Component Summary [PCS]/physical function) scores and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (pain, activities of daily living/function) of 4900 patients undergoing elective unilateral TKA enrolled in this national database of prospectively followed patients from 22 states were evaluated. The 25(th), 50(th), and 75(th) percentile pain and function scores for patients cared for in 24 orthopaedic offices with 20 or more patients in the database were compared to assess whether consistent preoperative criteria are used in selecting patients undergoing TKA across settings.
RESULTS: The preoperative global function (PCS median, 32.6; national norm, 50; SD, 10) and knee-specific function (KOOS median, 51.5; maximum score, 100; SD, 17) percentile scores represented substantial patient disability, because both values approached 2 SDs below ideal. Consistency in patients across 24 surgeon offices, and more than 100 surgeons, was noted because site-specific medians varied from the national median by less than the minimum clinically important change.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that despite the rapidly growing use of TKA, surgeons in the participating sites use consistent patient criteria in scheduling TKA. Today's patients report significant pain and disability, supporting the need for TKA.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory-based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students.
Using a 3-month, single group, pretest-posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week.
Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported.
Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women.
Implications for practice:
Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Transcultural Nursing